Minnesota Plants


Superdivision Embryophyta

Embryophyta (land plants) is a superdivision of the kingdom Plantae (green algae and land plants). Embryophytes are distinguished by having a life cycle that involves alternation of generations the ability to live on land. They include vascular plants, which are those organisms traditionally thought of as plants, as well as non-vascular plants, which include mosses, liverworts, and hornworts.

According to one estimate, there are 311,078 embryophyte species worldwide.


  Riddell’s goldenrod  
Distribution Maps

Plant occurrence data published by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (PLANTS Database) includes only locations where a specimen has been collected by an herbarium. Rare species location data published by the Minnesota DNR is similarly constrained. Online sources of distribution data for plants in Minnesota rely on these two authorities. This results in published plant ranges that may be representative but are of necessity incomplete.

The distribution maps on MinnesotaSeasons.com are derived from multiple sources. Each map is accompanied with links indicating which sources were used in creating the map. Those sources include University of Minnesota Bell Herbarium, USDA PLANTS Database, and the Minnesota DNR Rare Species Guide. However, they also include online databases, such as the Minnesota State checklist of vascular plants (MnTaxa); Biota of North America Program (BONAP); Early Detection & Distribution Mapping System (EDDMapS), and iNaturalist; and print resources, such as Trees and Shrubs of Minnesota and Native Orchids of Minnesota, both by Welby R. Smith; and Vascular Plants of Minnesota by Ownbey and Morley. The maps also include sightings by MinnesotaSeasons.com, and sightings by contributors to MinnesotaSeasons.com that have been verified by the inclusion of a photo sufficient to identify the species.

The distribution maps at the right show the occurrence of red mulberry in Minnesota as reported by PLANTS and by MinnesotaSeasons.com.


Range Map
red mulberry


Range Map
red mulberry


Higher Taxonomic Rank

In biology, the level of classification (rank) below kingdom and above class is division. In botany, the term division has traditionally been used. The rules and recommendations for formal botanical names currently in effect is The International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN). The ICN accepts the terms phylum and division as equivalent.








Recent Additions

Grimmia dry rock moss

Grimmia dry rock moss (Grimmia laevigata) is a common and widespread tuft-forming moss. It occurs on all continents except Antarctica. It is mostly restricted to the moderate climate areas of the northern and southern hemispheres. It is less common in Minnesota where it reaches the northern extent of its range. In this state it is found in open areas on rock outcrops. It grows under full sun on exposed acidic rock or on thin soil over rock.

  grimmia dry rock moss

Grimmia dry rock moss is extraordinarily drought resistant. Dried herbarium specimens that have been rehydrated after ten years have resumed photosynthetic and metabolic activity. It has adapted to a broad range of environments, yet it shows very little variability throughout its range. Bryologists suggest that a single species cannot be so adaptive, and that Grimmia laevigata must consist of a group of apparently indistinguishable but genetically distinct species.

Grimmia dry rock moss appears as a dense, hoary, dark green to dark brown tuft. The leaves have a long, thin, translucent, hair-like awn at the tip that constitutes almost half the total length of the blade. Spore-producing reproductive structures are rarely produced, and apparently are not produced anywhere in our area.

Juniper haircap moss

Juniper haircap moss (Polytrichum juniperinum) is a common and widespread moss with a worldwide distribution, occurring on every continent including Antarctica. In North America it has been recorded in every Canadian province and in every U.S. state except Texas, Louisiana, and Florida. It is common in Minnesota. It is found in a wide variety of habitats, including upland open woodlands, savannas, sand prairies, roadsides, trail sides, rocky ledges, and creek banks. It sometimes colonizes forest openings following a fire or a blowdown. It grows under full sun to light shade, in dry conditions, on acidic, gravelly or sandy soil, or on thin soil over rock. It usually forms loose to moderately dense colonies, and often forms extensive patches.

  round-lobed hepatica

Photo by Nancy Falkum

Juniper haircap moss stems are densely leafy. The leaves are narrow, stiff, and sharply pointed. They resemble juniper leaves. This is the feature that gives the species its common name. When moist, they are flat and they spread straight out in all directions from the stem. When dry, they fold upward against the stem. Male plants develop a flower-like, yellowish to reddish “splash cup”, allowing sperm to be dispersed by rain drops. The fertilized female plant produces a sharply rectangular capsule at the end of a long yellowish to reddish stalk. At maturity, the spores are dispersed by wind.

Early buttercup

Early buttercup (Ranunculus fascicularis) is one of the first wildflowers to bloom in the spring. It produces bright yellow flowers in April and May. It is found usually in tufts in open woodlands, woodland openings, savannas, prairies, pastures, farmyards, lawns, railroads, and roadsides. It grows under full sun to partial shade on rocky or sandy soil that is poor in nutrients and where there is little competing vegetation.

  early buttercup

Early buttercup occurs in the United States and southern Canada east of the Great Plains. In Minnesota it is scattered to common in the lower third of the state, local and uncommon to absent in the middle third, and absent in the northern third.

Early buttercup is a small plant with relatively large flowers. The basal leaves are on long hairy stalks and are divided into 3 to 5 primary leaflets. The leaflets may also be divided into 3 lobes or secondary leaflets. The stem leaves are similar but smaller and less divided. The outer floral leaves (sepals) are flat, not folded or ridged. The flowers are yellow and glossy, and almost always have just five petals. The seed capsules have a long straight beak.

Hooked buttercup

Hooked buttercup (Ranunculus recurvatus var. recurvatus) is a common woodland spring wildflower. It occurs in the eastern half of the United States and southern Canada. It is found in wet to moderately moist or sometimes dry woodlands, in woodland openings and trails, on banks of rivers and streams, and in swamps and fens. It grows in rich organic soil under light to medium shade.

  hooked buttercup

Most members of the genus Ranunculus, including hooked buttercup, are poisonous. They cause blistering in the mouth and in the gastrointestinal tract when eaten. Handling the plants causes contact dermatitis.

Hooked buttercup is an erect plant. The basal leaves are large and are divided into three lobes. A few solitary flowers appear at the end of the stem between May to June. The flowers have small, pale yellow petals and are not showy. The fruits have a slender extension (beak) at the end. The beak is strongly curved, appearing hooked. This is the feature that gives the plant its common name.

Hooked buttercup is easily identified. The large lobed leaves and small pale yellow petals help with the identification. The hooked beak of the achenes confirm it.

Japanese hedge parsley

Japanese hedge parsley (Torilis japonica) is native to Europe, Asia, and the Indian subcontinent. It was introduced in North America in 1917 and is now naturalized. In the United States it is widespread but sporadic in the east and in the Pacific Northwest. It is found in natural areas, including open woodlands, woodland edges, savannas, and thickets; and in disturbed sites, including pastures, roadsides, and railroads. It grows under partial sun to full shade, sometimes under full sun, in dry to moderately moist soil. It is considered an aggressively invasive weed here, where it can out-compete native species. Wisconsin lists it as Prohibited/Restricted Invasive - Eradicate! (their emphasis). In Minnesota it is not listed but there is a program to eradicate it in Dakota County parks.

  Japanese hedge parsley

Japanese hedge parsley can be 8 to 48 tall, but in Minnesota flowering plants are usually no more than 24 in height. In Minnesota it is a biennial, taking two years to complete its life cycle. In more southerly regions it is an annual. The stems are erect, grooved, and hairy, The leaves are fern-like, divided into three or five sections then divided again. They are covered with hairs both above and below. Tiny white flowers appear in a loose umbrella-like cluster at the end of the stem and the branches. The fruit is a small brown seed covered with hooked hairs that will stubbornly cling to any fabric.

Other Recent Additions

brownish sedge (Carex brunnescens)

brownish sedge (Carex brunnescens ssp. brunnescens)

round-spike brownish sedge (Carex brunnescens ssp. sphaerostachya)

field mouse-ear chickweed (Cerastium arvense ssp. strictum)

rough avens (Geum laciniatum)

prairie false dandelion (Nothocalais cuspidata)

yellow violets (Viola section Chamaemelanium subsection Nudicaules)

toothed plagiomnium moss (Plagiomnium cuspidatum)

prairie false dandelion

Photo by Dan W. Andree









This list includes only plants that have been recorded outside of cultivation in Minnesota, but not all of the plants found in Minnesota.



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absinthe wormwood (Artemisia absinthium)

absinth wormwood


Allegheny blackberry

Allegheny monkeyflower

Allegheny serviceberry

alsike clover

American basswood

American bittersweet

American black currant

American bladdernut

American bugleweed

American burnweed

American common reed

American cow parsnip

American dog violet

American elderberry

American elm

American fly honeysuckle

American germander

American gromwell

American groundnut

American hazelnut

American highbush cranberry

American hog peanut

American hophornbeam

American lopseed

American pasqueflower

American plum

American red raspberry

American spikenard

American stickseed

American stinging nettle

American twinflower

American vetch

American vetch

American white waterlily (ssp. tuberosa)

American white waterlily (ssp. tuberosa)

American woodland strawberry

Amur corktree

amur maple


annual fleabane


arrow-leaved violet

arum-leaved arrowhead


Aunt Lucy


agrimony (Agrimonia spp.)


alder-leaved buckthorn (Rhamnus alnifolia)

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alfalfa (Medicago sativa ssp. sativa)


alkali buttercup (Ranunculus cymbalaria)


alkali cordgrass (Sporobolus hookerianus)


alkali plantain (Plantago eriopoda)

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Allegheny blackberry (Rubus allegheniensis)

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Allegheny monkeyflower (Mimulus ringens var. ringens)

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Allegheny serviceberry (Amelanchier laevis)


Allegheny vine (Adlumia fungosa)


alpine bistort (Polygonum viviparum)


alpine enchanter’s-nightshade (Circaea alpina ssp. alpina)


alpine milkvetch (Astragalus alpinus var. alpinus)


alpine woodsia (Woodsia alpina)

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alsike clover (Trifolium hybridum)

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American basswood (Tilia americana var. americana)


American beachgrass (Ammophila breviligulata)


American bird’s-foot trefoil (Acmispon americanus var. americanus)

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American bittersweet (Celastrus scandens)

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American black currant (Ribes americanum)

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American bladdernut (Staphylea trifolia)

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American bugleweed (Lycopus americanus)

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American burnweed (Erechtites hieraciifolius var. hieraciifolius)


American bur-reed (Sparganium americanum)


American chestnut (Castanea dentata)

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American common reed (Phragmites australis ssp. americanus)

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American cow parsnip (Heracleum maximum)

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American dog violet (Viola labradorica)


American dragonhead (Dracocephalum parviflorum)

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American elderberry (Sambucus canadensis)

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American elm (Ulmus americana)


American false pennyroyal (Hedeoma pulegioides)

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American fly honeysuckle (Lonicera canadensis)


American funaria moss (Funaria americana)

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American germander (Teucrium canadense)


American germander (Teucrium canadense var. canadense)


American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius)

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American gromwell (Lithospermum latifolium)

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American groundnut (Apios americana)

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American hazelnut (Corylus americana)

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American highbush cranberry (Viburnum opulus var. americanum)

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American hog peanut (Amphicarpaea bracteata)

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American hophornbeam (Ostrya virginiana var. virginiana)

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American lopseed (Phryma leptostachya)


American lotus (Nelumbo lutea)


American mannagrass (Glyceria grandis)


American marsh pennywort (Hydrocotyle americana)


American mountain ash (Sorbus americana)

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American pasqueflower (Anemone patens var. multifida)

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American plum (Prunus americana)


American purple vetch (Vicia americana ssp. minor)

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American red raspberry (Rubus idaeus ssp. strigosus)


American shoreweed (Littorella uniflora)


American sloughgrass (Beckmannia syzigachne)

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American spikenard (Aralia racemosa ssp. racemosa)

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American spurred gentian (Halenia deflexa ssp. deflexa)

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American stickseed (Hackelia deflexa var. americana)

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American stinging nettle (Urtica gracilis ssp. gracilis)

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American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis)

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American twinflower (Linnaea borealis ssp. americana)

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American vetch (Vicia americana)

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American vetch (Vicia americana ssp. americana)


American water plantain (Alisma subcordatum)


American water-willow (Justicia americana)

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American white waterlily (Nymphaea odorata)

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American white waterlily (Nymphaea odorata ssp. tuberosa)


American witchhazel (Hamamelis virginiana)

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American woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca ssp. americana)

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Amur corktree (Phellodendron amurense)

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Amur maple (Acer ginnala)


Andrews’ lady’s slipper (Cypripedium x andrewsii)

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aniseroot (Osmorhiza longistylis)


annual bluegrass (Poa annua)


annual bursage (Ambrosia acanthicarpa)

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annual fleabane (Erigeron annuus)


Appalachian barren strawberry (Waldsteinia fragarioides)


Appalachian clubmoss (Huperzia appalachiana)

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apple (Malus domestica)


arctic brome (Bromus kalmii)


arctic raspberry (Rubus arcticus ssp. acaulis)


arctic sweet coltsfoot (Petasites frigidus)


aromatic aster (Symphyotrichum oblongifolium)


arrow-leaved aster (Symphyotrichum urophyllum)


arrow-leaved sweet coltsfoot (Petasites frigidus var. sagittatus)


arrow-leaved violet (Viola sagittata var. sagittata)


arrowfeather threeawn (Aristida purpurascens var. purpurascens)


arrowhead rattlebox (Crotalaria sagittalis)


arrowleaf tearthumb (Persicaria sagittata)

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arumleaf arrowhead (Sagittaria cuneata)

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asparagus (Asparagus officinalis)


Atlantic ninebark (Physocarpus opulifolius var. intermedius)

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Aunt Lucy (Ellisia nyctelea)


auricled twayblade (Neottia auriculata)


Austrian pine (Pinus nigra)


autumn spotted coralroot (Corallorhiza odontorhiza var. odontorhiza)


autumn fimbristylis (Fimbristylis autumnalis)


autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellata)


autumn willow (Salix serissima)
































































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baby's breath (Gypsophila paniculata)

bald cypress

Balkan catchfly

balsam fir

balsam groundsel

bastard toadflax

bastard toadflax (ssp. umbellata)

beaked hazelnut


Bell’s honeysuckle

biennial beeblossom

big bluestem

bigleaf aster

bigleaf lupine

bigtooth aspen

bird’s-foot trefoil

birdfoot violet

bitternut hickory

bittersweet nightshade

black ash

blackberry lily

black bindweed

black cherry

black-eyed susan

black locust

black maple

black medick

black raspberry

black-seeded plantain

bland sweet cicely


bluebead lily

blue cohosh

blue-eyed grass (Sisyrinchium sp.)

blue giant hyssop

blue grama

blue lettuce

Blue Ridge carrionflower

blue skullcap

blue spruce

blue toadflax

blue vervain

bluntleaf sandwort

bog willow

Bohemian knotweed

bonfire moss

bottle gentian

bouncing bet

boxelder (var. negundo)

boxelder (var. negundo)

bracted spiderwort

bristly buttercup

bristly greenbrier

bristly sedge

brittle prickly pear

broad-leaved arrowhead

broad-leaved cattail

broad-leaved helleborine

broadleaf enchanter’s nightshade

brocade moss

broom forkmoss

brownish sedge

brown-eyed Susan

Bruner’s spotted Joe pye weed

buffalobur nightshade

bulbet-bearing water hemlock

bull thistle


bur cucumber

bur oak (var. macrocarpa)

bur oak (var. macrocarpa)

butter and eggs

butterfly weed




bachelor’s button (Centaurea cyanus)


