American Eastern Yellow Fly Agaric

(Amanita muscaria var. guessowii)

               
Conservation Status

IUCN Red List

not yet assessed

American Eastern Yellow Fly Agaric

NatureServe

not listed

Minnesota

not listed

Occurrence

Widespread in North America. Common in northeastern United States.

Season

June to November

Habitat/Hosts

Solitary, scattered, in groups, or in fairy rings. Coniferous, deciduous, or mixed woodlands, woodland edges, and planted trees. On the ground under pine, spruce, fir, aspen, or birch.


Identification

This is a large, conspicuous, yellow variety of one of the most recognizable mushrooms in the world. It is widespread in North America, common in northeastern United States, and not uncommon in Minnesota. It occurs in coniferous, deciduous, or mixed woodlands, woodland edges, and among planted trees. It is found from June to November, solitary, scattered, in groups, or in fairy rings, on the ground under pine, spruce, fir, aspen, or birch trees. It is mycorrhizal, obtaining its nutrients from the rootlets of a tree while facilitating greater absorption of nutrients from the soil by the tree.

When it first appears the fruiting body is egg-shaped, completely enclosed in a protective membrane (universal veil). As the mushroom expands the universal veil breaks, forming 2 to 4 concentric rings of scales at the base of the stalk. Another protective membrane (partial veil) extends from the margin of the cap to the stalk and covers the gills. At maturity, the partial veil breaks away leaving a persistent ring or collar of tissue at the middle or near the top of the stalk. The ring is fragile, whitish, often with a yellowish edge, and sometimes the edges appear torn or toothed.

The cap on young mushrooms is nearly round at first, becoming convex then ultimately nearly flat at maturity. The mature cap is is 2 to 12 in diameter, sometimes larger. The upper surface is hairless, slimy when moist, pale yellow, bright yellow, or orangish-yellow, often with a reddish-orange or yellowish-orange center. Occasionally, the cap is entirely orange. It is densely covered at first with cottony, wart-like fragments of the universal veil. As the mushroom ages, the warts are worn away or washed away by rain.

The stalk is 2 to 8 in tall, sometimes taller, and to 13 16 thick, sometimes thicker. It may be tapered from the base or have an expanded, bulb-like base up to 2 in diameter. It is usually scaly below the ring.

The gills are white, broad, and closely spaced. They are narrowly attached or not attached to the stalk.

The flesh is white. It is poisonous. It does not change color when cut.

The spore print is white.

 
Similar
Species

Frost’s Amanita (Amanita frostiana) is smaller, no more than 4 in diameter and usually 3 in diameter or less. The stem does not have concentric rings of scales near the base.


Distribution Distribution Map  

Sources: 4, 7, 24, 29, 30, 77.


Comments

Taxonomy
Some authorities, including RogersMushrooms.com and the usually reliable Mushrooms Demystified by David Arora, list this as Amanita muscaria var. formosa. Others, including MushroomExpert.com, treat it as a separate species, reserving the former name for the European variety which does not occur in North America.

Hallucinogenic
Most guidebooks and authorities state that American Eastern Yellow Fly Agaric is poisonous, and it is true that about 90% of mushroom-related fatalities involve Amanitas. Fly agaric contains the hallucinogenic compounds muscimole and ibotenic acid. They may have been involved in prehistoric rituals. It is poisonous in large, possibly even in moderate amounts, but not normally fatal.


Taxonomy

Division:

Basidiomycota (club fungi)

 

Subdivision:

Agaricomycotina (jelly fungi, yeasts, and mushrooms)

 

Class:

Agaricomycetes (mushroom-forming fungi)

 

Subclass:

Agaricomycetidae

 

Order:

Agaricales (gill mushrooms)

 

Family:

Amanitaceae (Amanita)

 
Parent

Fly Agaric (Amanita muscaria)

 
Synonyms

 

 
Common
Names

American Eastern Yellow Fly Agaric


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

mycorrhizal

A symbiotic, usually beneficial relationship between a fungus and the tiny rootlets of a plant, usually a tree.

