Minnesota Fungi

Kingdom Fungi

Fungi is the kingdom of living organisms that is characterized by lacking chlorophyll, feeding on dead and decaying organic matter, producing spores, and having cells with cell walls that contain chitin. The order includes mushrooms, puffballs, rusts, smuts, sac fungi, molds, yeasts, Penicillium, bread molds, and organisms that cause plant and animal diseases such as athlete’s foot and leaf spot.

While there are about 100,000 described fungi species, there are estimated to be over 1,500,000 species worldwide. According to the Bell Museum of Natural History, there are 9,000 species expected to be native to Minnesota “based on the number of vascular plant species native to the state and the ratio of fungi to vascular plants for well documented parts of Europe.”

To date, only two states have declared a state mushroom: Minnesota and Oregon. In 1984, the Minnesota legislature designated the Yellow Morel (Morchella esculenta) as the state mushroom of Minnesota.


Recent research based on DNA comparisons have resulted in changes in taxonomic order at all levels, even the highest (fungi are now considered to be closer to animals than plants). As a result, authoritative sources of information about fungi on the Web provide differing binomial names and lineages for the same species. The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) on-line database, http://www.itis.gov, avoids this problem by providing only sparse coverage of fungi.


Cort (Cortinarius atkinsonianus)


Recent Additions
Purple Jellydisc

Purple Jellydisc (Ascocoryne sarcoides or Ascocoryne cylichnium) is a widespread and common fungus. It occurs from Maine to Minnesota, south to Illinois and Georgia, on the West Coast, and in adjacent Canadian provinces. It is uncommon in Minnesota, where it is at the western edge of its range. It is found in the fall grouped or clustered in deciduous forests and woodlands on well-rotted hardwood stumps and logs.

When young, Purple Jellydisc is a lumpy, irregular, gelatinous, purple or wine-red mass up to 8 across. It appears brain-like and looks like a jelly fungus. As it ages the lobes flatten out into 3 16 to (5 to 22 mm) wide disc-shaped or cup-shaped fruiting bodies. When mature, it looks like a disc fungus. There is no stem but there is sometimes a short, poorly-defined, stem-like base.

Some authors claim that Ascocoryne cylichnium is more often disc-like than Ascocoryne sarcoides. Most authors agree that the two species can only be differentiated with certainty by examining the spores microscopically. Both species have been reported in Minnesota.

  Purple Jellydisc
  Photo by Luciearl
Eyelash Cup

Eyelash Cup (Scutellinia scutellata) is a small, common, very widespread, cup fungus. It is small for a fungus but large for a Scutellinia. It has a worldwide distribution, occurring on every continent except Greenland. It is common in Minnesota. It is easy to recognize but easily overlooked due to its small size. It is found from spring through fall, in small groups or larger clusters, usually soon after a rain. It grows on well rotted wood.

When it first appears it is nearly spherical and bright red to scarlet or orange. As it grows it spreads out into a shallow cup. Mature specimens are flat, disk-like, and up to in diameter. Around the margin there is a fringe of dark, eyelash-like hairs. The underside is covered with shorter dark hairs. It is edible but too small and insubstantial to bother with collecting.

  Eyelash Cup
  Photo by Luciearl
Dyer’s Polypore

Dyer’s Polypore (Phaeolus schweinitzii) is one of the most common large polypores in coniferous forests throughout North America. It is used to prepare fabric dyes of various colors, but is also a significant pest to the timber industry in western United States.

The fruiting body is a large, bracket-shaped polypore (conk). It usually appears on the ground as a rosette or an overlapping tier of brackets at or near the base of a large coniferous tree. In Minnesota it is most common on white pine. It attacks the living roots and the heartwood of older trees, causing the disease called red-brown butt rot. The lower 10 to 20 feet of the trunk, the most valuable part for the timber industry, is weakened or hollowed, making the tree susceptible to falling over. On young trees the fungus causes root rot which is also fatal.

The cap is 2 to 12 wide and circular when growing on the ground, semicircular or fan-shaped when on a trunk. When young it is soft, spongy, light brownish-yellow to orange, and densely covered with velvety hairs. As it ages it becomes hard, less hairy, and turns dark brown from the center outwards. Older specimens are brittle and dark brown or black, looking something like a cow pie. It is probably poisonous.

  Dyer’s Polypore
  Photo by Luciearl
Hexagonal-pored Polypore

Hexagonal-pored Polypore (Neofavolus alveolaris) is one of the first mushrooms to appear in woodlands in the spring. It occurs in Europe, Japan, and North America east of the Rocky Mountains. In the United States it is especially common east of the Great Plains. It first appears in May, the same time as morels, and persists through November. It grows on fallen branches and small logs of hardwoods.