Back’s sedge (Carex backii)

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bald cypress (Taxodium distichum var. distichum)


bald spikerush (Eleocharis erythropoda)


Baldwin’s ironweed (Vernonia baldwinii ssp. interior)

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Balkan catchfly (Silene csereii)


ball cactus (Escobaria vivipara var. vivipara)


Ballard’s goldenaster (Heterotheca ballardii)

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balsam fir (Abies balsamea var. balsamea)

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balsam groundsel (Packera paupercula)

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balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera)


balsam willow (Salix pyrifolia)


Baltic rush (Juncus balticus var. littoralis)


baneberry (Actaea spp.)


bare-stemmed tick trefoil (Desmodium nudiflorum)


barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli)

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bastard toadflax (Comandra umbellata)

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bastard toadflax (Comandra umbellata ssp. umbellata)


bay-leaved willow (Salix pentandra)


beach pea (Lathyrus japonicus var. maritimus)

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beaked hazelnut (Corylus cornuta var. cornuta)


beaked skeletonweed (Shinnersoseris rostrata)


beaked spike-rush (Eleocharis rostellata)

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bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi)


bearded shorthusk (Brachyelytrum erectum)


bearded wheatgrass (Elymus trachycaulus ssp. subsecundus)


Bebb’s sedge (Carex bebbii)


beefsteak plant (Perilla frutescens)


Bebb’s willow (Salix bebbiana)

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Bell’s honeysuckle (Lonicera × bella)


Bicknell’s cranesbill (Geranium bicknellii)


Bicknell’s sedge (Carex bicknellii)

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biennial beeblossom (Oenothera gaura)

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big bluestem (Andropogon gerardi)


Bigelow’s bottlebrush grass (Elymus hystrix var. bigeloviana)


bigfruit hawthorn (Crataegus macrosperma)

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bigleaf aster (Eurybia macrophylla)

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bigleaf lupine (Lupinus polyphyllus var. polyphyllus)

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bigtooth aspen (Populus grandidentata)

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bird’s-foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus var. corniculatus)

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birdfoot violet (Viola pedata)


bitter fleabane (Erigeron acris var. kamtschaticus)

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bitternut hickory (Carya cordiformis)

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bittersweet nightshade (Solanum dulcamara)

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black ash (Fraxinus nigra)

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blackberry lily (Iris domestica)

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black bindweed (Fallopia convolvulus)

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black cherry (Prunus serotina var. serotina)


black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa)


black crowberry (Empetrum nigrum)

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black-eyed Susan (Rudbeckia hirta var. pulcherrima)


blackfoot quillwort (Isoetes melanopoda)


black huckleberry (Gaylussacia baccata)

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black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia)

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black maple (Acer saccharum ssp. nigrum)

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black medick (Medicago lupulina)


black mustard (Brassica nigra)


black oak (Quercus velutina)

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black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis)

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black-seeded plantain (Plantago rugelii var. rugelii)


black-seeded rice grass (Patis racemosa)

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black spruce (Picea mariana)

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black tupelo (Nyssa sylvatica)

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black walnut (Juglans nigra)


black willow (Salix nigra)

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bladder campion (Silene vulgaris ssp. vulgaris)


bladderwort (Utricularia spp.)


Blanchard’s dewberry (Rubus satis)

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bland sweet cicely (Osmorhiza claytonii)


blanket flower (Gaillardia aristata)


blite goosefoot (Chenopodium capitatum)


blood milkwort (Polygala sanguinea)

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bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis)

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bluebead lily (Clintonia borealis)


blue beech (Carpinus caroliniana ssp. virginiana)

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blue cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides)

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blue-eyed grass (Sisyrinchium spp.)


blue flag iris (Iris sp.)

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blue giant hyssop (Agastache foeniculum)

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blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis)


bluejoint (Calamagrostis canadensis)

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blue lettuce (Lactuca pulchella)


blue mudplantain (Heteranthera limosa)

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Blue Ridge carrionflower (Smilax lasioneura)

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blue skullcap (Scutellaria lateriflora)

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blue spruce (Picea pungens)

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blue toadflax (Nuttallanthus canadensis)

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blue vervain (Verbena hastata)


blue wild indigo (Baptisia australis)


blunt-fruited sweet cicely (Osmorhiza depauperata)


blunt-leaved orchid (Platanthera obtusata)


blunt-lobed grapefern (Botrychium oneidense)


blunt-lobed woodsia (Woodsia obtusa ssp. obtusa)


bluntleaf bedstraw (Galium obtusum ssp. obtusum)

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bluntleaf sandwort (Moehringia lateriflora)


bluntleaf yellowcress (Rorippa curvipes)


blunt sedge (Carex obtusata)


blunt spikerush (Eleocharis obtusa)


bog adder’s-mouth (Malaxis paludosa)


bog bilberry (Vaccinium uliginosum)


bog birch (Betula pumila)


bog bluegrass (Poa paludigena)


bog haircap moss (Polytrichum strictum)


bog Labrador tea (Rhododendron groenlandicum)


bog laurel (Kalmia polifolia)


bog rosemary (Andromeda glaucophylla)


bog willow (Salix pedicellaris)


bog willowherb (Epilobium leptophyllum)

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Bohemian knotweed (Reynoutria × bohemica)


Bolander’s water hemlock (Cicuta maculata var. bolanderi)

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bonfire moss (Funaria hygrometrica var. hygrometrica)


border forsythia (Forsythia × intermedia)

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bottle gentian (Gentiana andrewsii)


bottle gentian (Gentiana andrewsii var. andrewsii)

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bouncing bet (Saponaria officinalis)

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boxelder (Acer negundo)


boxelder (Acer negundo var. interius)

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boxelder (Acer negundo var. negundo)

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bracted spiderwort (Tradescantia bracteata)

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bracted vervain (Verbena bracteata)


branching centaury (Centaurium pulchellum)


Braun’s hollyfern (Polystichum braunii)


bright green spike-rush (Eleocharis flavescens var. olivacea)


bristle-berry (Rubus regionalis)


bristle-berry (Rubus stipulatus)


bristle-berry (Rubus uniformis)


bristly blackberry (Rubus dissensus)

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bristly buttercup (Ranunculus hispidus)


bristly buttercup (Ranunculus hispidus var. caricetorum)


bristly buttercup (Ranunculus hispidus var. nitidus)


bristly dewberry (Rubus hispidus)


bristly foxtail (Setaria verticillata)

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bristly greenbrier (Smilax tamnoides)


bristly haircap moss (Polytrichum piliferum)


bristly locust (Robinia hispida var. hispida)


bristly sarsaparilla (Aralia hispida)

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bristly sedge (Carex comosa)

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brittle prickly pear (Opuntia fragilis)


brittlestem hempnettle (Galeopsis tetrahit)


Britton’s scalewort (Frullania brittoniae)

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broad-leaved arrowhead (Sagittaria latifolia)

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broad-leaved cattail (Typha latifolia)

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broad-leaved helleborine (Epipactis helleborine ssp. helleborine)


broad-leaved panicled aster (Symphyotrichum lanceolatum var. latifolium)

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broadleaf enchanter’s nightshade (Circaea canadensis)


broadleaf meadowsweet (Spiraea alba var. latifolia)


broadleaf water milfoil (Myriophyllum heterophyllum)

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brocade moss (Callicladium imponens)


brome-like sedge (Carex bromoides)

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broom forkmoss (Dicranum scoparium)


brown knapweed (Centaurea jacea)


brown mustard (Brassica juncea)


brown peatmoss (Sphagnum fuscum)

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brownish sedge (Carex brunnescens)


brownish sedge (Carex brunnescens ssp. brunnescens)

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brown-eyed Susan (Rudbeckia triloba var. triloba)

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Bruner’s spotted Joe pye weed (Eutrochium maculatum var. bruneri)


buckbean (Menyanthes trifoliata)


buffalo grass (Buchloë dactyloides)

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buffalobur nightshade (Solanum rostratum)


bulblet fern (Cystopteris bulbifera)

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bulbet-bearing water hemlock (Cicuta bulbifera)

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bull thistle (Cirsium vulgare)

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bunchberry (Cornus canadensis)

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bur cucumber (Sicyos angulatus)

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bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa)


bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa var. depressa)

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bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa var. macrocarpa)


bushy cinquefoil (Potentilla supina ssp. paradoxa)

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butter and eggs (Linaria vulgaris)

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butterfly weed (Asclepias tuberosa ssp. interior)

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butternut (Juglans cinerea)

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buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis)


buttonbush dodder (Cuscuta cephalanthi)


Buxbaum’s sedge (Carex buxbaumii)












































































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calico aster (Symphyotrichum lateriflorum)

Canada anemone

Canada goldenrod

Canada lettuce

Canada mayflower

Canada moonseed

Canada plum

Canada thistle

Canada wildrye

Canadian black snakeroot (var. canadensis)

Canadian black snakeroot (var. canadensis)

Canadian honewort

Canadian horseweed

Canadian milkvetch

Canadian tick-trefoil

Canadian white violet

Canadian wild ginger

Canadian woodnettle

candle anemone

cardinal flower

Carolina anemone

Carolina cranesbill



cereal rye

charlock mustard



Christmas fern

cinnamon fern

clammy groundcherry

clasping-leaved Venus’ looking-glass

clasping milkweed


Cleland’s evening primrose

climbing false buckwheat

clustered bellflower

clustered black snakeroot

cockspur hawthorn

common agrimony

common bladderwort

common blue violet

common boneset

common buckthorn

common burdock

common chickweed

common cinquefoil

common dandelion

common evening primrose

common false Solomon’s seal

common hop

common juniper

common liverwort

common mallow

common milkweed

common milkweed

common mullein

common oat

common plantain

common polypody

common purslane

common ragweed

common reed

common St. Johnswort

common self-heal

common self-heal (ssp. vulgaris)

common sheep sorrel

common smooth blue aster

common sneezeweed

common snowberry

common sowthistle

common speedwell

common sunflower

common tansy

common water hemlock

common wheat

common winterberry

common yarrow

compass plant

Cooper’s milkvetch

cream pea

creeping bellflower

creeping juniper

crown vetch

Culver’s root

cup plant


curly-cup gumweed

curlytop knotweed

cut-leaved coneflower

cut-leaved toothwort

cylindric blazing star

cypress spurge


calico aster (Symphyotrichum lateriflorum var. horizontale)


calico aster (Symphyotrichum lateriflorum var. lateriflorum)


calla lily (Zantedeschia aethiopica)

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Canada anemone (Anemonastrum canadense)


Canada bluegrass (Poa compressa)


Canada frostweed (Crocanthemum canadense)

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Canada goldenrod (Solidago canadensis)


Canada goldenrod (Solidago canadensis var. canadensis)

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Canada lettuce (Lactuca canadensis)

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Canada mayflower (Maianthemum canadense)

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Canada moonseed (Menispermum canadense)


Canada plum (Prunus nigra)

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Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense)


Canada wildrye (Elymus canadensis)


Canada yew (Taxus canadensis)

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Canadian black snakeroot (Sanicula canadensis)

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Canadian black snakeroot (Sanicula canadensis var. canadensis)

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Canadian clearweed (Pilea pumila)


Canadian gooseberry (Ribes oxyacanthoides ssp. oxyacanthoides)

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Canadian honewort (Cryptotaenia canadensis)

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Canadian horseweed (Erigeron canadensis)

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Canadian milkvetch (Astragalus canadensis var. canadensis)


Canadian pussytoes (Antennaria howellii ssp. canadensis)

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Canadian tick-trefoil (Desmodium canadense)

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Canadian white violet (Viola canadensis var. rugulosa)

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Canadian wild ginger (Asarum canadense)

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Canadian woodnettle (Laportea canadensis)

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candle anemone (Anemone cylindrica)


caraway (Carum carvi)

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cardinal flower (Lobelia cardinalis)


Carey’s smartweed (Persicaria careyi)


Carey’s sedge (Carex careyana)

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Carolina anemone (Anemone caroliniana)


Carolina foxtail (Alopecurus carolinianus)

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Carolina geranium (Geranium carolinianum var. carolinianum)

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Carolina horsenettle (Solanum carolinense)


Carolina spring beauty (Claytonia caroliniana var. caroliniana)


Carolina whitlowgrass (Draba reptans)

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catnip (Nepeta cataria)


cattail (Typha sp.)


cattail sedge (Carex typhina)


cedar moss (Sciuro-hypnum oedipodium)

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celandine (Chelidonium majus)


central peatmoss (Sphagnum centrale)

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cereal rye (Secale cereale)


Chamisso’s cottongrass (Eriophorum chamissonis)


charity (Polemonium caeruleum)

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charlock mustard (Sinapis arvensis)


cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum)


chestnut sedge (Carex castanea)


chickpea milkvetch (Astragalus cicer)

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chicory (Cichorium intybus)


Chilean sweet cicely (Osmorhiza berteroi)


Chinese catalpa (Catalpa ovata)


Chisos red oak (Quercus gravesii)

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chokecherry (Prunus virginiana var. virginiana)

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Christmas fern (Polystichum acrostichoides)


chrome peatmoss (Sphagnum squarrosum)

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cinnamon fern (Osmundastrum cinnamomeum)

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clammy groundcherry (Physalis heterophylla)


clammy hedge-hyssop (Gratiola neglecta)


clasping-leaved twisted-stalk (Streptopus amplexifolius)


clasping-leaved Venus’ looking-glass (Triodanis perfoliata ssp. perfoliata)

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clasping milkweed (Asclepias amplexicaulis)


clasping pepper grass (Lepidium perfoliatum)

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cleavers (Galium aparine)

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Cleland’s evening primrose (Oenothera clelandii)


cliff goldenrod (Solidago sciaphila)


cliff fern (Woodsia spp.)

