fireweed

(Chamerion angustifolium ssp. circumvagum)

Conservation Status

 

No image available

  IUCN Red List

not listed

     
  NatureServe

N5 - Secure

SNR - Unranked

     
  Minnesota

not listed

     
           
           
 
Description
 
 

ireweed (ssp.circumvagum) is an erect, perennial, 12 to 78 tall forb that rises usually on a single aerial stem from a rhizome-like underground stem and fibrous roots. It often forms large colonies.

The stems are erect, usually unbranched, and round or somewhat angular in cross section. They are leafy and green, sometimes becoming reddish near the top in strong sunlight. They are hairless near the bottom, sparsely minutely hairy near and in the inflorescence.

The leaves are alternate, numerous, and crowded. They are on 1 16 to ¼ long leaf stalks. They are oblong lance-shaped or elliptic lance-shaped, 3½ to 9 long, and to 1¼ wide. The leaf blades are wedge shaped at the base and blunt at the tip. The upper and lower surfaces are hairless except for minute hairs along the midvien, especially below. There is a prominent midvein and 10 to 25 lateral veins that run into a single submarginal vein. The submarginal vein and the lateral veins are distinct. The margins are more or less toothed.

The inflorescence is a 3 to 8 long, unbranched cluster (raceme) of up to 15 or more stalked flowers at the end of the stem. The flowers nod at the end of a long, magenta-colored stalk when in bud. They are spreading to almost erect when in bloom.

Each flower is ¾ to 1½ in diameter. There are 4 sepals, 4 petals, 8 stamens and 1 style. The sepals are spreading, narrowly lance-shaped, to ¾ long, and similar in color but darker than the petals. The petals are pink to magenta, rarely white. They are 9 16 to 1 long and ¼ to wide. They are narrowed at the base and broad near the tip. The stamens have long white filaments and dark magenta anthers. The style has a 4-lobed stigma.

The fruit is a straight, cylinder-shaped, 2 to 3¾long capsule with many seeds.

 
     
 

Height

 
 

12 to 78

 
     
 

Flower Color

 
 

Pink or magenta

 
     
 

Similar Species

 
  Fireweed (Chamerion angustifolium ssp. angustifolium) is a shorter plant, no more the 52 tall, The stems are hairless below the inflorescence. The leaves are stalkless or almost stalkless, smaller, and hairless on the midvein above and below. The leaf blades are broadly angled to almost rounded at the base and tapered at the tip. The lateral veins are indistinct. The flower petals are much smaller. It is more common.  
     
 
Habitat
 
 

Moist; roadside ditches, disturbed places, especially after a fire. Full or partial sun.

 
     
 
Biology
 
 

Flowering

 
 

July to September

 
     
 
Use
 
 

 

 
     
 
Distribution
 
 

Distribution Map

 

Sources

3, 4, 7.

 
  3/14/2014      
         
 

Nativity

 
 

Native

 
         
 

Occurrence

 
 

Common in the northeast and western United States, uncommon in Minnesota.

 
         
 
Taxonomy
 
  Kingdom Plantae (green algae and land plants)  
  Subkingdom Viridiplantae (green plants)  
  Infrakingdom Streptophyta (land plants and green algae)  
  Superdivision Embryophyta (land plants)  
  Division Tracheophyta (vascular plants)  
  Subdivision Spermatophytina (seed plants)  
  Class Magnoliopsida (flowering plants)  
  Superorder Rosanae  
  Order Myrtales (myrtles, evening primroses, and allies)  
 

Family

Onagraceae (evening primrose)  
  Subfamily Onagroideae  
  Tribe Epilobieae  
 

Genus

Chamerion (fireweed)  
  Species Chamerion angustifolium (fireweed)  
       
 

The correct genus for this species has been in contention since 1753, when Carl Linnaeus placed it in the genus Epilobium. It had previously been placed in the genus Chamaenerion, and some authors continued to use that genus. Based on a monograph published in 2007, Chamaenerion was separated from Epilobium under the new shortened name Chamerion. Some sources, including Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), continue to use the original spelling Chamaenerion.

 
       
 

Subordinate Taxa

 
 

 

 
       
 

Synonyms

 
 

Chamaenerion angustifolium ssp. circumvagum

Chamerion angustifolium var. canescens

Chamerion danielsii

Chamerion platyphyllum

Epilobium angustifolium ssp. circumvagum

Epilobium angustifolium ssp. macrophyllum

Epilobium angustifolium var. abbreviatum

Epilobium angustifolium var. canescens

Epilobium angustifolium var. macrophyllum

Epilobium angustifolium var. platyphyllum

 
       
 

Common Names

 
 

fireweed

 
       

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

Filament

On plants: The thread-like stalk of a stamen which supports the anther. On Lepidoptera: One of a pair of long, thin, fleshy extensions extending from the thorax, and sometimes also from the abdomen, of a caterpillar.

 

Linear

Long, straight, and narrow, with more or less parallel sides, like a blade of grass.

 

Raceme

An unbranched, elongated inflorescence with stalked flowers. The flowers mature from the bottom up.

 

Rhizome

A horizontal, usually underground stem. It serves as a reproductive structure, producing roots below and shoots above at the nodes.

 

Sepal

An outer floral leaf, usually green but sometimes colored, at the base of a flower.

 

 

 

       
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