 

partial veil

A protective covering over the gills or pores of a developing mushroom. At maturity it disappears, collapses into a ring around the stem, or wears away into a cobwebby covering and ring zone.

 

universal veil

An egg-like structure that envelopes all or most of a developing gill mushroom. Remnants of the universal veil sometimes visible on a mature mushroom are patchy warts on the cap, a ring on the stem, and a volva at the base of the stem.

       

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Robert Briggs


  American Eastern Yellow Fly Agaric    

       
       
       

MinnesotaSeasons.com Photos

   

Fairy ring

  American Eastern Yellow Fly Agaric    
       

Young mushroom

  American Eastern Yellow Fly Agaric   American Eastern Yellow Fly Agaric
       

Mature mushroom

  American Eastern Yellow Fly Agaric   American Eastern Yellow Fly Agaric
       

Cap

  American Eastern Yellow Fly Agaric   American Eastern Yellow Fly Agaric
       

Cap with warts mostly washed away by rain

  American Eastern Yellow Fly Agaric    
       

Stem

  American Eastern Yellow Fly Agaric   American Eastern Yellow Fly Agaric
       
  American Eastern Yellow Fly Agaric    
       

Gills

  American Eastern Yellow Fly Agaric    
       
       
       

 

Camera

     

Slideshows

   
  Amanita muscaria var. formosa (guessowii)
"Teh Internet Tubes"
 
   
 
About

Uploaded on Apr 1, 2009

Adirondacks, NY, August, 2008.

 
     

 

slideshow

     

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Other Videos

 
  Amanita Muscaria Var.Guessowii
Jason Parent
 
   
 
About

Published on Sep 26, 2013

This video was uploaded from an Android phone.

 
     
  Amanita muscaria var.formosa
MyGeorgiaFungi
 
   
 
About

Uploaded on Oct 21, 2008

Found a bunch of this beautiful mushroom growing under some pine needles

 
     
  Mushrooms are Gods (Part II)
Save Bigfoot
 
   
 
About

Published on Sep 26, 2010

More random information about Amanita Muscaria Formosa, aka SOMA or the Fly Argaric.

 
     
  Amanita Muscaria Var. Formosa.. maybe?
Jason Parent
 
   
 
About

Published on Sep 24, 2013

This video was uploaded from an Android phone.

 
     
  Eastern yellow fly agaric mushroom
Natasha Valcourt
 
   
 
About

Published on Oct 4, 2015

The common Amanita muscaria in the Eastern United States has a yellow, unlike the common Amanita muscaria of the West Coast that has a red cap.Amanita muscaria, commonly known as the fly agaric or fly amanita, is a mushroom and psychoactive basidiomycete fungus, one of many in the genus Amanita. Native throughout the temperate and boreal regions of the Northern Hemisphere, Amanita muscaria has been unintentionally introduced to many countries in the Southern Hemisphere, generally as a symbiont with pine and birch plantations, and is now a true cosmopolitan species. It associates with various deciduous and coniferous trees.

The quintessential toadstool, it is a large white-gilled, white-spotted, usually red mushroom, one of the most recognisable and widely encountered in popular culture. Several subspecies with differing cap colour have been recognised, including the brown regalis (often considered a separate species), the yellow-orange flavivolvata, guessowii, formosa, and the pinkish persicina. Genetic studies published in 2006 and 2008 show several sharply delineated clades that may represent separate species.

Although classified as poisonous, reports of human deaths resulting from its ingestion are extremely rare. After parboiling—which weakens its toxicity and breaks down the mushroom's psychoactive substances—it is eaten in parts of Europe, Asia, and North America. Amanita muscaria is noted for its hallucinogenic properties, with its main psychoactive constituent being the compound muscimol. The mushroom was used as an intoxicant and entheogen by the peoples of Siberia, and has a religious significance in these cultures. There has been much speculation on possible traditional use of this mushroom as an intoxicant in other places such as the Middle East, Eurasia, North America, and Scandinavia.

 
     

 

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Robert Briggs
9/24/2016

Location: Lebanon Hills Regional Park

American Eastern Yellow Fly Agaric


     
     
 

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