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climbing false buckwheat (Fallopia scandens)


Clinton’s bulrush (Trichophorum clintonii)


cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus)

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clustered bellflower (Campanula glomerata)

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clustered black snakeroot (Sanicula odorata)


clustered broomrape (Orobanche fasciculata)


clustered poppy mallow (Callirhoe triangulata)


coastal sedge (Carex exilis)


cobaea beardtongue (Penstemon cobaea)

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cockspur hawthorn (Crataegus crus-galli var. crus-galli)


Columbia watermeal (Wolffia columbiana)


common agrimony (Agrimonia gryposepala)


common barberry (Berberis vulgaris)

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common bladderwort (Utricularia macrorhiza)

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common blue violet (Viola sororia)


common blue wood aster (Symphyotrichum cordifolium)

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common boneset (Eupatorium perfoliatum var. perfoliatum)

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common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica)

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common burdock (Arctium minus)


common bur-reed (Sparganium eurycarpum)


common butterwort (Pinguicula vulgaris ssp. vulgaris)

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common chickweed (Stellaria media)

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common cinquefoil (Potentilla simplex)

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common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale ssp. officinale)


common dayflower (Commelina communis)


common dodder (Cuscuta gronovii)


common dogmustard (Erucastrum gallicum)


common duckweed (Lemna minor)

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common evening primrose (Oenothera biennis)

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common false Solomon’s seal (Maianthemum racemosum var. racemosum)


common flax (Linum usitatissimum)


common haircap moss (Polytrichum commune)

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common hop (Humulus lupulus)


common hop (Humulus lupulus var. lupuloides)


common hop (Humulus lupulus var. pubescens)


common hop-tree (Ptelea trifoliata ssp. trifoliata var. trifoliata)


common juniper (Juniperus communis var. depressa)


common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album)


common lilac (Syringa vulgaris)

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common liverwort (Marchantia polymorpha)

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common mallow (Malva neglecta)

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common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca)


common moonwort (Botrychium lunaria)


common morning-glory (Ipomoea purpurea)


common motherwort (Leonurus cardiaca ssp. cardiaca)

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common mullein (Verbascum thapsus ssp. thapsus)


common ninebark (Physocarpus opulifolius)


common ninebark (Physocarpus opulifolius var. opulifolius)


common oat (Avena sativa)


common panicled aster (Symphyotrichum lanceolatum ssp. lanceolatum)


common panicled aster (Symphyotrichum lanceolatum var. lanceolatum)

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common plantain (Plantago major)

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common polypody (Polypodium virginianum)

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common purslane (Portulaca oleracea)

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common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia)

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common reed (Phragmites australis)


common rivergrass (Scolochloa festucacea)


common rush (Juncus effusus)

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common St. Johnswort (Hypericum perforatum)

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common self-heal (Prunella vulgaris)

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common self-heal (Prunella vulgaris ssp. vulgaris)

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common sheep sorrel (Rumex acetosella)

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common smooth blue aster (Symphyotrichum laeve var. laeve)

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common sneezeweed (Helenium autumnale)

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common snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus var. albus)

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common sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus)

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common speedwell (Veronica officinalis var. officinalis)


common spikerush (Eleocharis palustris)


common star-of-Bethlehem (Ornithogalum umbellatum)

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common sunflower (Helianthus annuus)

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common tansy (Tanacetum vulgare)


common three-square (Schoenoplectus pungens)


common threeseed mercury (Acalypha rhomboidea)


common vetch (Vicia sativa)


common vetch (Vicia sativa ssp. nigra)


common vetch (Vicia sativa ssp. sativa)


common viper’s bugloss (Echium vulgare)

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common water hemlock (Cicuta maculata var. maculata)

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common wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. aestivum)

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common winterberry (Ilex verticillata)


common wood fern (Dryopteris intermedia)


common woodrush (Luzula multiflora)

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common yarrow (Achillea millefolium)

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compass plant (Silphium laciniatum)


coon’s tail (Ceratophyllum demersum)

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Cooper’s milkvetch (Astragalus neglectus)


coralberry (Symphoricarpos orbiculatus)


corn (Zea mays)


corn speedwell (Veronica arvensis)


cow vetch (Vicia cracca ssp. cracca)


crabgrass (Digitaria spp.)


crack willow (Salix fragilis)


Crawe’s sedge (Carex crawei)

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cream pea (Lathyrus ochroleucus)


cream wild indigo (Baptisia bracteata var. leucophaea)

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creeping bellflower (Campanula rapunculoides)


creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera)


creeping buttercup (Ranunculus repens)

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creeping juniper (Juniperus horizontalis)


creeping snowberry (Gaultheria hispidula)


crested sedge (Carex cristatella)


crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum)


crested wood fern (Dryopteris cristata)


crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum ssp. incarnatum)


crisped pincushion (Ulota crispa)


crookedstem aster (Symphyotrichum prenanthoides)


cross-leaved milkwort (Polygala cruciata)

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crown vetch (Securigera varia)


crowned beggarticks (Bidens trichosperma)


cuckoo flower (Cardamine pratensis)

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Culver’s root (Veronicastrum virginicum)

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cup plant (Silphium perfoliatum var. perfoliatum)

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curly dock (Rumex crispus)


curly pondweed (Potamogeton crispus)

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curly-cup gumweed (Grindelia squarrosa)

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curlytop knotweed (Persicaria lapathifolia)


cursed crowfoot (Ranunculus sceleratus)


cursed crowfoot (Ranunculus sceleratus var. multifidus)


cursed crowfoot (Ranunculus sceleratus var. sceleratus)


cut-leaf ironplant (Xanthisma spinulosum var. spinulosum)


cut-leaved anemone (Anemone multifida var. multifida)

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cut-leaved coneflower (Rudbeckia laciniata var. laciniata)


cut-leaved evening primrose (Oenothera laciniata)

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cut-leaved toothwort (Cardamine concatenata)


cutleaf teasel (Dipsacus laciniatus)


cutleaf waterparsnip (Berula erecta)

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cylindric blazing star (Liatris cylindracea)

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cypress spurge (Euphorbia cyparissias)































































































































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Dakota gentian (Gentiana andrewsii var. dakotica)

dame’s rocket

dark green bulrush

Deptford pink

desert false indigo










dotted blazing star



downy arrowwood

downy gentian

downy hawthorn

downy Parlin’s pussytoes

downy phlox

downy serviceberry

downy yellow violet

drooping trillium




Dutchman’s breeches

dwarf false indigo

dwarf raspberry

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dame’s rocket (Hesperis matronalis ssp. matronalis)

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dark green bulrush (Scirpus atrovirens)


David’s spurge (Euphorbia davidii)


Davis’ sedge (Carex davisii)


decurrent false aster (Boltonia decurrens)


deer sedge (Carex hallii)


delicate fern moss (Thuidium delicatulum)

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Deptford pink (Dianthus armeria ssp. armeria)

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desert false indigo (Amorpha fruticosa)


desert goosefoot (Chenopodium pratericola)


devil’s beggarticks (Bidens frondosa)


devil’s tongue (Opuntia humifusa var. humifusa)


Dewey’s sedge (Carex deweyana)


diamondleaf willow (Salix planifolia ssp. planifolia)


dill (Anethum graveolens)


disk water-hyssop (Bacopa rotundifolia)


ditch stonecrop (Penthorum sedoides)


dodder (Cuscuta spp.)


dog-fennel (Anthemis cotula)

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dotted blazing star (Liatris punctata var. punctata)


dotted hawthorn (Crataegus punctata)


dotted smartweed (Persicaria punctata)


Douglas hawthorn (Crataegus douglasii)


Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii)

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downy arrowwood (Viburnum rafinesqueanum)


downy arrowwood (Viburnum rafinesqueanum var. affine)


downy arrowwood (Viburnum rafinesqueanum var. rafinesqueanum)

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downy gentian (Gentiana puberulenta)

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downy hawthorn (Crataegus mollis var. mollis)


downy painted cup (Castilleja sessiliflora)

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downy Parlin’s pussytoes (Antennaria parlinii ssp. fallax)

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downy phlox (Phlox pilosa ssp. fulgida)


downy rattlesnake plantain (Goodyera pubescens)

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downy serviceberry (Amelanchier arborea)


downy willow herb (Epilobium strictum)

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downy yellow violet (Viola pubescens)


dragon’s mouth (Arethusa bulbosa)

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drooping trillium (Trillium flexipes)


drooping woodland sedge (Carex arctata)


drooping woodreed (Cinna latifolia)


Drummond’s aster (Symphyotrichum drummondii var. drummondii)


Drummond’s campion (Silene drummondii ssp. drummondii)


Drummond’s rockcress (Arabis drummondii)


dry sedge (Carex xerantica)


dry-spike sedge (Carex siccata)


Dudley’s rush (Juncus dudleyi)

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Dutchman’s breeches (Dicentra cucullaria)


dwarf bilberry (Vaccinium caespitosum)


dwarf cinquefoil (Potentilla canadensis)

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dwarf false indigo (Amorpha nana)

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dwarf ginseng (Panax trifolius)

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dwarf raspberry (Rubus pubescens)


dwarf scouring rush (Equisetum scirpoides)


dwarf snapdragon (Chaenorhinum minus ssp. minus)


dyc (Flava composita var. damnatus)


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early buttercup (Ranunculus fascicularis)

early buttercup

early figwort

early horse-gentian

early meadow rue

eastern black nightshade

eastern bottlebrush grass

eastern bottlebrush grass (var. hystrix)

eastern cottonwood

eastern false rue anemone

eastern hemlock

eastern poison ivy

eastern prickly gooseberry

eastern purple coneflower

eastern redcedar

eastern swamp saxifrage

eastern wahoo

eastern white pine

edible valerian

elm-leaved goldenrod

elm (Ulmus sp.)

European bur-reed

European cranberrybush

European larch

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early figwort (Scrophularia lanceolata)


early coralroot (Corallorhiza trifida)


early goldenrod (Solidago juncea)

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early horse gentian (Triosteum aurantiacum var. aurantiacum)

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early meadow-rue (Thalictrum dioicum)


early saxifrage (Micranthes virginiensis)

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eastern black nightshade (Solanum emulans)


eastern bottlebrush grass (Elymus hystrix)


eastern bottlebrush grass (Elymus hystrix var. hystrix)


eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides ssp. deltoides)


eastern dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium pusillum)

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eastern false rue anemone (Enemion biternatum)

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eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis)


eastern leatherwood (Dirca palustris)


eastern marsh fern (Thelypteris palustris var. pubescens)

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eastern poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans ssp. negundo)

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eastern prickly gooseberry (Ribes cynosbati)

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eastern purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea)


eastern redbud (Cercis canadensis var. canadensis)

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eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana var. virginiana)


eastern spotted coralroot (Corallorhiza maculata var. maculata)


eastern star sedge (Carex radiata)

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eastern swamp saxifrage (Micranthes pensylvanica)


eastern wahoo (Euonymus atropurpureus var. atropurpureus)

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eastern white pine (Pinus strobus)


eastern woodland sedge (Carex blanda)


ebony spleenwort (Asplenium platyneuron)

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edible valerian (Valeriana edulis var. ciliata)


eggleaf rosette grass (Dichanthelium ovale)


eggleaf rosette grass (Dichanthelium ovale ssp. praecocius)


eggleaf rosette grass (Dichanthelium ovale ssp. pseudopubescens)


eggleaf rosette grass (Dichanthelium ovale ssp. villosissimum)


elegant groundsel (Packera indecora)

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elm-leaved goldenrod (Solidago ulmifolia var. ulmifolia)

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elms (Ulmus spp.)


Emory’s sedge (Carex emoryi)


Engelmann’s spikerush (Eleocharis engelmannii)


English plantain (Plantago lanceolata)


English sundew (Drosera anglica)


European black alder (Alnus glutinosa)


European black currant (Ribes nigrum)

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European bur-reed (Sparganium emersum)

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European common reed (Phragmites australis ssp. australis)


European crab apple (Malus sylvestris)

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European cranberrybush (Viburnum opulus var. opulus)

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European larch (Larix decidua)


European mountain ash (Sorbus aucuparia)


European plum (Prunus domestica)


European stickseed (Lappula squarrosa)


eyebright (Euphrasia officinalis)



































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fall witchgrass (Digitaria cognata)





false boneset





falsegold groundsel

fan clubmoss

fen grass of Parnassus

fern moss (Thuidium sp.)

few-seeded sedge

field bindweed

field horsetail

field mouse-ear chickweed

field pennycress

field pussytoes

field sagewort

field thistle

fireberry hawthorn


fireweed (ssp. angustifolium)

flat-topped aster

flat-topped aster (var. umbellata)

Flodman’s thistle

flowering plant (Class Magnoliopsida)

flowering spurge

four-flowered yellow loosestrife

foxglove beardtongue

foxtail barley

fragrant bedstraw

fringed loosestrife

fringed puccoon

fringed willowherb

fringed willowherb (ssp. ciliatum)


false baby’s breath (Galium mollugo)




false tomentose balsam groundsel (Packera paupercula var. pseudotomentosa)

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false boneset (Brickellia eupatorioides var. corymbulosa)


false Indian plantain (Hasteola suaveolens)


false loosestrife (Ludwigia polycarpa)


false melic grass (Schizachne purpurascens)


false mermaid-weed (Floerkea proserpinacoides)


false mountain willow (Salix pseudomonticola)


false toadflax (Geocaulon lividum)

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falsegold groundsel (Packera pseudaurea var. semicordata)

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fan clubmoss (Diphasiastrum digitatum)


fanleaf cinquefoil (Potentilla gracilis var. flabelliformis)

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fen grass of Parnassus (Parnassia glauca)


fen orchid (Liparis loeselii)


fen peatmoss (Sphagnum warnstorfii)

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fern mosses (Thuidium spp.)


Fernald’s false manna grass (Torreyochloa pallida var. fernaldii)


fescue sedge (Carex festucacea)


few-flowered spikerush (Eleocharis quinqueflora)


few-nerved cottongrass (Eriophorum chamissonis)

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few-seeded sedge (Carex oligosperma)


fiddleleaf hawksbeard (Crepis runcinata ssp. runcinata)

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field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis)


field brome (Bromus arvensus)


field chickweed (Cerastium arvense)


field chickweed (Cerastium arvense ssp. arvense)


field clover (Trifolium campestre ssp. campestre)


field dock (Rumex pseudonatronatus)


field dodder (Cuscuta campestris)


field garlic (Allium vineale)

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field horsetail (Equisetum arvense)

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field mouse-ear chickweed (Cerastium arvense ssp. strictum)


field mustard (Brassica rapa)

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field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense)


field peppergrass (Lepidium campestre)

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field pussytoes (Antennaria neglecta)

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field sagewort (Artemisia campestris ssp. caudata)


field sedge (Carex conoidea)


field sowthistle (Sonchus arvensis ssp. arvensis)

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field thistle (Cirsium discolor)


fir tamarisk-moss (Abietinella abietina)

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fireberry hawthorn (Crataegus chrysocarpa var. chrysocarpa)

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fireweed (Chamaenerion angustifolium)

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fireweed (Chamaenerion angustifolium ssp. angustifolium)


fireweed (Chamaenerion angustifolium ssp. circumvagum)


fiveangled dodder (Cuscuta pentagona)


flat-stalked pondweed (Potamogeton friesii)


flat-stemmed pondweed (potamogeton zosteriformis)


flat-stemmed spike-rush (Eleocharis compressa)

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flat-topped aster (Doellingeria umbellata)


flat-topped aster (Doellingeria umbellata var. pubens)

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flat-topped aster (Doellingeria umbellata var. umbellata)


flatspine stickseed (Lappula occidentalis)


fleshy hawthorn (Crataegus succulenta)


flexile milkvetch (Astragalus flexuosus var. flexuosus)


floating crystalwort (Riccia fluitans)


floating marsh marigold (Caltha natans)


floating pondweed (Potamogeton natans)

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Flodman’s thistle (Cirsium flodmanii)

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flowering plants (Class Magnoliopsida)


flowering rush (Butomus umbellatus)

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flowering spurge (Euphorbia corollata)


fluxweed (Isanthus brachiatus)


forked campion (Silene dichotoma)


Fort Sheridan hawthorn (Crataegus apiomorpha)

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four-flowered yellow loosestrife (Lysimachia quadriflora)


fowl bluegrass (Poa palustris)


fowl mannagrass (Glyceria striata)


fox sedge (Carex vulpinoidea)

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foxglove beardtongue (Penstemon digitalis)

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foxtail barley (Hordeum jubatum ssp. jubatum)


foxtail prairie clover (Dalea leporina)


fragile fern (Cystopteris fragilis)

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fragrant bedstraw (Galium triflorum)


fragrant sumac (Rhus aromatica var. aromatica)


fragrant waterlily (Nymphaea odorata ssp. odorata)