The fruiting body is a semicircular to kidney-shaped, shelf-like bracket. When it first appears in late spring it is orange or orangish. It is at this stage that it is most easily recognized. The upper surface is covered with minute scales or delicate fibers. As the season progresses it fades to yellowish or nearly white. It usually has a short, stubby laterally positioned stalk. The pore surface is white to pale yellowish and is covered with conspicuous, large, diamond-shaped or six-sided pores. The pores are not all hexagonal, as the bracket’s common name suggests.

Hexagonal-pored Polypore is not poisonous but the bracket is too small and the flesh is too tough to be edible.

  Hexagonal-pored Polypore
Devil’s Urn

Devil’s Urn (Urnula craterium) is one of the first mushrooms to appear in forests and woodlands in the east. It occurs in the United States east of the Great Plains, and also in Washington State. It is common in Minnesota but often overlooked due to its dark color and its somewhat leaf-like appearance. In addition, it is often buried or half-buried in the duff. It appears in the spring usually in groups, sometimes singly. It grows on or next to decaying logs, on twigs, or on the ground attached to buried wood.

The mature mushroom is 1¼ to 4¼ high and ¾ to 2¾ in diameter. The fruiting body is a closed orb at first, and looks a lot like Dead Man’s Fingers. It soon opens at the top becoming deeply cup-shaped. The margins are curved inward, toothed, and appear torn. The sterile outer surface is rough and pinkish-gray or dark brown at first, becoming smooth and black to brownish-black with age. The fertile inner surface is smooth and brownish-black to black. There is usually a distinct narrow stalk at the base. The flesh is tough and leathery or fibrous. It is probably not poisonous but is too tough to be worth eating.

  Devil’s Urn
  Photo by Luciearl
Other Recent Additions

Plum Pocket (Taphrina communis)

Elderberry Rust (Puccinia bolleyana)

Unknown Fungi

Golden Coral Fungus (Ramaria aurea)

Birch Polypore (Fomitopsis betulina)

Golden Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus citrinopileatus)

  Birch Polypore









This list includes only fungi that have been recorded in Minnesota, but not all of the fungi found in Minnesota.

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Unknown Fungi


Aborted Entoloma

American Eastern Yellow Fly Agaric

American Hawthorn Rust

Artist’s Conk

Aspen Bolete

Bear’s Head Tooth

Birch Polypore

Black Knot

Black Trumpet



Chicken of the Woods

Chicken Fat Mushroom

Choke Disease of Grasses

Common Bird’s Nest

Common Stinkhorn

Coral Tooth Fungus


Crown-tipped Coral

Dead Man’s Fingers

Devil’s Urn

Devil’s Stinkhorn

Dryad’s Saddle

Dyer’s Polypore

Elderberry Rust

Elegant Sunburst Lichen

Elm Oyster

Eyelash Cup

Fairy Fingers

False Coral Fungus

False Tinder Fungus

False Turkey Tail

Fan-shaped Jelly Fungus

Flame Shield

Flowery Blewit

Fly Agaric

Fried Chicken Mushroom

Gabled False Morel

Giant Puffball

Gilled Polypore

Golden Coral Fungus

Golden Oyster Mushroom

Gray False Death Cap

Hairy Bracket

Hairy Curtain Crust

Hairy Oyster Mushroom

Hare’s Foot Inkcap

Hexagonal-pored Polypore

Honey Mushroom

Hygroscopic Earthstar

Indigo Milk Cap

Inky Mushroom

Jack-o’-Lantern Mushroom

Long-spined Puffball

Lobster Mushroom

Mica Cap

Milk-white Toothed Polypore

Northern Tooth

Oat Crown Rust

Old Man of the Woods

Orange-gilled Waxy Cap

Oyster Mushroom

Painted Suillus

Pear-shaped Puffball

Peeling Puffball

Phomopsis gall on hickory

Plum Pocket

Purple Jellydisc

Purple-spored Puffball

Ravenel’s Stinkhorn

Russula pulchra

Rust of Prickly Ash

Scarlet Cup

Scarlet Waxcap

Scarlet Waxy Cap

Shaggy Mane

Small Stagshorn

Smoky Polypore

Snow Morel

Split Gill

Stalked Scarlet Cup

Tar Spot (Rhytisma americanum)

Thin-Walled Maze Polypore

True Tinder Polypore

Turkey Tail

White Cheese Polypore

White False Death Cap

White Jelly Fungus

Witch’s Hat

Witches’ Butter

Wrinkled Peach

Yellow Fairy Cup Fungus

Yellow Morel

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Aborted Entoloma (Entoloma abortivum)


Amber Jelly Fungus (Exidia recisa)

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American Eastern Yellow Fly Agaric (Amanita muscaria var. guessowii)

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American Hawthorn Rust (Gymnosporangium globosum)


Angels Wings (Pleurocybella porrigens)


