Dakota gentian

(Gentiana andrewsii var. dakotica)

Conservation Status

 

No image available

 
  IUCN Red List

not listed

     
  NatureServe

N2N5 - Vulnerable to Secure

SNR - Unranked

     
  Minnesota

not listed

     
           
Wetland Indicator Status
     
  Great Plains

FAC - Facultative

     
  Midwest

FACW - Facultative wetland

     
  Northcentral & Northeast

FACW - Facultative wetland

     
           
 
Description
 
 

Dakota gentian is a 1 to 3 tall, erect, perennial forb that rises on 1 to 20 stems from a stout taproot.

The stems are erect, occasionally leaning somewhat with the tips erect. They are rarely branched and usually hairless but occasionally covered with short fuzzy hairs.

The leaves are opposite, 1¾ to 6 long, to 2 wide, and are attached to the stem without a leaf stalk. The margins are untoothed and have a fringe of bristly or prickly hairs, but are otherwise hairless. Lower leaves are small and lance-shaped to egg-shaped. Middle leaves are larger and narrower. The 3 uppermost leaves, just below the inflorescence, are whorled.

The inflorescence is 1 to 25 flowers in a cluster at the end of the stem and also smaller clusters emerging from the upper leaf axils.

The flowers are erect and often stalkless. They are bottle-shaped and 1 to 1¾ long. There is no floral scent.

The 5 petals are fused with 5 longer white membranes (plaits) into a closed tube with no opening at the top. There are folds between the petals. At the top of each petal is a small, well developed, triangular or rounded lobe about long. These lobes are surpassed by the fringed tips of the plaits.

The fruit is a 1-chambered capsule containing many seeds.

 
     
 

Height

 
 

1 to 3

 
     
 

Flower Color

 
 

Whitish below, blue or blue-purple upwards

 
     
 

Similar Species

 
 

Bottle gentian (Gentiana andrewsii var. andrewsii) is much more common. The stems are always completely hairless. The lobe at the top of each petal is not well developed, much shorter, barely 1 32 long.

Great Lakes gentian (Gentiana rubricaulis) has white flowers with scattered blue spots. The flowers are narrowly open at the top.

Narrow-leaved gentian (Gentiana linearis) flowers appear closed but are actually narrowly open. It does not occur in Minnesota.

Soapwort gentian (Gentiana saponaria) flowers appear closed but are actually narrowly open. It does not occur in Minnesota.

Yellowish gentian (Gentiana flavida) has yellowish-white or greenish-white flowers that may appear closed but, on closer inspection, have a small opening at the top.

 
     
 
Habitat
 
 

Moderate moisture to wet. Prairies, meadows, open woods, swamps. Full to partial sun. Sandy, loamy soil.

 
     
 
Biology
 
 

Flowering

 
 

August to October

 
     
 
Use
 
 

 

 
     
 
Distribution
 
 

Distribution Map

 

Sources

4, 7.

 
  1/1/2012      
         
 

Nativity

 
 

Native

 
         
 

Occurrence

 
 

Rare

 
         
 
Taxonomy
 
  Kingdom Plantae (green algae and land plants)  
  Subkingdom Viridiplantae (green plants)  
  Infrakingdom Streptophyta (land plants and green algae)  
  Superdivision Embryophyta (land plants)  
  Division Tracheophyta (vascular plants)  
  Subdivision Spermatophytina (seed plants)  
  Class Magnoliopsida (flowering plants)  
  Superorder Asteranae  
 

Order

Gentianales (gentians, dogbanes, madders, and allies)  
 

Family

Gentianaceae (gentian)  
  Tribe Gentianeae  
  Subtribe Gentianinae  
 

Genus

Gentiana (gentian)  
  Section Pneumonanthe  
  Species Gentiana andrewsii (bottle gentian)  
       
 

Subordinate Taxa

 
 

 

 
       
 

Synonyms

 
 

 

 
       
 

Common Names

 
 

closed bottle gentian

Dakota gentian

 
       

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

       
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