Franklin’s phacelia (Phacelia franklinii)


Fraser’s marsh St. Johnswort (Triadenum fraseri)


freeway sedge (Carex praegracilis)


Frenchman’s Bluff moonwort (Botrychium gallicomontanum)


fringed black bindweed (Fallopia cilinodis)


fringed bogmoss (Sphagnum fimbriatum)


fringed brome (Bromus ciliatus)

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fringed loosestrife (Lysimachia ciliata)

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fringed puccoon (Lithospermum incisum)


fringed willowherb (Epilobium ciliatum)

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fringed willowherb (Epilobium ciliatum ssp. ciliatum)


Fuller’s bristly dewberry (Rubus fulleri)


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gallant soldier (Galinsoga parviflora var. parviflora)

garden yellowrocket

garlic mustard

giant chickweed

giant foxtail

giant goldenrod

giant green foxtail

giant ragweed

giant sumpweed


glossy buckthorn

goat’s rue

golden alexanders

golden clover


goldmoss stonecrop

grass-leaved goldenrod

gray birch

gray dogwood

gray goldenrod

gray-headed coneflower

great blue lobelia

great blue lobelia (var. ludoviciana)

great blue lobelia (var. siphilitica)

Great Plains ladies’ tresses

great St. Johnswort

great waterleaf

greater bladder sedge

greater fringed gentian

Grecian foxglove

green alder

green amaranth

green ash

green foxtail

green foxtail (var. viridis)

green milkweed

Green’s rush

grimmia dry rock moss

grooved yellow flax

ground ivy

ground plum


garden heliotrope (Valeriana officinalis)


garden lady’s mantle (Alchemilla mollis)


garden phlox (Phlox paniculata)


garden radish (Raphanus sativus)


garden strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa)

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garden yellowrocket (Barbarea vulgaris)


gardencress pepperweed (Lepidium sativum)

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garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata)


gaywings (Polygala paucifolia)


Georgia bulrush (Scirpus georgianus)


Geyer’s aster (Symphyotrichum laeve var. geyeri)


giant chickweed (Myosoton aquaticum)

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giant foxtail (Setaria faberi)

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giant goldenrod (Solidago gigantea)


giant green foxtail (Setaria viridis var. major)


giant knotweed (Fallopia sachalinensis)

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giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida)

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giant sumpweed (Cyclachaena xanthiifolia)


giant sunflower (Helianthus giganteus)

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ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba)


Girgensohn’s peatmoss (Sphagnum girgensohnii)


glade fern (Diplazium pycnocarpon)


glade mallow (Napaea dioica)

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glossy buckthorn (Frangula alnus)

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goat’s rue (Tephrosia virginiana)

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golden alexanders (Zizia aurea)

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golden clover (Trifolium aureum)


golden currant (Ribes aureum var. villosum)


golden ragwort (Packera aurea)


golden-fruited sedge (Carex aurea)


goldenrods (Solidago spp.)

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goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis)


Goldie’s woodfern (Dryopteris goldiana)

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goldmoss stonecrop (Sedum acre ssp. acre)


goldthread (Coptis trifolia)


goose grass (Eleusine indica)


gooseberry (Ribes spp.)


graceful cinquefoil (Potentilla gracilis var. gracilis)


graceful sedge (Carex gracillima)


grape honeysuckle (Lonicera reticulata)


grape-leaved sweet coltsfoot (Petasites frigidus var. vitifolius)


grassleaf rush (Juncus marginatus)

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grass-leaved goldenrod (Euthamia graminifolia)


grass-leaved pondweed (Potamogeton gramineus)

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gray birch (Betula populifolia)

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gray dogwood (Cornus racemosa)


gray field speedwell (Veronica polita)

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gray goldenrod (Solidago nemoralis)


gray goldenrod (Solidago nemoralis ssp. decemflora)


gray goldenrod (Solidago nemoralis ssp. nemoralis)


Gray’s sedge (Carex grayi)

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gray-headed coneflower (Ratibida pinnata)

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great blue lobelia (Lobelia siphilitica)

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great blue lobelia (Lobelia siphilitica var. ludoviciana)

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great blue lobelia (Lobelia siphilitica var. siphilitica)

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great burdock (Arctium lappa)


great Indian plantain (Arnoglossum reniforme)


Great Lakes gentian (Gentiana rubricaulis)


Great Lakes sand cherry (Prunus pumila var. pumila)


Great Plains flat sedge (Cyperus lupulinus ssp. lupulinus)


Great Plains flat-topped goldenrod (Euthamia gymnospermoides)


Great Plains hawthorn (Crataegus sheridana)

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Great Plains ladies’ tresses (Spiranthes magnicamporum)

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great St. Johnswort (Hypericum ascyron ssp. pyramidatum)


great water dock (Rumex britannica)

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great waterleaf (Hydrophyllum appendiculatum)

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greater bladder sedge (Carex intumescens)


greater duckweed (Spirodela polyrrhiza)

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greater fringed gentian (Gentianopsis crinita)


greater peatmoss (Sphagnum majus)


great-spurred violet (Viola selkirkii)

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Grecian foxglove (Digitalis lanata)


green adder’s-mouth (Malaxis unifolia)

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green alder (Alnus alnobetula ssp. crispa)

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green amaranth (Amaranthus hybridus)

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green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica)


green carpetweed (Mollugo verticillata)


green dragon (Arisaema dracontium)


green foxtail (Setaria viridis)

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green foxtail (Setaria viridis var. viridis)


green keeled cottongrass (Eriophorum viridicarinatum)

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green milkweed (Asclepias viridiflora)


green needlegrass (Nassella viridula)


Green’s rush (Juncus greenei)

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grimmia dry rock moss (Grimmia laevigata)


grooved yellow flax (Linum sulcatum var. sulcatum)

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ground ivy (Glechoma hederacea)

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ground plum (Astragalus crassicarpus var. crassicarpus)


Guadalupe waternymph (Najas guadalupensis ssp. olivacea)



























































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hair-like beak-rush (Rhynchospora capillacea)

hairy false goldenaster

hairy false goldenaster (var. villosa)

hairy four o’clock

hairy goldenrod

hairy grama

hairy hedge nettle

hairy honeysuckle


hairy puccoon




hairy sunflower

hairy vetch

hairy wood mint

hairy-stem gooseberry


hawthorn (Crataegus sp.)

heartleaf foamflower

heart-leaved four o’clock

heart-leaved golden alexanders

hedge bindweed

Hill’s thistle

hoary alyssum

hoary frostweed

hoary puccoon

hoary vervain

hog peanut

honey locust

hooked buttercup

hookedspur violet

hound’s tongue

Howell’s pussytoes (ssp. neodioica)

Howell’s pussytoes (ssp. neodioica)


hair-like sedge (Carex capillaris)


hairy crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis)


hairy cupgrass (Eriochloa villosa)


hairy evening primrose (Oenothera villosa)


hairy evening primrose (Oenothera villosa ssp. strigosa)


hairy evening primrose (Oenothera villosa ssp. villosa)

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hairy false goldenaster (Heterotheca villosa)


hairy false goldenaster (Heterotheca villosa var. minor)

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hairy false goldenaster (Heterotheca villosa var. villosa)


hairy forked nailwort (Paronychia fastigiata var. fastigiata)

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hairy four o’clock (Mirabilis albida)

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hairy goldenrod (Solidago hispida)

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hairy grama (Bouteloua hirsuta var. hirsuta)


hairy gumweed (Grindelia hirsutula)

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hairy hedge nettle (Stachys pilosa var. pilosa)

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hairy honeysuckle (Lonicera hirsuta)


hairy lady’s mantle (Alchemilla monticola)


hairy panic grass (Dichanthelium acuminatum)

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hairy puccoon (Lithospermum caroliniense var. croceum)


hairy purslane speedwell (Veronica peregrina ssp. xalapensis)


hairy rockcress (Arabis pycnocarpa var. pycnocarpa)


hairy scalewort (Frullania bolanderi)


hairy Solomon’s seal (Polygonatum pubescens)

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hairy sunflower (Helianthus hirsutus)

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hairy vetch (Vicia villosa ssp. villosa)


hairy waterclover (Marsilea vestita)


hairy white oldfield aster (Symphyotrichum pilosum)


hairy white oldfield aster (Symphyotrichum pilosum var. pilosum)

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hairy wood mint (Blephilia hirsuta var. hirsuta)


hairy woodrush (Luzula acuminata ssp. acuminata)


hairy-fruit sedge (Carex trichocarpa)

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hairy-stem gooseberry (Ribes hirtellum)


hairy-stemmed panicled aster (Symphyotrichum lanceolatum var. hirsuticaule)


handsome sedge (Carex formosa)


hard-stem bulrush (Schoenoplectus acutus var. acutus)

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harebell (Campanula rotundifolia)


Harger’s goldenrod (Solidago canadensis var. hargeri)

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hawthorns (Crataegus spp.)


Hayden’s Sedge (Carex haydenii)


hazels (Corylus spp.)

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heartleaf foamflower (Tiarella cordifolia)


heart-leaved birch (Betula cordifolia)

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heart-leaved four o’clock (Mirabilis nyctaginea)

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heart-leaved golden alexanders (Zizia aptera)


heart-leaved skullcap (Scutellaria ovata ssp. ovata)


heart-leaved twayblade (Neottia cordata)


heart-leaved willow (Salix eriocephala)


heavy sedge (Carex gravida)

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hedge bindweed (Calystegia sepium)


hedge mustard (Sisymbrium officinale)


hedge nettle (Stachys spp.)


Heller’s rosette grass (Dichanthelium oligosanthes)


Heller’s rosette grass (Dichanthelium oligosanthes ssp. oligosanthes)


hemlock water-parsnip (Sium suave)


henbit deadnettle (Lamium amplexicaule)


herbaceous blackberry (Rubus junceus)


Hickey’s tree clubmoss (Dendrolycopodium hickeyi)

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Hill’s thistle (Cirsium pumilum var. hillii)


hispid hedge nettle (Stachys hispida)

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hoary alyssum (Berteroa incana)

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hoary frostweed (Crocanthemum bicknellii)

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hoary puccoon (Lithospermum canescens)


hoary sedge (Carex canescens)

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hoary vervain (Verbena stricta)

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hog peanut (Amphicarpaea bracteata var. bracteata)


Holboell’s rockcress (Boechera retrofracta)


holly-leaved water-nymph (Najas marina)


Holzinger’s eupatorium (Eutrochium purpureum var. holzingeri)

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honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos)


hooded arrowhead (Sagittaria calycina var. calycina)


hooded ladies’ tresses (Spiranthes romanzoffiana)

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hooked buttercup (Ranunculus recurvatus var. recurvatus)

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hookedspur violet (Viola adunca var. adunca)


hook-leaved fern moss (Thuidium recognitum)


hop sedge (Carex lupulina)


horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum)

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hound’s tongue (Cynoglossum officinale)

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Howell’s pussytoes (Antennaria howellii)

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Howell’s pussytoes (Antennaria howellii ssp. neodioica)


Howell’s pussytoes (Antennaria howellii ssp. petaloidea)


Hudson Bay eyebright (Euphrasia hudsoniana)


Hudson Bay eyebright (Euphrasia hudsoniana var. contracta)


Hudson Bay eyebright (Euphrasia hudsoniana var. ramosior)


humped bladderwort (Utricularia gibba)


Huron green orchid (Platanthera huronensis)


hybrid black raspberry (Rubus × neglectus)


hybrid cattail (Typha × glauca)


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Illinois carrion flower (Smilax illinoensis)



Illinois tick-trefoil

Indian blanket


Indian hemp


inland serviceberry

interrupted fern


Illinois pondweed (Potamogeton illinoensis)

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Illinois tick-trefoil (Desmodium illinoense)

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Indian blanket (Gaillardia pulchella var. pulchella)

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Indian hemp (Apocynum cannabinum)


Indian ricegrass (Achnatherum hymenoides)


Indian tobacco (Lobelia inflata)


Indian wild rice (Zizania aquatica var. aquatica)

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Indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans)

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Indianpipe (Monotropa uniflora)


inflated narrow-leaf sedge (Carex grisea)


inflated scalewort (Frullania inflata)


inflated sedge (Carex vesicaria)


inland panicled aster (Symphyotrichum lanceolatum var. interior)


inland sedge (Carex interior)

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inland serviceberry (Amelanchier interior)


intermediate sedge (Carex media)

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interrupted fern (Claytosmunda claytoniana)


Iowa golden saxifrage (Chrysosplenium iowense)


Irish potato (Solanum tuberosum)


Iron River blackberry (Rubus ferrofluvius)


Ithaca blackberry (Rubus ithacanus)


ivory sedge (Carex eburnea)


ivy-leaved morning-glory (Ipomoea hederacea)


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jack pine (Pinus banksiana)

jack pine


Japanese barberry

Japanese hedge parsley

Japanese hop

Japanese knotweed

Jerusalem artichoke

jeweled shooting star


June grass

juniper haircap moss

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jack-in-the-pulpit (Arisaema triphyllum)


James’ monkeyflower (Mimulus glabratus var. jamesii)


James’ polanisia (Polanisia jamesii)


James’ sedge (Carex jamesii)

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Japanese barberry (Berberis thunbergii)

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Japanese hedge parsley (Torilis japonica)

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Japanese hop (Humulus japonicus)

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Japanese knotweed (Reynoutria japonica)


Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi)

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Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus)

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jeweled shooting star (Primula fassettii)


jointed rush (Juncus articulatus)

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jumpseed (Persicaria virginiana)

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June grass (Koeleria macrantha)

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juniper haircap moss (Polytrichum juniperinum)










































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Kalm’s lobelia (Lobelia kalmii)

Kalm’s lobelia

Kentucky coffee tree

kidney-leaved buttercup

kidney-leaved violet



Kennedy’s blackberry (Rubus kennedyanus)


Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis ssp. pratensis)

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Kentucky coffee tree (Gymnocladus dioicus)


kidney-leaved buttercup (Ranunculus abortivus)

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kidney-leaved violet (Viola renifolia)


king devil hawkweed (Pilosella piloselloides)


Kinnickinnick dewberry (Rubus multifer)

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kittentails (Veronica bullii)


knotted pearlwort (Sagina nodosa ssp. borealis)


knotted rush (Juncus nodosus)
















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Labrador Indian paintbrush (Castilleja septentrionalis)

northern lady fern

lance-leaf coreopsis

lance-leaf fog-fruit

large yellow lady’s slipper

large-flowered beardtongue

large-flowered bellwort

large-flowered trillium

shorthair goldenrod

late horse-gentian


leafy spurge


lesser bladderwort

lesser fringed gentian (ssp. virgata)

lesser fringed gentian (ssp. virgata)

Lewis flax

lily-leaved twayblade

limber honeysuckle

Lindley’s aster

little bluestem


liverleaf wintergreen

Lombardy poplar

London planetree

long-beaked sedge

long-bearded hawkweed

long-headed coneflower

longleaf groundcherry

long-leaved bluet

long-spine sandbur

Louisiana bladderpod

lowbush blueberry

lowland hog peanut

lyre-leaved rock cress


lacy tansyaster (Machaeranthera pinnatifida var. pinnatifida)


ladies’ tresses (Spiranthes sp.)

