pure green augochlora

(Augochlora pura)

Conservation Status
pure green augochlora
 
  IUCN Red List

LC - Least Concern

     
  NatureServe

NNR - Unranked

     
  Minnesota

not listed

     
           
           
           
 
Description
 
 

Pure green augochlora is a moderately-sized, solitary, metallic green, halictid bee. Males and females are the same size, 5 16 long.

The head, thorax, and abdomen are bright metallic green, sometimes with a coppery tint, sometimes just coppery, rarely blue. The upper margin of the clypeus does not extend the width of the face, but is intruded upon by lobes of the plate above it (epistome). They are covered with erect whitish hairs. Each abdominal segment has a very narrow dark margin but the abdomen is not conspicuously striped.

The head is covered with relatively short hairs. The face above the upper lip (clypeus) is shiny and moderately covered with well-spaced, shallow pits. The tongue is short. The last segment of the tongue (glossa) is short and pointed. The antennae are black. Below each antennal socket there is a single vertical groove (suture).

The wings are smoky brown and clear. The lobe at the base of the hindwing (jugal lobe) is longer than the submedian cell. The marginal cell of the wing is squared off (truncate) at the end. There are three submarginal cells, the first one longer than the third. The basal vein is strongly arched. The structure at the base each the wing (tegula) is dark brown and oval.

The legs are brown and brownish-black with short hairs. The female has a scopa, a dense patch of longer, branched hairs used to collect pollen, on the fourth segment (tibia). The male lacks this modification.

 
     
 

Size

 
 

Total Length: 5 16

 
     
 

Similar Species

 
     
     
 
Habitat
 
 

Woodlands and nearby thickets and pastures.

 
     
 
Biology
 
 

Season

 
 

Two or three generations per year: April to October

 
     
 

Behavior

 
 

Males patrol an established route, flying quickly and continuously between specific flowers.

 
     
 

Life Cycle

 
 

The overwintered mated female emerges in April. Using an existing insect burrow in dead wood as a starting point, she digs a nest consisting of many branched burrows. She places a pollen ball and nectar in each burrow then lays a single egg on the pollen ball. The first generation offspring emerge as adults in June. By the end of June they have constructed their own nests. The larvae or pupa of the last generation overwinter and emerge as adults the following spring. Adult females overwinter beneath rotting logs in a state of diapause. Males die in the fall.

Nests may be placed close together but they do not interconnect. Females do not cooperate with others in raising the young.

 
     
 

Larva Food

 
 

Flower pollen and nectar

 
     
 

Adult Food

 
 

Pollen and nectar of at least 41 species of flowering plants, especially maple in early spring.

 
     
 
Distribution
 
 

Distribution Map

 

Sources

7, 24, 27, 29, 30.

 
  8/22/2018      
         
 

Occurrence

 
 

Very common and widespread

 
         
 
Taxonomy
 
 

Order

Hymenoptera (ants, bees, wasps, and sawflies)  
 

Suborder

Apocrita (wasps, ants and bees)  
 

Infraorder

Aculeata (ants, bees and stinging wasps)  
  Clade Anthophila  
 

Superfamily

Apoidea (apoid wasps, bees, sphecoid wasps)  
 

Family

Halictidae (sweat and furrow bees)  
 

Subfamily

Halictinae  
 

Tribe

Augochlorini  
 

Genus

Augochlora  
  Subgenus Augochlora  
       
 

 

 
       
 

Subordinate Taxa

 
 

pure green augochlora (Augochlora pura mosieri)

pure green augochlora (Augochlora pura pura)

 
       
 

Synonyms

 
 

 

 
       
 

Common Names

 
 

a sweat bee

pure green augochlora

pure golden green sweat bee

pure green sweat bee

 
       

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

Clypeus

On insects, a hardened plate on the face above the upper lip (labrum).

 

Diapause

A period of decreased metabolic activity and suspended development.

 

Jugal lobe

In Hymenoptera: The rear lobe at the base of the hindwing.

 

Tegula

A small, hardened, plate, scale, or flap-like structure that overlaps the base of the forewing of insects in the orders Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, and Homoptera. Plural: tegulae.

 

Tibia

The fourth segment of an insect leg, after the femur and before the tarsus (foot).

 

 

 

 

 

       
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Alfredo Colon
       
  pure green augochlora   pure green augochlora
       
  pure green augochlora   pure green augochlora
       
  pure green augochlora   pure green augochlora
       
MinnesotaSeasons.com Photos
   

Pure green augochlora on meadow hawkweed

  pure green augochlora   pure green augochlora
       
       

 

Camera

     
Slideshows
   
  Sweat Bee (Augochlora pura)
Andree Reno Sanborn
 
  Sweat Bee (Augochlora pura)  
     
  Pure Green Augochlora (Augochlora pura)
Bill Keim
 
  Pure Green Augochlora (Augochlora pura)  

 

slideshow

       
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Other Videos
 
  Halictid bee blowing bubble
Peter Chen
 
   
 
About

Published on Jun 18, 2015

A Halictid bee (Augochlora pura) lets water evaporate through a little bubble, concentrating the nectar.

http://australianmuseum.net.au/movie/concentrating-the-nectar

http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF01049147

Thanks to Hartmut Wisch, Beatriz Moisset, Doug Yanega for info. Oakhurst Forest Preserve, Kane County IL 6/18/15

   
       
  Cypripedium parviflorum pollen dispersal
Retha Meier
 
   
 
About

Uploaded on May 7, 2011

A native bee, probably Augochlora pura, enters the labellum of this small variety of Cypripedium parviflorum. As the bee squeezes out the rear exit hole, the anther is pressed against the bee's dorsal thorax and a sticky, yellow pollinia mass is deposited.

   
       

 

Camcorder

         
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Alfredo Colon
7/9/2018

Location: Woodbury, Minnesota

pure green augochlora


Alfredo Colon
6/9/2018

Location: Woodbury, Minnesota

pure green augochlora


     
     
 
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