common boneset

(Eupatorium perfoliatum var. perfoliatum)

               
Conservation Status

IUCN Red List

not yet assessed

common boneset

NatureServe

N5 - Secure

SNR - Unranked

Minnesota

not listed

Wetland
Indicator
Status

Great Plains

FACW - Facultative wetland

Midwest

OBL - Obligate wetland

Northcentral & Northeast

FACW - Facultative wetland

Nativity

Native

 
Occurrence

 

 
Habitat

Wet to moderate moisture. Prairies, meadows.

 
Flowering

July to October

     
Flower Color

White

     
Height

3 to 4

     

Identification

This is a 3 to 4 tall, perennial forb that rises on a single stem from a short caudex. It grows only in shade. It is a late bloomer, one of the last flowers to be seen in the woods in the fall.

The stems are erect, branched near the top, leafy, and covered with long, soft, shaggy but unmatted hairs.

The leaves are usually in opposite pairs, though they are rarely found in whorls of 3. They are thin and lance-shaped, tapering gradually to a pointed tip and broad at the base. The lower leaves are 2 to 6 long and to 1½ wide, becoming smaller as they ascend the stem. The bases of lower and middle paired leaves are fused together around the stem. The margins have rounded teeth all the way to the base. There is a conspicuous network of veins, depressed on the upper surface of the blade, giving the blade a wrinkled appearance. The lower surface is covered with short soft hairs.

The inflorescence is a flat-topped branched cluster of many flower heads at the end of the stem and each side stem. Combined, the clusters are up to 6.

Each flower contains 9 to 23 disk florets and no ray florets. Each disk floret consists of a dull white flower tube with 5 short spreading lobes. A white, forked style protrudes from the floral tube well beyond the lobes. The flowers are fragrant.

The fruit is a tiny dark achene with a small tuft of 20 to 30 white hairs about long.

 
Similar
Species

Tall boneset (Eupatorium altissimum) leaves are not fused around the stem at their bases. They have 3 prominent parallel veins, not a conspicuous network of veins. The leaf margins are untoothed near the base, with sharp, forward-pointing teeth above the middle. Each flower contains just 5 disk florets. The flowers have little or no fragrance. The fruit has a tuft of 30 to 40 light brown hairs.

Upland boneset (Eupatorium sessilifolium var. brittonianum) leaves are not fused around the stem at their bases. The veins are arranged like the vanes of a feather, with a single prominent midvein extending from the base to the tip and lateral veins originating from several points on each side (pinnately veined). The leaf margins are untoothed near the base, with sharp, forward-pointing teeth above the middle. Each flower contains just 5 disk florets. The flowers have little or no fragrance. The fruit has a tuft of 30 to 40 light brown hairs.

White snakeroot (Ageratina altissima var. altissima) leaves are shorter, wider, and on long leaf stalks. The flower heads are much larger. It is found in woods, always in shade.

 
Pests and Diseases

Leaf miner fly (Liriomyza eupatoriella)


Distribution Distribution Map   Sources: 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 28.

Comments

 


Taxonomy

Family:

Asteraceae (aster)

 

Subfamily:

Asteroideae

 

Supertribe:

Helianthodae

 

Tribe:

Eupatorieae

 

Subtribe:

Eupatoriinae

 
Synonyms

Eupatorium chapmanii

Eupatorium perfoliatum var. colpophilum

Eupatorium perfoliatum var. cuneatum

 
Common
Names

ague-weed

boneset

common boneset

feverweed

purple boneset

sweating-plant

thoroughwax

thoroughwort


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

achene

A dry, one-chambered, single-seeded fruit, formed from a single carpel, with the seed attached to the membranous outer layer (wall) only by the seed stalk; the wall, formed entirely from the wall of the superior ovary, does not split open at maturity, but relies on decay or predation to release the contents.

 

caudex

A short, thickened, woody, persistent enlargement of the stem, at or below ground level, used for water storage.

 

pinnately veined

With the veins arranged like the vanes of a feather; a single prominent midvein extending from the base to the tip and lateral veins originating from several points on each side.

       

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Plant

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Inflorescence

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Leaves

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Rare form: A plant with whorls of three fused leaves.

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  Boneset (Eupatorium perfoliatum)
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About

Published on Aug 18, 2013

Information about Boneset (Eupatorium perfoliatum). I am the owner of Natural Gardens specializing in Michigan Native Plants, Butterfly and Wildlife gardens. I am also a member of Wildflowers Association of Michigan (WAM) and Wild Ones (North Oakland chapter). Please feel free to send me questions.

 
     
  Boneset (Eupatorium perfoliatum )
wvoutdoorman
 
   
 
About

Published on Aug 2, 2012

Boneset (Eupatorium perfoliatum )

 
     

 

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