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lady fern (Athyrium filix-femina)


lake sedge (Carex lacustris)


lance self-heal (Prunella vulgaris ssp. lanceolata)

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lance-leaf coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolata)

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lance-leaf fog-fruit (Phyla lanceolata)


lance-leaved ragweed (Ambrosia bidenta)


lance-leaved violet (Viola lanceolata ssp. lanceolata)


Lapland buttercup (Ranunculus lapponicus)


large cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon)


large field chickweed (Cerastium velutinum)

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large yellow lady’s slipper (Cypripedium parviflorum var. pubescens)


large yellow water crowfoot (Ranunculus flabellaris)


largebract ticktrefoil (Desmodium cuspidatum var. cuspidatum)


largebract ticktrefoil (Desmodium cuspidatum var. longifolium)


largebract ticktrefoil (Desmodium cuspidatum)

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large-flowered beardtongue (Penstemon grandiflorus)

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large-flowered bellwort (Uvularia grandiflora)

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large-flowered trillium (Trillium grandiflorum)


large-fruited black snakeroot (Sanicula trifoliata)


large-leaved avens (Geum macrophyllum var. perincisum)


large-leaved pondweed (Potamogeton amplifolius)


large-leaved sandwort (Moehringia macrophylla)


larger Canadian St. Johnswort (Hypericum majus)


large-thorned hawthorn (Crataegus macracantha)


late figwort (Scrophularia marilandica)

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late goldenrod (Solidago altissima)


late hawthorn (Crataegus calpodendron)

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late horse gentian (Triosteum perfoliatum)


Laurent’s cliff fern (Woodsia scopulina ssp. laurentiana)

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leadplant (Amorpha canescens)


leafy false goldenaster (Heterotheca villosa var. foliosa)


leafy pondweed (Potamogeton foliosus ssp. foliosus)

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leafy spurge (Euphorbia virgata)


least moonwort (Botrychium simplex)

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leatherleaf (Chamaedaphne calyculata)


Leiberg’s panic grass (Dichanthelium leibergii)


Leidberg’s waterlily (Nymphaea leibergii)


Leonard’s skullcap (Scutellaria parvula var. missouriensis)


lesser bladderwort (Utricularia minor)


lesser clearweed (Pilea fontana)

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lesser fringed gentian (Gentianopsis virgata ssp. virgata)

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lesser fringed gentian (Gentianopsis virgata)

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Lewis flax (Linum lewisii var. lewisii)


licorice bedstraw (Galium circaezans var. hypomalacum)


light poppy mallow (Callirhoe alcaeoides)


lily of the valley (Convallaria majalis)

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lily-leaved twayblade (Liparis liliifolia)

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limber honeysuckle (Lonicera dioica)


limestone meadow sedge (Carex granularis)


limp white water crowfoot (Ranunculus aquatilis var. diffusus)


Lindheimer panic grass (Dichanthelium acuminatum var. lindheimeri)

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Lindley’s aster (Symphyotrichum ciliolatum)


linear-leaved panic grass (Dichanthelium linearifolium)


little barley (Hordeum pusillum)

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little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium)


little goblin moonwort (Botrychium mormo)


littleleaf linden (Tilia cordata)


littleleaf pussytoes (Antennaria microphylla)

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live-forever (Hylotelephium telephium ssp. telephium)

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liverleaf wintergreen (Pyrola asarifolia ssp. asarifolia)

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Lombardy poplar (Populus nigra var. italica)

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London planetree (Platanus × hispanica)

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long-beaked sedge (Carex sprengelii)

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long-bearded hawkweed (Hieracium longipilum)

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long-headed coneflower (Ratibida columnifera)

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long-leaved bluet (Houstonia longifolia)


long-leaved chickweed (Stellaria longifolia)


long-leaved pondweed (Potamogeton nodosus)


long-petioled showy goldenrod (Solidago jejunifolia)

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long-spine sandbur (Cenchrus longispinus)


long-spurred violet (Viola rostrata)


long-stalk sedge (Carex pedunculata)


long-stalked panic grass (Dichanthelium perlongum)


long-stalked starwort (Stellaria longipes ssp. longipes)


long-styled black snakeroot (Sanicula canadensis var. grandis)

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longbract frog orchid (Dactylorhiza viridis)


longflower beeblossom (Gaura longiflora)


longleaf arnica (Arnica lonchophylla)

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longleaf groundcherry (Physalis longifolia)


lotus milkvetch (Astragalus lotiflorus)

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Louisiana bladderpod (Physaria ludoviciana)


Louisiana broomrape (Orobanche ludoviciana ssp. ludoviciana)


low bindweed (Calystegia spithamaea)


low serviceberry (Amelanchier humilis)

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lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium)


lowland brittle fern (Cystopteris protrusa)

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lowland hog peanut (Amphicarpaea bracteata var. comosa)


lowland rotala (Rotala ramosior)


luminous moss (Schistostega pennata)




















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Macoun’s buttercup (Ranunculus macounii)








marsh bellflower

marsh grass of Parnassus

marsh hedge nettle

marsh skullcap

marsh vetchling

Maryland black snakeroot

Maximilian’s sunflower


meadow garlic

meadow salsify

Michigan lily


Minnesota dwarf trout lily

Missouri gooseberry

moist sowthistle

Morrow’s honeysuckle

moss phlox

moss (Division Bryophyta)

mountain death camas

mountain death camas (var. elegans)

mountain maple

mouse-ear hawkweed

Muhlenberg’s sedge

musk thistle

musk thistle (ssp. leiophyllus)

musk thistle (ssp. macrocephalus)


Macoun’s cudweed (Pseudognaphalium macounii)


Macoun’s fringed gentian (Gentianopsis virgata ssp. macounii)


Macoun’s reedgrass (Calamagrostis canadensis var. macouniana)


Magellan’s peatmoss (Sphagnum magellanicum)


maiden pink (Dianthus deltoides)


maidenhair pocket moss (Fissidens adianthoides)


maidenhair spleenwort (Asplenium trichomanes ssp. trichomanes)


Manchurian lilac (Syringa pubescens ssp. patula)


Manchurian pear (Pyrus ussuriensis)


manyflowered aster (Symphyotrichum ericoides var. pansum)


many-headed sedge (Carex sychnocephala)


mapleleaf goosefoot (Chenopodium simplex)


marbleseed (Lithospermum spp.)


marijuana (Cannabis sativa ssp. indica)

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marijuana (Cannabis sativa var. sativa)


marsh arrow-grass (Triglochin palustris)

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marsh bellflower (Campanula aparinoides)

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marsh blue violet (Viola cucullata)


marsh cinquefoil (Comarum palustre)

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marsh grass of Parnassus (Parnassia palustris)

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marsh hedge nettle (Stachys palustris)


marsh horsetail (Equisetum palustre)


marsh muhly (Muhlenbergia racemosa)

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marsh skullcap (Scutellaria galericulata)

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marsh vetchling (Lathyrus palustris)

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Maryland black snakeroot (Sanicula marilandica)


mat muhly (Muhlenbergia richardsonis)


mat panic grass (Dichanthelium acuminatum var. implicatum)


matricary grapefern (Botrychium matricariifolium)

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Maximilian’s sunflower (Helianthus maximiliani)

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May-apple (Podophyllum peltatum)


McCalla’s willow (Salix maccalliana)


Mead’s sedge (Carex meadii)


meadow fescue (Schedonorus pratensis)

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meadow garlic (Allium canadense var. canadense)

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meadow geranium (Geranium pratense)


meadow hawkweed (Pilosella caespitosa)


meadow horsetail (Equisetum pratense)

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meadow salsify (Tragopogon pratensis)


Mexican dock (Rumex triangulivalvis)


Michaux’s sedge (Carex michauxiana)

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Michigan lily (Lilium michiganense)

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milkweeds (Asclepias spp.)


Mingan moonwort (Botrychium minganense)

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Minnesota dwarf trout lily (Erythronium propullans)


Minnesota wildrye (Elymus diversiglumis)


mint-leaved bergamot (Monarda fistulosa var. menthifolia)


Missouri dewberry (Rubus missouricus)


Missouri goldenrod (Solidago missouriensis)

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Missouri gooseberry (Ribes missouriense)


Missouri milkvetch (Astragalus missouriensis var. missouriensis)

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moist sowthistle (Sonchus arvensis ssp. uliginosus)


money plant (Lunaria annua)


moor rush (Juncus stygius var. americanus)


mophead hydrangea (Hydrangea macrophylla)

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Morrow’s honeysuckle (Lonicera morrowii)


moschatel (Adoxa moschatellina)

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moss phlox (Phlox subulata ssp. subulata)

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mosses (Division Bryophyta)


moth mullein (Verbascum blattaria)


mountain alder (Alnus alnobetula ssp. crispa)


mountain blackberry (Rubus ablatus)

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mountain death camas (Anticlea elegans)

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mountain death camas (Anticlea elegans var. elegans)


mountain fly honeysuckle (Lonicera villosa)


mountain juneberry (Amelanchier bartramiana)

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mountain maple (Acer spicatum)


mouse-ear chickweed (Cerastium fontanum ssp. vulgare)


mouse-ear cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)

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mouse-ear hawkweed (Pilosella officinarum)


mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris)

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Muhlenberg’s sedge (Carex muehlenbergii var. muehlenbergii)


multiflora rose (Rosa multiflora)

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musk thistle (Carduus nutans)

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musk thistle (Carduus nutans ssp. leiophyllus)

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musk thistle (Carduus nutans ssp. macrocephalus)


musk thistle (Carduus nutans ssp. macrolepis)


Muskingum sedge (Carex muskingumensis)


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naked miterwort (Mitella nuda)


narrow-leaved cattail

narrow-leaved hawk’s-beard

narrow-leaved meadowsweet

narrow-leaved New Jersey tea

narrow-leaved purple coneflower

narrow-leaved vervain

New England aster

New Jersey tea

nodding bur marigold

nodding spurge

nodding trillium

nodding wild onion

northern bedstraw

northern blue flag

northern bugleweed

northern bush-honeysuckle

northern catalpa

northern groundcedar

northern hackberry

northern lady fern

northern maidenhair

northern pin oak

northern plains blazing star

northern prickly ash

northern purple pitcherplant

northern red oak

northern shagbark hickory

northern small yellow lady’s slipper

northern starflower

northern white cedar

northern wild comfrey

Norway maple

Norway spruce

Nuttall’s evening primrose

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nannyberry (Viburnum lentago)


narrow mushroom-headed liverwort (Preissia quadrata)


narrow triangle moonwort (Botrychium lanceolatum ssp. angustisegmentum)


narrowleaf cow wheat (Melampyrum lineare)


narrowleaf cow wheat (Melampyrum lineare var. latifolium)


narrowleaf cow wheat (Melampyrum lineare var. lineare)


narrowleaf dock (Rumex stenophyllus)


narrowleaf goosefoot (Chenopodium desiccatum)


narrow-leaf mountain trumpet (Collomia linearis)


narrowleaf peatmoss (Sphagnum angustifolium)


narrow-leaved blue-eyed-grass (Sisyrinchium angustifolium)

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narrow-leaved cattail (Typha angustifolia)


narrow-leaved four o’clock (Mirabilis linearis)

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narrow-leaved hawk’s-beard (Crepis tectorum)


narrow-leaved hawkweed (Hieracium umbellatum)

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narrow-leaved meadowsweet (Spiraea alba var. alba)


narrow-leaved milkweed (Asclepias stenophylla)


narrow-leaved mountain mint (Pycnanthemum tenuifolium)

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narrow-leaved New Jersey tea (Ceanothus herbaceus)


narrow-leaved pinweed (Lechea tenuifolia)

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narrow-leaved purple coneflower (Echinacea angustifolia)

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narrow-leaved vervain (Verbena simplex)


narrow-leaved water plantain (Alisma gramineum)


narrow-leaved wild leek (Allium tricoccum var. burdickii)


narrow-leaved willow herb (Epilobium leptophyllum)


narrow-panicle rush (Juncus brevicaudatus)


necklace sedge (Carex ormostachya)


neckweed (Veronica peregrina ssp. peregrina)


needle-and-thread (Hesperostipa comata ssp. comata)


needleleaf sedge (Carex duriuscula)


needle-tip blue-eyed-grass (Sisyrinchium mucronatum)


nerveless woodland sedge (Carex leptonervia)

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New England aster (Symphyotrichum novae-angliae)


New England sedge (Carex novae-angliae)

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New Jersey tea (Ceanothus americanus)


New York scalewort (Frullania eboracensis)


night-flowering catchfly (Silene noctiflora)


nimblewill (Muhlenbergia schreberi)


nipplewort (Lapsana communis)

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nodding bur marigold (Bidens cernua)


nodding chickweed (Cerastium nutans)


nodding fescue (Festuca subverticillata)


nodding sedge (Carex gynandra)

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nodding spurge (Euphorbia nutans)

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nodding trillium (Trillium cernuum)

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nodding wild onion (Allium cernuum var. cernuum)


northern adder’s tongue (Ophioglossum pusillum)


northern arrowwood (Viburnum recognitum)

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northern bedstraw (Galium boreale)


northern beech fern (Phegopteris connectilis)


northern black currant (Ribes hudsonianum)

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northern blue flag (Iris versicolor)


northern bog aster (Symphyotrichum boreale)


northern bog bedstraw (Galium labradoricum)


northern bog goldenrod (Solidago uliginosa)


northern bog violet (Viola nephrophylla)

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northern bugleweed (Lycopus uniflorus)

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northern bush honeysuckle (Diervilla lonicera)

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northern catalpa (Catalpa speciosa)


northern dewberry (Rubus flagellaris)


northern evening primrose (Oenothera parviflora)


northern firmoss (Huperzia selago)


northern gentian (Gentianella amarella ssp. acuta)


northern green orchid (Platanthera aquilonis)


northern green rush (Juncus alpinoarticulatus)

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northern groundcedar (Diphasiastrum complanatum)

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northern hackberry (Celtis occidentalis)

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northern lady fern (Athyrium filix-femina var. angustum)

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northern maidenhair (Adiantum pedatum)


northern meadow groundsel (Packera paupercula var. paupercula)


northern oak fern (Gymnocarpium robertianum)


northern peatmoss (Sphagnum capillifolium)

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northern pin oak (Quercus ellipsoidalis)

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northern plains blazing star (Liatris ligulistylis)

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northern prickly ash (Zanthoxylum americanum)

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northern purple pitcherplant (Sarracenia purpurea ssp. purpurea)

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northern red oak (Quercus rubra)


northern reed grass (Calamagrostis stricta ssp. inexpansa)


northern sagewort (Artemisia borealis)

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northern shagbark hickory (Carya ovata)


northern shorthusk (Brachyelytrum aristosum)


northern singlespike sedge (Carex scirpoidea ssp. scirpoidea)

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northern small yellow lady’s slipper (Cypripedium parviflorum var. makasin)


northern spikemoss (Selaginella selaginoides)


northern St. Johnswort (Hypericum boreale)

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northern starflower (Lysimachia borealis)


northern sweetgrass (Anthoxanthum hirtum)


northern water plantain (Alisma triviale)


northern water-milfoil (Myriophyllum sibiricum)

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northern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis)

