salebrosa goldenrod

(Solidago canadensis var. salebrosa)

               
Conservation Status

IUCN Red List

not yet assessed

 

No image available

NatureServe

N5 - Secure

SNR - Unranked

Minnesota

not listed

Wetland
Indicator
Status

Great Plains

FACU - Facultative upland

Midwest

FACU - Facultative upland

Northcentral & Northeast

FACU - Facultative upland

Nativity

Native

Occurrence

 

Habitat

Moist to dry. Prairies, fields, ditches, roadsides, and forest openings. Full to partial sun.

Flowering

August to October

     
Flower Color

Yellow ray florets, yellow disk florets

     
Height

10 to 60

     
 
Identification

This is a 10 to 60 tall, erect to ascending, perennial forb that rises on 1 to 20 or more stems from long, creeping rhizomes. It often forms large, dense patches. The roots and leaves exude toxic chemicals that inhibit the growth and survival of competing species (allelopathy).

The stem is erect and leafy. It is not shiny and not covered with a whitish, waxy bloom (glaucous). The lower half of the stem is hairless or sparsely hairy. The upper half is densely covered with short hairs.

There are no basal leaves. Stem leaves are alternate, narrowly or broadly inversely lance-shaped, and thin. Lower to middle stem leaves are 1 to 4 long, though usually less than 3 long, and ¼ to ¾ wide, though usually no more than 9 16 wide. The lowest leaves are must smaller. The leaf blade is distinctly 3-veined, but this may not be obvious. It tapers to the base and is attached to the stem without a leaf stalk. It tapers to a point at the tip with straight sides along the tip. The upper surface is hairless. The lower surface is almost hairless or sparsely short-hairy. The margins are toothed with 0 to 9 sharp, forward-pointing teeth per side, and have a fringe of hairs. Lower to middle stem leaves are usually withered by the time the plant is in flower. Middle to upper stem leaves are similar, inversely lance-shaped in the middle of the stem, becoming lance-shaped toward the top of the stem. They are ¾ to 2 long and to 7 16, though usually no more than 5 16 wide, largest near the middle of the stem, becoming somewhat smaller as they ascend the stem. The upper surface is hairless. The lower surface is hairless or sparsely hairy, especially along the main veins. The margins are usually untoothed or minutely toothed, rarely toothed with 1 to 8 sharp, forward-pointing teeth per side.

The inflorescence is a narrowly pyramidal or club-shaped, congested, many-branched, 4 to 8 long, 1½ to 3 wide cluster with 12 to 500 or more flower heads. The flowering branches are ascending or sometimes arching. The flower heads are arranged on one side of the branch.

The tiny flower heads are less than ¼ wide. They have 8 to 17, usually 11 to 15, yellow ray florets and 3 to 16, usually 5 to 11, yellow disk florets. The whorl of bracts surrounding the base of the flower head (involucre) is 1 16 to long and yellowish in color. The corolla is 1 16 to long.

 
Similar
Species

Canada goldenrod (Solidago canadensis var. canadensis) flower heads have only 3 to 6 disk florets.

Early goldenrod (Solidago juncea) stems are hairless.

Giant goldenrod (Solidago gigantea) stems are hairless and sometimes covered with a whitish, waxy bloom.

Harger’s goldenrod (Solidago canadensis var. hargeri) stem is moderately hairy both above and below the middle, though it may be hairless or nearly hairless very the base. The flower heads tend to have fewer ray florets, usually 5 to 10, averaging 9, and have fewer disk florets, 2 to 4. It has been recorded only in Grant County in western Minnesota.

Tall goldenrod (Solidago canadensis var. scabra) is moderately to densely hairy both above and below the middle. There are often large insect galls on the lower and middle part of the stem. Fresh plants often have a gray-green tone from the short hairs on the leaf surfaces. The plant is usually hairy throughout. The leaves are relatively thick and firm. The involucre is longer, to 3 16 long. The flower heads tend have fewer disk florets, usually 3 to 6.

 
Distribution Distribution Map  

No information available.

 
Comments

Allelopathic
A study in 2002 showed that Canada goldenrod inhibits the growth and survival of competing species by exuding toxic chemicals from its roots and leaves.

 
Taxonomy

Family:

Asteraceae (aster)

 

Subfamily:

Asteroideae

 

Supertribe:

Asterodae

 

Tribe:

Astereae (aster)

 

No Rank:

North American clade

 
Parent

Canada goldenrod (Solidago canadensis)

 
Synonyms

Solidago canadensis ssp. elongata

Solidago canadensis var. elongata

Solidago canadensis ssp. salebrosa

Solidago dumetorum

Solidago elongata

Solidago lepida var. elongata

Solidago lepida var. fallax

 
Common
Names

Canada goldenrod

Canadian goldenrod

rough Canada goldenrod

salebrosa goldenrod

western Canada goldenrod

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

Allelopathy

The release of a chemical toxin by one plant to inhibit the growth or germination of nearby competing plants.

 

Bracts

Modified leaves at the base of a flower stalk or flower cluster.

 

Corolla

A collective name for all of the petals of a flower.

 

Glaucous

Pale green or bluish gray due to a whitish, powdery or waxy film, as on a plum or a grape.

 

Involucre

A whorl of bracts beneath or surrounding a flower or flower cluster.

 

Rhizome

A horizontal, usually underground stem. It serves as a reproductive structure, producing roots below and shoots above at the nodes.

 

 

       
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