eastern panicled aster

(Symphyotrichum lanceolatum var. lanceolatum)

               
Conservation Status

IUCN Red List

not listed

 

No image available

NatureServe

NNR - Unranked

SNR - Unranked

Minnesota

not listed

Wetland
Indicator
Status

Great Plains

FACW - Facultative wetland

Midwest

FAC - Facultative

Northcentral & Northeast

FACW - Facultative wetland

Nativity

Native

Occurrence

Common

Habitat

Moist. Bottomland forests; margins of streams, lakes and ponds; edges of thickets, meadows, and ditches. Full sun to partial shade.

Flowering

July to October

     
Flower Color

White

     
Height

12 to 60

     

Identification

This is a 12 to 60 tall, erect, perennial forb that rises on a single stem from a long, slender, branched rhizome. It sometimes forms large, dense colonies.

The stem is erect, straight, stout to slender, and grooved. It is unbranched below the middle. It is green at first, eventually becoming brown and woody near the base. Above the middle it usually has many, sometimes just a few, spreading, ascending branches. It is usually hairless toward the bottom and may have sparsely to moderately dense, longitudinal lines of short, white, spreading or curled hairs toward the top.

Basal leaves are stalkless. The leaf blades are thin, inversely lance-shaped or inversely egg-shaped, up to 3 long, and up to ¾ wide. They are tapered at the base, and rounded or angled at the tip. There is a short, sharp, abrupt point at the tip. The upper and lower surfaces are hairless. The margins are toothed with rounded, forward-pointing teeth, and have a fringe of hairs. Basal leaves are usually withered at flowering time.

Stem leaves are alternate. Lower stem leaves are stalkless or on short, winged, poorly differentiated leaf stalks (petioles). The petioles are winged and sheath the stem at the base. The leaf blades are linear to narrowly lance-shaped, 2 to 6 long, and to ¾ wide. They are wedge-shaped or tapered and sometimes slightly expanded at the base, but they do not clasp the stem. They taper to a point at the tip. The upper and lower surfaces are hairless. The margins are untoothed. The leaves become progressively smaller, narrower, and shorter-stalked as they approach the middle of the stem. Upper stem leaves are stalkless, linear, and 1¼ to 4 long, not much smaller than the middle stem leaves. Lower stem and sometimes some of the larger middle stem leaves are withered by flowering time.

The inflorescence is a branched cluster (panicle) at the end of the stem. The branches of the panicle are relatively sparse, loosely ascending or spreading, and sometimes solitary or more often clustered near the end of the vegetative branch. The appearance is of a few long branches, with no or just a few lateral branches, and the flower heads rising from these long branches. There are 1 to 20 or more flower heads per branch. The heads are oriented in various directions. The flower heads are on 3 16 to 2 long flower stalks (peduncles). They are not subtended by leaf-like appendages (bracts). The inflorescence is more or less leafy but not densely leafy. The leaves are often longer than the peduncles, but are much smaller than the upper stem leaves.

The individual flower head is medium-sized, ¾ to 1 in diameter. The whorl of bracts (phyllaries) at the base of the flower head form a cup-shaped, to 3 16 long cup (involucre). The phyllaries are arranged in 3 to 5 appressed to slightly spreading, overlapping series. They do not have a spine-like tip. Phyllaries in the outer series are to as long as those of the inner series. There are 17 to 47 ray florets and 16 to 38 disk florets. The ray florets are in 1 or 2 series. They are ¼ to ½ long and usually white, sometimes tinged with lavender or blue. The disk florets are yellow at first, eventually becoming purple. The flowers are not fragrant.

The fruit is a dry seed capsule (cypsela) with a tuft of bristles (pappus) attached to the end. The cypsela is egg-shaped, gray to tan, and 1 32to 1 16 long. It has 4 or 5 longitudinal ribs. The pappus is white to off-white.

 
Similar
Species

Eastern panicled aster (Symphyotrichum lanceolatum var. hirsuticaule) stem is moderately to densely covered with woolly hairs.

Eastern panicled aster (Symphyotrichum lanceolatum var. interior) flower heads are smaller, no more than in diameter, and are closely spaced.

Eastern panicled aster (Symphyotrichum lanceolatum var. latifolium) middle and upper stem leaves are wider, broadly inversely lance-shaped. The leaf margins are noticeable toothed. The leaves in the inflorescence are about the same size as the upper stem leaves. The inflorescence appears densely leafy. The ray florets are always white.

Western panicled aster (Symphyotrichum lanceolatum ssp. hesperium) heads are usually subtended by large, leaf-like bracts. Phyllaries in the outer series are or more as long as those of the inner series.


Distribution Distribution Map  

Sources: 3, 7, 28.


Comments

Taxonomy
This is a variety of a subspecies, and some sources list it as Symphyotrichum lanceolatum ssp. lanceolatum var. lanceolatum. The ICN (International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants), the rules governing the naming of plant species, makes it clear that this is not correct. Following ICN rules, a taxa “may also be referred to” with the inclusion of the intervening name (in this case, “ssp. lanceolatum”), but that does not constitute a formal name.


Taxonomy

Family:

Asteraceae (aster)

 

Subfamily:

Asteroideae

 

Supertribe:

Asterodae

 

Tribe:

Astereae (aster)

 

No Rank:

North American clade

 
Parent

eastern panicled aster (Symphyotrichum lanceolatum ssp. lanceolatum)

 
Synonyms

Aster simplex

Aster lamarckianus

Aster tenuifolius var. ramosissimus

Aster lanceolatus ssp. simplex

Aster paniculatus var. simplex

Aster simplex var. ramosissimus

Aster simplex var. estuarinus

Aster bellidiflorus

Aster laxus

Aster paniculatus

Symphyotrichum simplex

Aster lanceolatus ssp. lanceolatus var. lanceolatus

Aster lanceolatus var. simplex

Symphyotrichum lanceolatum ssp. lanceolatum var. lanceolatum

 
Common
Names

eastern panicled aster

panicled aster

tall white aster

white panicle aster


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

Bract

Modified leaf at the base of a flower stalk or flower cluster.

 

Clasping

Describing a leaf that wholly or partly surrounds the stem but does not fuse at the base.

 

Cypsela

A dry, one-chambered, single-seeded fruit, formed from a single carpel, with the seed attached to the membranous outer layer (wall) only by the seed stalk; the wall, formed from the wall of the inferior ovary and also from other tissues derived from the receptacle or hypanthium, does not split open at maturity, but relies on decay or predation to release the contents.

 

Involucre

A whorl of bracts beneath or surrounding a flower or flower cluster.

 

Linear

Long, straight, and narrow, with more or less parallel sides, like a blade of grass.

 

Panicle

A pyramidal inflorescence with a main stem and branches. Flowers on the lower, longer branches mature earlier than those on the shorter, upper ones.

 

Pappus

The modified calyx composed of awns, scales, bristles, or feather-like hairs in plants of the Asteraceae family.

 

Petiole

The stalk of a leaf blade or compound leaf that attaches the leaf blade to the stem.

 

Phyllary

An individual bract within the involucre of a plant in the Asteraceae family.

 

Rhizome

A horizontal, usually underground stem. It serves as a reproductive structure, producing roots below and shoots above at the nodes.

 

Sheath

The lower part of the leaf that surrounds the stem.

 

Winged leaf stalk

A leaf stalk with a leaf-like or membrane-like extension along both sides.

 

 

 

 

 

       

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