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northern wild comfrey (Andersonglossum boreale)


northern wild rice (Zizania palustris var. interior)


northern wild rice (Zizania palustris var. palustris)


northern willow herb (Epilobium ciliatum ssp. glandulosum)


northern winter cress (Barbarea orthoceras)


northern yellow-eyed grass (Xyris montana)


northwest cinquefoil (Potentilla gracilis var. fastigiata)


northwestern lady fern (Athyrium filix-femina ssp. cyclosorum)

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Norway maple (Acer platanoides)

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Norway spruce (Picea abies)


Norwegian whitlowgrass (Draba norvegica var. norvegica)


Nuttall’s alkali grass (Puccinellia nuttalliana)

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Nuttall’s evening primrose (Oenothera nuttallii)


Nuttall’s little rose (Chamaerhodos erecta ssp. nuttallii)


Nuttall’s violet (Viola nuttallii)


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Oakes’ pondweed (Potamogeton oakesianus)

obedient plant

common obedient plant

Ohio buckeye

Ohio spiderwort

one-flowered wintergreen

one-sided wintergreen

orange daylily

orange hawkweed

ostrich fern

oval-leaf milkweed

oxeye daisy


Oakes’ scalewort (Frullania oakesiana)


oakleaf goosefoot (Chenopodium glaucum)

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obedient plant (Physostegia virginiana)

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obedient plant (Physostegia virginiana ssp. virginiana)

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Ohio buckeye (Aesculus glabra var. glabra)

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Ohio spiderwort (Tradescantia ohiensis)


oldfield blackberry (Rubus alumnus)


one-cone clubmoss (Lycopodium lagopus)


one-flowered broomrape (Orobanche uniflora)

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one-flowered wintergreen (Moneses uniflora)


onerow yellowcress (Rorippa microphylla)

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one-sided wintergreen (Orthilia secunda)


Ontario aster (Symphyotrichum ontarionis)

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orange daylily (Hemerocallis fulva)

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orange hawkweed (Pilosella aurantiaca)


orange peatmoss (Sphagnum subsecundum)


orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata ssp. glomerata)


oregano (Origanum vulgare)


Oregon woodsia (Woodsia oregana ssp. cathcartiana)


Oriental bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus)

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ostrich fern (Matteuccia struthiopteris var. pensylvanica)


oval-headed sedge (Carex cephalophora)

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oval-leaf milkweed (Asclepias ovalifolia)


owlfruit sedge (Carex stipata var. stipata)

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oxeye daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare)



















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pagoda dogwood (Cornus alternifolia)

pagoda dogwood

pale agoseris

pale touch-me-not

paleleaf woodland sunflower

palespike lobelia

palespike lobelia (var. spicata)

paper birch

Parlin’s pussytoes

partridge pea

pearly everlasting

Pennsylvania buttercup

Pennsylvania sedge

Pennsylvania smartweed

perennial sow thistle

Philadelphia fleabane

pin cherry

pincushion moss


pink lady’s slipper


plains coreopsis

plains cottonwood

plains prickly pear

plains snake-cotton

plantain-leaved pussytoes

pleated gentian

plumeless thistle

pointed-leaved tick-trefoil

poison sumac

poke milkweed

ponderosa pine

porcupine grass

prairie alumroot

prairie blazing star

prairie blue-eyed grass

prairie bush clover

prairie buttercup

prairie cordgrass

prairie coreopsis

prairie crabapple

prairie dock

prairie dropseed

prairie false dandelion

prairie fleabane

prairie fleabane (var. strigosus)

prairie goldenrod

prairie groundsel

prairie ironweed

prairie ironweed (ssp. fasciculata)

prairie larkspur

prairie lettuce

prairie onion

prairie peppergrass

prairie rose

prairie sagewort

prairie shooting star

prairie smoke

prairie spiderwort

prairie sunflower

prairie turnip

prairie violet

prickly lettuce

prickly rose

prickly sow thistle

prickly tree clubmoss

prostrate knotweed

purple coneflower (Echinacea sp.)

purple giant hyssop

purple locoweed

purple loosestrife

purple lovegrass

purple meadow rue

purple prairie clover

purple rattlesnake root

purpleleaf willowherb

purple-stem angelica

purple-stem beggarticks

pussy willow


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pale agoseris (Agoseris glauca var. glauca)


pale bastard toadflax (Comandra umbellata ssp. pallida)


pale bulrush (Scirpus pallidus)


pale corydalis (Capnoides sempervirens)


pale dock (Rumex altissimus)


pale false mannagrass (Torreyochloa pallida var. pallida)


pale green orchid (Platanthera flava var. herbiola)

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pale Indian plantain (Arnoglossum atriplicifolium)


pale moonwort (Botrychium pallidum)


pale purple coneflower (Echinacea pallida)


pale sedge (Carex pallescens)


pale spikerush (Eleocharis macrostachya)


pale St. Johnswort (Hypericum ellipticum)

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pale touch-me-not (Impatiens pallida)

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paleleaf woodland sunflower (Helianthus strumosus)

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palespike lobelia (Lobelia spicata)


palespike lobelia (Lobelia spicata var. campanulata)


palespike lobelia (Lobelia spicata var. hirtella)

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palespike lobelia (Lobelia spicata var. spicata)


palmate sweet coltsfoot (Petasites frigidus var. palmatus)


panicled aster (Symphyotrichum lanceolatum)


panicled bulrush (Scirpus microcarpus)

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paper birch (Betula papyrifera var. papyrifera)


papillose peatmoss (Sphagnum papillosum)

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Parlin’s pussytoes (Antennaria parlinii)

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partridge pea (Chamaecrista fasciculata var. fasciculata)


path rush (Juncus tenuis)


peachleaf willow (Salix amygdaloides)


pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum)

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pearly everlasting (Anaphalis margaritacea)


Peck’s yellow violet (Viola pubescens var. peckii)


Pennsylvania bitter-cress (Cardamine pensylvanica)

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Pennsylvania buttercup (Ranunculus pensylvanicus)


Pennsylvania cinquefoil (Potentilla pensylvanica)


Pennsylvania pellitory (Parietaria pensylvanica)

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Pennsylvania sedge (Carex pensylvanica)

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Pennsylvania smartweed (Persicaria pensylvanica)


peppermint (Mentha x piperita)


perennial evening primrose (Oenothera perennis)


perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne)

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perennial sow thistle (Sonchus arvensis)

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Philadelphia fleabane (Erigeron philadelphicus var. philadelphicus)


Philbert’s fern moss (Thuidium assimile)

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pin cherry (Prunus pensylvanica)

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pincushion moss (Leucobryum glaucum)

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pineapple-weed (Matricaria discoidea)


pinesap (Monotropa hypopitys)

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pink lady’s slipper (Cypripedium acaule)

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pipsissewa (Chimaphila umbellata ssp. cisatlantica)


plains blackberry (Rubus ablatus)


plains bluegrass (Poa arida)

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plains coreopsis (Coreopsis tinctoria var. tinctoria)

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plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides ssp. molinifera)


plains muhly (Muhlenbergia cuspidata)

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plains prickly pear (Opuntia macrorhiza)


plains reed grass (Calamagrostis montanensis)

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plains snake-cotton (Froelichia floridana var. campestris)


plains wild indigo (Baptisia bracteata var. glabrescens)


plait-leaf dewberry (Rubus plicatifolius)


plantainleaf sedge (Carex plantaginea)

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plantain-leaved pussytoes (Antennaria plantaginifolia)

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pleated gentian (Gentiana affinis)

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plumeless thistle (Carduus acanthoides ssp. acanthoides)


plumleaf crabapple (Malus prunifolia)


pointed broom sedge (Carex scoparia)


pointed-leaved tick-trefoil (Hylodesmum glutinosum)


poison hemlock (Conium maculatum)

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poison sumac (Toxicodendron vernix)

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poke milkweed (Asclepias exaltata)

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ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa)

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porcupine grass (Hesperostipa spartea)


porcupine sedge (Carex hystericina)


potato dwarfdandelion (Krigia dandelion)


Powell’s amaranth (Amaranthus powellii)

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prairie alumroot (Heuchera richardsonii)

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prairie blazing star (Liatris pycnostachya var. pycnostachya)

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prairie blue-eyed grass (Sisyrinchium campestre)

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prairie bush clover (Lespedeza leptostachya)

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prairie buttercup (Ranunculus rhomboideus)

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prairie cordgrass (Sporobolus michauxianus)

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prairie coreopsis (Coreopsis palmata)

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prairie crabapple (Malus ioensis)

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prairie dock (Silphium terebinthinaceum var. terebinthinaceum)

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prairie dropseed (Sporobolus heterolepis)

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prairie false dandelion (Nothocalais cuspidata)


prairie fleabane (Erigeron strigosus)


prairie fleabane (Erigeron strigosus var. septentrionalis)


prairie fleabane (Erigeron strigosus var. strigosus)

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prairie goldenrod (Solidago ptarmicoides)

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prairie groundsel (Packera plattensis)

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prairie ironweed (Vernonia fasciculata)

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prairie ironweed (Vernonia fasciculata ssp. fasciculata)

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prairie larkspur (Delphinium carolinianum ssp. virescens)

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prairie lettuce (Lactuca ludoviciana)


prairie milkvetch (Astragalus laxmannii var. robustior)


prairie milkweed (Asclepias hirtella)


prairie mimosa (Desmanthus illinoensis)


prairie moonwort (Botrychium campestre)

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prairie onion (Allium stellatum)


prairie parsley (Polytaenia nuttallii)

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prairie peppergrass (Lepidium densiflorum)


prairie pinweed (Lechea stricta)

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prairie rose (Rosa arkansana)


prairie rose (Rosa arkansana var. arkansana)


prairie rose (Rosa arkansana var. suffulta)

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prairie sagewort (Artemisia frigida)


prairie sandreed (Calamovilfa longifolia var. longifolia)


prairie sedge (Carex prairea)

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prairie shooting star (Primula meadia)

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prairie smoke (Geum triflorum var. triflorum)

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prairie spiderwort (Tradescantia occidentalis var. occidentalis)

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prairie sunflower (Helianthus petiolaris ssp. petiolaris)


prairie thermopsis (Thermopsis rhombifolia)


prairie trillium (Trillium recurvatum)

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prairie turnip (Pediomelum esculentum)

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prairie violet (Viola pedatifida)


prairie wedge grass (Sphenopholis obtusata)


prairie willow (Salix humilis)


prairie willow (Salix humilis var. humilis)


prairie willow (Salix humilis var. tristis)

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prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola)


prickly quill sedge (Carex echinodes)

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prickly rose (Rosa acicularis ssp. sayi)


prickly Russian thistle (Salsola tragus)

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prickly sow thistle (Sonchus asper)

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prickly tree clubmoss (Dendrolycopodium dendroideum)

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prostrate knotweed (Polygonum aviculare)


purple avens (Geum rivale)


purple cliff brake (Pellaea atropurpurea)

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purple coneflower (Echinacea spp.)


purple cress (Cardamine douglasii)


purple crowberry (Empetrum atropurpureum)


purple false foxglove (Agalinis purpurea var. purpurea)

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purple giant hyssop (Agastache scrophulariifolia)


purple locoweed (Oxytropis lambertii var. lambertii)

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purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria)


purple lovegrass (Eragrostis spectabilis)


purple meadow parsnip (Thaspium trifoliatum)

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purple meadow-rue (Thalictrum dasycarpum)

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purple milkweed (Asclepias purpurascens)

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purple prairie clover (Dalea purpurea var. purpurea)


purple rattlesnake root (Nabalus racemosus)


purple rocket (Iodanthus pinnatifidus)


purple sand grass (Triplasis purpurea)


purple-head sneezeweed (Helenium flexuosum)


purple-leaf willowherb (Epilobium coloratum)

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purple-stem angelica (Angelica atropurpurea)


purple-stem aster (Symphyotrichum puniceum var. puniceum)

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purple-stem beggarticks (Bidens connata)


purpletop tridens (Tridens flavus var. flavus)

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pussy willow (Salix discolor)

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puttyroot (Aplectrum hyemale)


pygmy-flower rock-jasmine (Androsace septentrionalis)












































































































































































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quackgrass (Elymus repens)

quaking aspen

Quebec hawthorn

Queen Anne’s lace

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quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides)

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Quebec hawthorn (Crataegus submollis)

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Queen Anne’s lace (Daucus carota ssp. carota)


quill sedge (Carex tenera)


quill spikerush (Eleocharis nitida)






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rabbit’s foot clover (Trifolium arvense)

rabbit’s foot clover


racemed milkwort

rattlesnake fern

rattlesnake master

red baneberry

red clover

red elderberry

red hickory

red maple

red mulberry

red osier dogwood

red pine

redroot amaranth

red-seeded dandelion


red three-awn

redwhisker clammyweed

reed canary grass

Riddell’s goldenrod

roadside agrimony

Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir

rope dodder

rose (Rosa sp.)

rose twisted-stalk

rough avens

rough barnyard grass

rough barnyard grass (var. microstachya)

rough barnyard grass (var. muricata)

rough bentgrass

rough blazing star

rough blazing star (var. aspera)

rough blazing star (f. benkei)

rough blazing star (var.  intermedia)

rough bugleweed

rough cinquefoil

rough cocklebur

rough false pennyroyal

rough-fruit amaranth

redwhisker clammyweed

rough-seeded fameflower

round-headed bush clover

roundleaf greenbrier

round-leaved dogwood

round-lobed hepatica

rue anemone

running clubmoss

Russian olive

Rydberg’s sunflower

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rabbit-tobacco (Pseudognaphalium obtusifolium)

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racemed milkwort (Polygala polygama)


ragged fringed orchid (Platanthera lacera)


ram’s head lady’s slipper (Cypripedium arietinum)

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rattlesnake fern (Botrypus virginianus)


rattlesnake mannagrass (Glyceria canadensis)

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rattlesnake master (Eryngium yuccifolium var. yuccifolium)


recurved blackberry (Rubus recurvans)

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red baneberry (Actaea rubra ssp. rubra)

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red clover (Trifolium pratense)


red deadnettle (Lamium purpureum)

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red elderberry (Sambucus racemosa var. racemosa)


red goosefoot (Chenopodium rubrum)


red hickory (Carya ovalis)

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red maple (Acer rubrum var. rubrum)

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red mulberry (Morus rubra)

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red osier dogwood (Cornus sericea ssp. sericea)


red peatmoss (Sphagnum rubellum)

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red pine (Pinus resinosa)


red saltwort (Salicornia rubra)

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red three-awn (Aristida purpurea var. longiseta)

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redroot amaranth (Amaranthus retroflexus)

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red-seeded dandelion (Taraxacum erythrospermum)

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redshank (Ceratodon purpureus)


redtop (Agrostis gigantea)

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redwhisker clammyweed (Polanisia dodecandra ssp. dodecandra)

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reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea)


retrorse sedge (Carex retrorsa)


rhombic evening primrose (Oenothera rhombipetala)


rhubarb (Rheum rhabarbarum)


rice cutgrass (Leersia oryzoides)


Richardson’s pondweed (Potamogeton richardsonii)


Richardson’s tansy mustard (Descurainia incana)

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Riddell’s goldenrod (Solidago riddellii)


ridge-seeded spurge (Euphorbia glyptosperma)


rigid bogmoss (Sphagnum teres)


rigid sedge (Carex tetanica)


river birch (Betula nigra)


river bulrush (Bolboschoenus fluviatilis)


river scalewort (Frullania riparia)

