stiff goldenrod

(Solidago rigida ssp. rigida)

               
Conservation Status

IUCN Red List

not yet assessed

stiff goldenrod (ssp. rigida)

NatureServe

N5 - Secure

SNR - Unranked

Minnesota

not listed

Wetland
Indicator
Status

Great Plains

FACU - Facultative upland

Midwest

FACU - Facultative upland

Northcentral & Northeast

FACU - Facultative upland

Nativity

Native

Occurrence

 

Habitat

Dry to moderate moisture. Tall-grass and mixed-grass prairies, open woods, roadsides, disturbed sites, open fields. Full sun to partial shade. Sandy or loamy soil.

Flowering

August to October

Flower Color

Yellow ray florets, yellow disk florets

     
Height

24 to 60

     

Identification

This is a 24 to 60 tall, erect, perennial forb that rises on 1 to 10 stems from a short, branched, woody caudex.

The stems are erect or ascending, stout, and unbranched below the inflorescence. They are rough to the touch due to a moderate to dense covering of short, stiff, curved hairs, even near the base. At the base of the stem is a rosette of basal leaves which is usually present when the plant is in flower. There may be additional rosettes of leaves adjacent to the stem.

Basal leaves are large, egg-shaped, inversely egg-shaped, or oblong-elliptic, up to 12 long, and up to 4 wide, 3 to 6 times as long as wide. They are firm and flat. They stand somewhat erect on leaf stalks that are often as long or longer than the blade. The upper and lower surfaces are somewhat rough to the touch due to a moderate to dense covering of short, fine, curved hairs. On the underside there is a single, prominent midvein. The margins are untoothed or may have fine, rounded teeth. Lower stem leaves are similar but smaller and on shorter leaf stalks.

Middle stem leaves are stalkless, thick, fleshy, rigid, egg-shaped, 1¼ to 2 long, about wide, and otherwise similar to the basal leaves. They become progressively smaller as they ascend the stem. The margins of at least the upper stem leaves are untoothed.

The inflorescence is is a loose, open, spreading, flat-topped, corymb-like array of 9 to 190 flower heads at the end of the stem. It is usually 1¼ to 8 long and 2½ to 7 wide, but it can be larger.

The tiny flower heads are large relative to other goldenrods, the disk 3 16 to wide. They have 6 to 14, usually 7 to 10, yellow ray florets and 14 to 35, usually 20 to 30, yellow disk florets.

The fruit is an achene with no hairs at the tip.

 
Similar
Species

Stiff goldenrod (Solidago rigida var. humile) is a smaller plant, 10 to 27 in height. The basal leaves are smaller, rarely more than 4¾ long by 2 wide. The inflorescence is tightly clumped, usually rounded, and smaller, usually no more than 5 long and wide. The achene has some short, loose hairs near the tip.


Distribution Distribution Map   Sources: 3, 4, 7.

Comments

Taxonomy
According to some sources, “Along with a few other goldenrod species, such as Riddell's Goldenrod and Ohio Goldenrod, Stiff Goldenrod has been recently reassigned from the Solidago genus to the Oligoneuron genus” (Illinois Wildflowers). GRIN38 lists this plant as Oligoneuron rigidum. Most other sources, including UniProt33, NCBI34, ITIS, The Plant List36, and The Global Compositae Checklist39, list Oligoneuron rigidum as a synonym of Solidago rigida.


Taxonomy

Family:

Asteraceae (aster)

 

Subfamily:

Asteroideae

 

Supertribe:

Asterodae

 

Tribe:

Astereae (aster)

 

No Rank:

North American clade

 
Parent

stiff goldenrod (Solidago rigida)

 
Synonyms

Oligoneuron grandiflorum

Oligoneuron rigidum var. rigidum

Solidago grandiflora

Solidago rigida

Solidago rigida var. rigida

 
Common
Names

stiff goldenrod


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

achene

A dry, one-chambered, single-seeded fruit, formed from a single carpel, with the seed attached to the membranous outer layer (wall) only by the seed stalk; the wall, formed entirely from the wall of the superior ovary, does not split open at maturity, but relies on decay or predation to release the contents.

 

caudex

A short, sometimes woody, persistent stem, at or below ground level, from which aerial stems arise each year.

 

corymb

A flat-topped or convex inflorescence in which the stalked flowers grow upward from various points on the main stem to approximately the same horizontal plane. The outer flowers open first.

       

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Plant

  stiff goldenrod (ssp. rigida)   stiff goldenrod (ssp. rigida)
       
  stiff goldenrod (ssp. rigida)    
       

Inflorescence

  stiff goldenrod (ssp. rigida)    
       

Stem Leaves

  stiff goldenrod (ssp. rigida)    
       

Infructescence

  stiff goldenrod (ssp. rigida)   stiff goldenrod (ssp. rigida)
       

Fruiting Head

  stiff goldenrod (ssp. rigida)    
       
       

 

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