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roadside agrimony (Agrimonia striata)


roadside pepperweed (Lepidium ruderale)


Robbins' pondweed (Potamogeton robbinsii)


Robert’s geranium (Geranium robertianum)


Robin’s plantain (Erigeron pulchellus)


Robin’s plantain (Erigeron pulchellus var. pulchellus)


robust toothcup (Ammannia robusta)


rock clubmoss (Huperzia porophila)

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rock elm (Ulmus thomasii)


rock sandwort (Minuartia dawsonensis)


rock spikemoss (Selaginella rupestris)


rock whitlow-grass (Draba arabisans)

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Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca)

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rope dodder (Cuscuta glomerata)


rose (Family Rosaceae)

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rose (Rosa spp.)


rose blackberry (Rubus rosa)


rose pogonia (Pogonia ophioglossoides)

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rose twisted-stalk (Streptopus lanceolatus var. longipipes)


Ross’ sedge (Carex rossii)


rosy sedge (Carex rosea)

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rough avens (Geum laciniatum)

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rough barnyard grass (Echinochloa muricata)


rough barnyard grass (Echinochloa muricata var. microstachya)


rough barnyard grass (Echinochloa muricata var. muricata)


rough bedstraw (Galium asprellum)

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rough bentgrass (Agrostis scabra)

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rough blazing star (Liatris aspera)

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rough blazing star (Liatris aspera var. aspera f. benkei)

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rough blazing star (Liatris aspera var. aspera)

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rough blazing star (Liatris aspera var. intermedia)

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rough bugleweed (Lycopus asper)

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rough cinquefoil (Potentilla norvegica)

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rough cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium)


rough dropseed (Sporobolus compositus)


rough false foxglove (Agalinis aspera)


rough false pennyroyal (Hedeoma hispida)


rough hawkweed (Hieracium scabrum)


rough rattlesnake root (Nabalus asper)

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rough-fruit amaranth (Amaranthus tuberculatus)


rough-fruited fairybells (Prosartes trachycarpa)


roughleaf ricegrass (Oryzopsis asperifolia)


rough-leaved goldenrod (Solidago patula)


rough-leaved hawthorn (Crataegus scabrida)

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roughseed clammyweed (Polanisia dodecandra)

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rough-seeded fameflower (Phemeranthus rugospermus)


rounded tongue moss (Anomodon minor)

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round-headed bush clover (Lespedeza capitata)

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roundleaf greenbrier (Smilax rotundifolia)


roundleaf orchid (Galearis rotundifolia)


roundleaf serviceberry (Amelanchier sanguinea)

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round-leaved dogwood (Cornus rugosa)


round-leaved mallow (Malva rotundifolia)


round-leaved sundew (Drosera rotundifolia)

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round-lobed hepatica (Anemone americana)


round-spike brownish sedge (Carex brunnescens ssp. sphaerostachya)


roundstem false foxglove (Agalinis gattingeri)


royal fern (Osmunda regalis var. spectabilis)

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rue anemone (Thalictrum thalictroides)

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running clubmoss (Lycopodium clavatum)


rush skeletonplant (Lygodesmia juncea)


russet buffaloberry (Shepherdia canadensis)

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Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia)


Russow’s peatmoss (Sphagnum russowii)


rusty woodsia (Woodsia ilvensis)

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Rydberg’s sunflower (Helianthus nuttallii ssp. rydbergii)



























































































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sage-leaved willow (Salix candida)

sawtooth sunflower


scarlet Indian paintbrush (f. coccinea)

Scots pine

scouring rush horsetail

seaside three-awn

Seneca snakeroot

sensitive fern

sessile-leaf bellwort

shaggy soldier

sharp-lobed hepatica

shining bedstraw


shorthair goldenrod

showy goldenrod species complex

showy goldenrod

Showy Lady’s Slipper

showy milkweed

showy orchis

shrubby cinquefoil

shy wallflower

Siberian elm

Siberian squill


sideoats grama

silky aster

silky dogwood

silky prairie clover

silver maple


silvergreen bryum moss

silverleaf scurfpea


silvery cinquefoil

skunk cabbage

slender beardtongue

slender-leaf false foxglove

slippery elm

small purple fringed orchid

small white lady’s slipper

small-spike false nettle

S/smooth_blue_aster_02smooth blue aster

smooth brome

smooth carrionflower

smooth hedge nettle

smooth oxeye

smooth rose

smooth scouring rush

smooth Solomon’s seal

smooth sumac

smooth yellow violet

snakeskin liverwort

snow trillium

soft wild bergamot

softhair marbleseed

solidstem burnet saxifrage

southern blue flag

speckled alder

sphagnum moss (Sphagnum sp.)

Sphinx ladies’ tresses

spinulose wood fern

spotted beebalm

spotted Joe Pye weed

spotted knapweed

spotted lady’s thumb

spotted spurge

spotted touch-me-not

spotted water hemlock

spreading dogbane

spreading Jacob’s ladder

spring cress

spring speedwell

staghorn sumac

starry campion

starry false Solomon's seal


sterile sedge

stiff goldenrod

stiff goldenrod (ssp. rigida)

stiff sunflower (ssp. subrhomboideus)

stiff sunflower (ssp. subrhomboideus)

stiffleaf false golden aster

stiff-leaved showy goldenrod

stringy stonecrop

sugar maple

sugar maple (ssp. saccharum)

Sullivant’s milkweed

sulphur cinquefoil

Sundiial Lupine

swamp betony

swamp milkweed

swamp thistle

swamp white oak

sweet woodruff


sand cherry (Prunus pumila)


sand dropseed (Sporobolus cryptandrus)


sandbar willow (Salix interior)


sandyseed clammyweed (Polanisia dodecandra ssp. trachysperma)


Sartwell’s sedge (Carex sartwellii)


satiny willow (Salix pellita)


savanna balsam groundsel (Packera paupercula var. savannarum)

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sawtooth sunflower (Helianthus grosseserratus)


sawtooth wormwood (Artemisia serrata)

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scalewort (Frullania spp.)


scarlet beeblossom (Oenothera suffrutescens)


scarlet hawthorn (Crataegus coccinea)

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scarlet Indian paintbrush (Castilleja coccinea)


scarlet toothcup (Ammannia coccinea)


Scotch false asphodel (Tofieldia pusilla)

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Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris)


Scouler’s popcorn flower (Plagiobothrys scouleri)

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scouring rush horsetail (Equisetum hyemale ssp. affine)


scrambled eggs (Corydalis aurea ssp. aurea)


scratchgrass (Muhlenbergia asperifolia)


Scribner’s panic grass (Dichanthelium oligosanthes ssp. scribnerianum)


seaside arrowgrass (Triglochin maritima)

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seaside three-awn (Aristida tuberculosa)


Selwyn’s scalewort (Frullania selwyniana)

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Seneca snakeroot (Polygala senega)

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sensitive fern (Onoclea sensibilis)


serviceberries (Amelanchier spp.)


sessile-flowered yellow cress (Rorippa sessiliflora)


sessile-fruited arrowhead (Sagittaria rigida)

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sessile-leaf bellwort (Uvularia sessilifolia)


setose blackberry (Rubus groutianus)

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shaggy soldier (Galinsoga quadriradiata)

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sharp-lobed hepatica (Anemone acutiloba)


sharp-toothed blackberry (Rubus acridens)


shepherd’s purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris)


Sherard’s waterhorehound (Lycopus × sherardii)

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shining bedstraw (Galium concinnum)


shining clubmoss (Huperzia lucidula)


shining willow (Salix lucida ssp. lucida)

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shinleaf (Pyrola elliptica)


short ray fleabane (Erigeron lonchophyllus)


Short’s aster (Symphyotrichum shortii)


Short’s rockcress (Boechera dentata)


short-awned foxtail (Alopecurus aequalis)


shortbeak sedge (Carex brevior)


short-beaked arrowhead (Sagittaria brevirostra)

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shorthair goldenrod (Solidago altissima var. gilvocanescens)

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showy goldenrod species complex (Solidago speciosa complex)

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showy goldenrod (Solidago speciosa)

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showy lady’s slipper (Cypripedium reginae)

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showy milkweed (Asclepias speciosa)


showy mountain ash (Sorbus decora)

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showy orchis (Galearis spectabilis)

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shrubby cinquefoil (Dasiphora fruticosa ssp. floribunda)

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shy wallflower (Erysimum inconspicuum var. inconspicuum)


Siberian cranesbill (Geranium sibiricum)

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Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila)


Siberian larch (Larix sibirica)


Siberian peashrub (Caragana arborescens)

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Siberian squill (Scilla siberica)


sicklepod (Borodinia canadensis)

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sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula var. curtipendula)

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silky aster (Symphyotrichum sericeum)

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silky dogwood (Cornus obliqua)

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silky prairie clover (Dalea villosa var. villosa)


silky wild rye (Elymus villosus)


silver buffaloberry (Shepherdia argentea)


silver false spleenwort (Deparia acrostichoides)

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silver maple (Acer saccharinum)

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silverberry (Elaeagnus commutata)


silvergreen bryum moss (Bryum argenteum)

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silverleaf grape (Vitis aestivalis var. bicolor)

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silverleaf scurfpea (Pediomelum argophyllum)

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silverweed (Argentina anserina ssp. anserina)

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silvery cinquefoil (Potentilla argentea)


Siskiyou aster (Symphyotrichum lanceolatum ssp. hesperium)


Siskiyou aster (Symphyotrichum lanceolatum var. hesperium)

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skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus)


sky-blue aster (Symphyotrichum oolentangiense var. oolentangiense)


sleepy catchfly (Silene antirrhina)


slender beardtongue (Penstemon gracilis var. gracilis)


slender cinquefoil (Potentilla gracilis)


slender corydalis (Corydalis micrantha ssp. micrantha)


slender dayflower (Commelina erecta)


slender moonwort (Botrychium lineare)


slender plantain (Plantago elongata)


slender Russian thistle (Salsola collina)


slender spikerush (Eleocharis nitida)


slender waternymph (Najas gracillima)


slender wheatgrass (Elymus trachycaulus)


slender wheatgrass (Elymus trachycaulus ssp. trachycaulus)


slender willow (Salix petiolaris)


slender-leaf false foxglove (Agalinis tenuifolia)


slenderleaf sundew (Drosera linearis)


slimspike three-awn (Aristida longespica var. geniculata)


slim-stem reedgrass (Calamagrostis stricta)


slim-stem reedgrass (Calamagrostis stricta ssp. stricta)

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slippery elm (Ulmus rubra)


small beggarticks (Bidens discoidea)


small cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccos)


small green wood orchid (Platanthera clavellata)


small pondweed (Potamogeton pusillus)


small pondweed (Potamogeton pusillus ssp. pusillus)


small pondweed (Potamogeton pusillus ssp. tenuissimus)

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small purple fringed orchid (Platanthera psycodes)


small tumbleweed mustard (Sisymbrium loeselii)

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small white lady’s slipper (Cypripedium candidum)


small white violet (Viola macloskeyi ssp. pallens)


small yellow water crowfoot (Ranunculus gmelinii)


smallflower columbine (Aquilegia brevistyla)


smallflower grass of Parnassus (Parnassia palustris var. parviflora)


small-flowered false foxglove (Agalinis purpurea var. paupercula)


small-flowered forget-me-not (Myosotis laxa)


small-flowered woodrush (Luzula parviflora)


small-leaved pussytoes (Antennaria parvifolia)

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small-spike false nettle (Boehmeria cylindrica)


smooth blackberry (Rubus canadensis)


smooth blue aster (Symphyotrichum laeve)

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smooth brome (Bromus inermis)


smooth carrionflower (Smilax herbacea)


smooth crabgrass (Digitaria ischaemum)


smooth forked nail-wort (Paronychia canadensis)

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smooth hedge nettle (Stachys tenuifolia)

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smooth oxeye (Heliopsis helianthoides var. scabra)


smooth Parlin’s pussytoes (Antennaria parlinii ssp. parlinii)


smooth rock cress (Boechera laevigata var. laevigata)

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smooth rose (Rosa blanda var. blanda)


smooth sawgrass (Cladium mariscoides)

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smooth scouring rush (Equisetum laevigatum)

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smooth Solomon’s seal (Polygonatum biflorum var. commutatum)

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smooth sumac (Rhus glabra)


smooth woodsia (Woodsia glabella)

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smooth yellow violet (Viola eriocarpa)


smooth-sheathed sedge (Carex laevivaginata)


snailseed pondweed (Potamogeton bicupulatus)

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snakeskin liverwort (Conocephalum salebrosum)

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snow trillium (Trillium nivale)


snowline wintergreen (Pyrola minor)


snowy campion (Silene nivea)


soft agrimony (Agrimonia pubescens)


soft fox sedge (Carex conjuncta)

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soft wild bergamot (Monarda fistulosa var. mollis)

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softhair marbleseed (Lithospermum parviflorum)


soft-stem bulrush (Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani)

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solidstem burnet saxifrage (Pimpinella saxifraga ssp. saxifraga)


sooty beak-rush (Rhynchospora fusca)

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southern blue flag (Iris virginica var. shrevei)


southern obedient plant (Physostegia virginiana ssp. praemorsa)


southern yellow wood sorrel (Oxalis dillenii)


soybean (Glycine max)


spatulate moonwort (Botrychium spathulatum)


spearmint (Mentha spicata)


spearwort (Ranunculus flammula var. ovalis)


spearwort (Ranunculus flammula var. reptans)

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speckled alder (Alnus incana ssp. rugosa)


sphagnum blackberry (Rubus spectatus)

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sphagnum moss (Sphagnum spp.)

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Sphinx ladies’ tresses (Spiranthes incurva)


spicate serviceberry (Amelanchier spicata)


spike trisetum (Trisetum spicatum)


spiked muhly (Muhlenbergia glomerata)


spikeoat (Avenula hookeri)


spikerush (Eleocharis spp.)


spineless hornwort (Ceratophyllum echinatum)

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spinulose wood fern (Dryopteris carthusiana)


spiral ditchgrass (Ruppia cirrhosa)


split-lip hempnettle (Galeopsis bifida)


spoonleaf sundew (Drosera intermedia)

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spotted beebalm (Monarda punctata var. villicaulis)


spotted coralroot (Corallorhiza maculata)

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spotted Joe Pye weed (Eutrochium maculatum)


spotted Joe Pye weed (Eutrochium maculatum var. foliosum)


spotted Joe Pye weed (Eutrochium maculatum var. maculatum)

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spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe ssp. micranthos)

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spotted lady’s thumb (Persicaria maculosa)


spotted pondweed (Potamogeton pulcher)

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spotted spurge (Euphorbia maculata)


spotted St. Johnswort (Hypericum punctatum)

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spotted touch-me-not (Impatiens capensis)

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spotted water hemlock (Cicuta maculata)


spotted water hemlock (Cicuta maculata var. angustifolia)

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spreading dogbane (Apocynum androsaemifolium)


spreading hedge parsley (Torilis arvensis)

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spreading Jacob’s ladder (Polemonium reptans var. reptans)


spreading sedge (Carex laxiculmis var. copulata)


spreading yellowcress (Rorippa sinuata)


spreadingpod rockcress (Boechera grahamii)

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spring cress (Cardamine bulbosa)

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spring speedwell (Veronica verna)


spring whitlowgrass (Draba verna)


squashberry (Viburnum edule)

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squirrel corn (Dicentra canadensis)


St. Lawrence bladderfern (Cystopteris laurentiana)


St. Lawrence grapefern (Botrychium rugulosum)

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staghorn sumac (Rhus typhina)


stairstep moss (Hylocomium splendens)


stalked bulrush (Scirpus pedicellatus)


Standley’s goosefoot (Chenopodium standleyanum)


star sedge (Carex echinata ssp. echinata)


starry bristle moss (Orthotrichum stellatum)

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starry campion (Silene stellata)

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starry false Solomon’s seal (Maianthemum stellatum)


Steel’s dewberry (Rubus steelei)

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steeplebush (Spiraea tomentosa)

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sterile sedge (Carex sterilis)


stickseed (Hackelia spp.)


sticky false asphodel (Triantha glutinosa)


sticky locoweed (Oxytropis borealis var. viscida)


stiff clubmoss (Spinulum annotinum)


stiff cowbane (Oxypolis rigidior)


stiff gentian (Gentianella quinquefolia ssp. occidentalis)

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stiff goldenrod (Solidago rigida)


stiff goldenrod (Solidago rigida ssp. humilis)

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stiff goldenrod (Solidago rigida ssp. rigida)

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stiff sunflower (Helianthus pauciflorus)


stiff sunflower (Helianthus pauciflorus ssp. pauciflorus)

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stiff sunflower (Helianthus pauciflorus ssp. subrhomboideus)

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stiffleaf false goldenaster (Heterotheca angustifolia)

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stiff-leaved showy goldenrod (Solidago rigidiuscula)


stiffstem flax (Linum rigidum)


straight-leaved pondweed (Potamogeton strictifolius)


strawberry clover (Trifolium fragiferum)


strawberry tomato (Physalis grisea)


straw-colored flatsedge (Cyperus strigosus)


streamside fleabane (Erigeron glabellus var. pubescens)


strict blue-eyed grass (Sisyrinchium montanum var. montanum)

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stringy stonecrop (Sedum sarmentosum)


striped coralroot (Corallorhiza striata var. striata)

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sugar maple (Acer saccharum)

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sugar maple (Acer saccharum ssp. saccharum)


Sullivant’s coolwort (Sullivantia sullivantii)

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Sullivant’s milkweed (Asclepias sullivantii)

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sulphur cinquefoil (Potentilla recta)


sulphur cosmos (Cosmos sulphureus)


summer cypress (Bassia scoparia)


sunbright (Phemeranthus parviflorus)

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sundial lupine (Lupinus perennis var. perennis)


sun-loving sedge (Carex inops ssp. heliophila)


superior blackberry (Rubus superioris)


surprise lily (Lycoris squamigera)

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swamp betony (Pedicularis lanceolata)


swamp black currant (Ribes lacustre)


swamp blackberry (Rubus semisetosus)


swamp buttercup (Ranunculus fascicularis)


swamp candles (Lysimachia terrestris)


swamp fly honeysuckle (Lonicera oblongifolia)


swamp loosestrife (Decodon verticillatus)

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swamp milkweed (Asclepias incarnata ssp. incarnata)


swamp red currant (Ribes triste)


swamp smartweed (Persicaria hydropiperoides)

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swamp thistle (Cirsium muticum)

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swamp white oak (Quercus bicolor)

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sweet autumn virgin’s bower (Clematis terniflora)


sweet clover (Melilotus spp.)


sweet fern (Comptonia peregrina)


sweet Joe Pye weed (Eutrochium purpureum)


sweet Joe Pye weed (Eutrochium purpureum var. purpureum)


sweet mock orange (Philadelphus coronarius)


sweet white violet (Viola blanda var. blanda)

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sweet William catchfly (Silene armeria)


sweet woodreed (Cinna arundinacea)

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sweet woodruff (Galium odoratum)


sweetgale (Myrica gale)


sweet-William (Dianthus barbatus ssp. barbatus)


switch grass (Panicum virgatum var. virgatum)













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tall beggarticks (Bidens vulgata)

tall beggarticks

tall bellflower

tall blue lettuce

tall boneset

tall buttercup

tall cinquefoil

tall cottongrass

tall thimbleweed

tall thistle


Tartarian honeysuckle







tinyleaf small plume moss

toothed evening primrose

toothed plagiomnium moss

tower mustard

tree climacium moss

tuberous Indian plantain

tufted loosestrife






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tall bellflower (Campanulastrum americanum)


tall blackberry (Rubus frondosus)

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tall blue lettuce (Lactuca biennis)


tall bluebells (Mertensia paniculata var. paniculata)

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tall boneset (Eupatorium altissimum)

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tall buttercup (Ranunculus acris var. acris)

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tall cinquefoil (Drymocallis arguta)


tall coreopsis (Coreopsis tripteris)

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tall cottongrass (Eriophorum angustifolium ssp. angustifolium)


tall goldenrod (Solidago altissima var. altissima)


tall nutrush (Scleria triglomerata)

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tall thimbleweed (Anemone virginiana)


tall thimbleweed (Anemone virginiana var. alba)


tall thimbleweed (Anemone virginiana var. cylindroidea)


tall thimbleweed (Anemone virginiana var. virginiana)

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tall thistle (Cirsium altissimum)


tall tumble mustard (Sisymbrium altissimum)

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tamarack (Larix laricina)


tamarisk scalewort (Frullania tamarisci)


tansy cinquefoil (Potentilla bipinnatifida)


tapertip flatsedge (Cyperus acuminatus)

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tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus)

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Tatarian honeysuckle (Lonicera tatarica)


tawny cottongrass (Eriophorum virginicum)


Tennessee bladderfern (Cystopteris tennesseensis)


textile onion (Allium textile)

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thimbleberry (Rubus parviflorus)


threadleaf sedge (Carex filifolia var. filifolia)


three-leaved false Solomon’s seal (Smilacina trifolia)


three-lobe beggarticks (Bidens tripartita)


threepetal bedstraw (Galium trifidum ssp. trifidum)


three-stamened waterwort (Elatine triandra)


threeway sedge (Dulichium arundinaceum var. arundinaceum)


thyme-leaved sandmat (Euphorbia serpyllifolia)


thyme-leaved speedwell (Veronica serpyllifolia)

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tiger lily (Lilium lancifolium)

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timothy (Phleum pratense ssp. pratense)


tiny mousetail (Myosurus minimus)

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tinyleaf small plume moss (Haplocladium microphyllum)


Tolstead’s Robin’s plantain (Erigeron pulchellus var. tolsteadii)

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toothed evening primrose (Oenothera serrulata)

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toothed plagiomnium moss (Plagiomnium cuspidatum)


toothed spurge (Euphorbia dentata)


Torrey’s mannagrass (Torreyochloa pallida)


Torrey’s rush (Juncus torreyi)


touch-me-not (Impatiens spp.)

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tower mustard (Turritis glabra)


trailing wild bean (Strophostyles helvola)

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tree climacium moss (Climacium dendroides)


trianglelobe moonwort (Botrychium ascendens)


trillium (Trillium spp.)


trout lily (Erythronium spp.)


true forget-me-not (Myosotis scorpioides)


tuberous grass pink (Calopogon tuberosus var. tuberosus)

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tuberous Indian plantain (Arnoglossum plantagineum)


Tuckerman’s sedge (Carex tuckermanii)


tufted hairgrass (Deschampsia cespitosa)

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tufted loosestrife (Lysimachia thyrsiflora)


tufted lovegrass (Eragrostis pectinacea var. pectinacea)


tumblegrass (Schedonnardus paniculatus)


turion duckweed (Lemna turionifera)

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tussock cottongrass (Eriophorum vaginatum var. spissum)


tussock sedge (Carex stricta)

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twinleaf (Jeffersonia diphylla)


twisted yelloweyed grass (Xyris torta)


twoflower dwarfdandelion (Krigia biflora)


two-headed water starwort (Callitriche heterophylla var. heterophylla)


twoleaf miterwort (Mitella diphylla)


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upland boneset (Eupatorium sessilifolium var. brittonianum)

upright carrionflower
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upright carrionflower (Smilax ecirrhata)


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variegated scouring rush (Equisetum variegatum ssp. variegatum)

variegated yellow archangel

variegated yellow pond lily

veiny pea


violet wood sorrel

violets (Viola section Chamaemelanium subsection Nudicaules)

Virginia Bluebell

Virginia creeper

Virginia groundcherry

Virginia mountain mint

Virginia pepper grass

Virginia spring beauty

Virginia stickseed

Virginia waterleaf

virgin’s bower

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variegated yellow archangel (Lamium galeobdolon ssp. argentatum)

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variegated yellow pond lily (Nuphar variegata)


veiny lined aster (Symphyotrichum praealtum var. praealtum)


veiny meadow-rue (Thalictrum venulosum var. confine)

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veiny pea (Lathyrus venosus var. intonsus)

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velvet-leaf (Abutilon theophrasti)


velvet-leaf blueberry (Vaccinium myrtilloides)


velvety goldenrod (Solidago mollis)


Vermont blackberry (Rubus vermontanus)


vernal water-starwort (Callitriche palustris)

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violet wood sorrel (Oxalis violacea)

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yellow violets (Viola section Chamaemelanium subsection Nudicaules)

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Virginia bluebells (Mertensia virginica)


Virginia bugleweed (Lycopus virginicus)

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Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia)

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Virginia groundcherry (Physalis virginiana var. virginiana)

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Virginia mountain mint (Pycnanthemum virginianum)

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Virginia pepper grass (Lepidium virginicum var. virginicum)

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Virginia spring beauty (Claytonia virginica var. virginica)

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Virginia stickseed (Hackelia virginiana)

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Virginia waterleaf (Hydrophyllum virginianum var. virginianum)


Virginia wildrye (Elymus virginicus)

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virgin’s bower (Clematis virginiana)



































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walking fern (Asplenium rhizophyllum)

walking fern

water horsetail

water liverwort

swamp smartweed

water speedwell

western blue virgin’s bower

western bracken fern

western germander

western Jacob’s ladder

western marbleseed

western poison ivy

western ragweed

western rock jasmine

western spotted coralroot

western tansy mustard

western white prairie clover

common wheat

white avens

white campion

white clover

white doll’s daisy (var. recognita)

white fir

white-flowered leafcup

white heath aster (var. ericoides)

white heath aster (var. ericoides)

white meadowsweet

white mulberry

white oak

white poplar

white prairie aster (var. commutatum)

white prairie aster (var. commutatum)

white prairie clover

white prairie clover (var. candida)

white rattlesnake root

white sage

white snakeroot

white sweet clover

white trout lily

white turtlehead

white vervain

white wild indigo

whorled milkweed

wild bergamot

wild blue phlox

wild calla

wild columbine

wild cucumber

wild geranium

wild grape

wild leek

wild licorice

wild mint

wild oat

wild parsnip

wild quinine

wild radish

wild sarsaparilla

wild strawberry

wild sweet William

wild yam

winged loosestrife

winged pigweed



wood anemone

wood betony

wood lily


woodland horsetail

woolly beachheather

woolly burdock

woolly plantain

woolly sedge



warty spurge (Euphorbia spathulata)


water birch (Betula occidentalis)


water celery (Vallisneria Americana)

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water horsetail (Equisetum fluviatile)

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water liverwort (Marchantia aquatica)


water lobelia (Lobelia dortmanna)


water miner’s lettuce (Montia chamissoi)


water mudwort (Limosella aquatica)


water pepper (Persicaria hydropiper)


water plantain (Alisma spp.)


water pygmyweed (Crassula aquatica)

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water smartweed (Persicaria amphibia)

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water speedwell (Veronica catenata)


waterlily (Family Nymphaeaceae)


watermeal (Wolffia spp.)


watershield (Brasenia schreberi)


waterwillow (Decodon verticillatus var. laevigatus)


wavy hairgrass (Deschampsia flexuosa)


wavyleaf thistle (Cirsium undulatum)


waxy leaf meadow-rue (Thalictrum revolutum)


weeping willow (Salix × sepulcralis)

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western blue virgin’s bower (Clematis occidentalis var. occidentalis)

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western bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum var. latiusculum)

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western germander (Teucrium canadense var. occidentale)


western ironweed (Vernonia fasciculata ssp. corymbosa)

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western Jacob’s ladder (Polemonium occidentale ssp. lacustre)

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western marbleseed (Lithospermum occidentale)


western oak fern (Gymnocarpium dryopteris)


western panic grass (Dichanthelium acuminatum var. fasciculatum)

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western poison ivy (Toxicodendron rydbergii)

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western prairie fringed orchid (Platanthera praeclara)

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western ragweed (Ambrosia psilostachya)

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western rock jasmine (Androsace occidentalis)


western sand cherry (Prunus pumila var. besseyi)

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western spotted coralroot (Corallorhiza maculata var. occidentalis)


western sunflower (Helianthus occidentalis ssp. occidentalis)

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western tansy mustard (Descurainia pinnata ssp. brachycarpa)


western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii)

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western white prairie clover (Dalea candida var. oligophylla)


wheat Sedge (Carex atherodes)


Wheeler’s blackberry (Rubus wheeleri)


white adder’s-mouth (Malaxis monophyllos var. brachypoda)

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white ash (Fraxinus americana)

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white avens (Geum canadense)

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white baneberry (Actaea pachypoda)


white bear sedge (Carex albursina)


white bog orchid (Platanthera dilatata var. dilatata)


white camas (Anticlea elegans ssp. glauca)

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white campion (Silene latifolia ssp. alba)

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white clover (Trifolium repens ssp. repens)


white doll’s daisy (Boltonia asteroides)


white doll’s daisy (Boltonia asteroides var. latisquama)

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white doll’s daisy (Boltonia asteroides var. recognita)

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white fir (Abies concolor)


white grass (Leersia virginica)

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white heath aster (Symphyotrichum ericoides)


white heath aster (Symphyotrichum ericoides var. ericoides)

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white meadowsweet (Spiraea alba)


white moss (Leucobryum albidum)


White Mountain saxifrage (Saxifraga paniculata)

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white mulberry (Morus alba)

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white oak (Quercus alba)


white penstemon (Penstemon albidus)

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white poplar (Populus alba)


white prairie aster (Symphyotrichum falcatum)

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white prairie aster (Symphyotrichum falcatum var. commutatum)


white prairie aster (Symphyotrichum falcatum var. falcatum)

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white prairie clover (Dalea candida)

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white prairie clover (Dalea candida var. candida)

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white rattlesnake root (Nabalus albus)

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white sage (Artemisia ludoviciana ssp. ludoviciana)

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white snakeroot (Ageratina altissima var. altissima)

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white spruce (Picea glauca)

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white sweet clover (Melilotus albus)

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white trout lily (Erythronium albidum)

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white turtlehead (Chelone glabra)

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white vervain (Verbena urticifolia)

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white wild indigo (Baptisia alba var. macrophylla)


white willow (Salix alba)


whitecrack willow (Salix x × rubens)


white-edge sedge (Carex debilis var. rudgei)

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white-flowered leafcup (Polymnia canadensis)


white-stemmed pondweed (Potamogeton praelongus)


whorled loosestrife (Lysimachia quadrifolia)

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whorled milkweed (Asclepias verticillata)


whorled milkwort (Polygala verticillata)


whorled nut-rush (Scleria verticillata)


Wilcox’s panic grass (Dichanthelium wilcoxianum)

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wild bergamot (Monarda fistulosa)