Apricot Jelly fungus (Tremiscus helvelloides)


Arched Earthstar (Geastrum fornicatum)


Arrhenia obscurata

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Artist’s Conk (Ganoderma applanatum)


Ash-tree Bolete (Gyrodon merulioides)


Ashen Chanterelle (Cantharellus cinereus)

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Aspen Bolete (Leccinum insigne)


Aspen Bracket (Phellinus tremulae)


Aspen Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus populinus)


Bay Cup (Peziza badia)


Beaked Earthstar (Geastrum pectinatum)


Bear Lentinus (Lentinellus ursinus)

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Bear’s Head Tooth (Hericium americanum)


Bearded Fieldcap (Agrocybe molesta)


Bicolored Bracket (Gloeoporus dichrous)

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Birch Polypore (Fomitopsis betulina)


Bitter Bolete (Tylopilus felleus)

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Black Knot (Apiosporina morbosa)


Black Morel (Morchella elata)

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Black Trumpet (Craterellus fallax)


Black Witches’ Butter (Exidia glandulosa)


Bleeding Bonnet (Mycena sanguinolenta)


Bleeding Fairy Helmet (Mycena haematopus)


Blue Chanterelle (Polyozellus multiplex)


Blue Cheese Polypore (Tyromyces caesius)


Boletus subcaerulescens


Brown Funnel Polypore (Coltricia perennis)


Brown Witches’ Butter (Tremella foliacea)


Candlesnuff Fungus (Xylaria hypoxylon)


Cannonball Fungus (Sphaerobolus stellatus)

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Cedar-apple Rust (Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae)


Cedar-hawthorn Rust (Gymnosporangium globosum)


Cedar-quince Rust (Gymnosporangium clavipes)


Ceratocystis Canker of Bitternut Hickory (Ceratocystis smalleyi)

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Chaga (Inonotus obliquus)

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Chanterelle (Cantharellus cibarius)


Cherry Leaf Spot (Blumeriella jaapii)

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Chicken of the Woods (Laetiporus sulphureus)

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Chicken Fat Mushroom (Suillus americanus)

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Choke Disease of Grasses (Epichloe typhina)


Chrome-footed Bolete (Harrya chromapes)

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Cinnabar Polypore (Pycnoporus cinnabarinus)


Cinnamon Bracket (Hapalopilus nidulans)


Clitocybe subconnexa


Clouded Funnel (Clitocybe nebularis)


Clustered Bonnet (Mycena inclinata)


Collared Earthstar (Geastrum triplex)


Collared Parachute (Marasmius rotula)

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Common Bird’s Nest (Crucibulum laeve)


Common Funnel (Clitocybe gibba)

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Common Puffball (Lycoperdon perlatum)

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Common Stinkhorn (Phallus impudicus)


Confusing Bolete (Strobilomyces confusus)


Conifer Mazegill (Gloeophyllum sepiarium)

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Coral Tooth Fungus (Hericium coralloides)

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Cort (Cortinarius atkinsonianus)


Crimped Gill (Plicaturopsis crispa)

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Crowded Parchment (Stereum complicatum)


Crown Fungus (Sarcosphaera crassa)

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Crown-tipped Coral (Artomyces pyxidatus)


Crowned Earthstar (Geastrum coronatum)


Curtis’s Puffball (Vascellum curtisii)


Cytospora Canker (Valsa sordida)


Daisy Earthstar (Geastrum floriforme)


Dark-stalked Bolete (Leccinum atrostipitatum)

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Dead Man’s Fingers (Xylaria polymorpha)


Dead Man’s Foot (Pisolithus tinctorius)


Deadly Galerina (Galerina autumnalis)


Deadly Parasol (lepiota josserandii)


Death Cap (Amanita phalloides)


Deer Mushroom (Pluteus cervinus)


Destroying Angel (Amanita bisporigera)


Destroying Angel (Amanita virosa)

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Devil’s Stinkhorn (Phallus rubicundus)

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Devil’s Urn (Urnula craterium)

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Dryad’s Saddle (Polyporus squamosus)


Dung Roundhead (Protostropharia semiglobata)


Dung-loving Bird’s Nest (Cyathus stercoreus)

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Dyer’s Polypore (Phaeolus schweinitzii)


Early Morel (Verpa bohemica)

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Elderberry Rust (Puccinia bolleyana)

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Elm Oyster (Hypsizygus ulmarius)

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Entomosporium Leaf Spot (Diplocarpon mespili)

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Eyelash Cup (Scutellinia scutellata)

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Fairy Fingers (Clavaria fragilis)


Fairy Ring Marasmius (Marasmius oreades)


False Chanterelle (Hygrophoropsis aurantiaca)

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False Coral Fungus (Tremellodendron pallidum)

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False Morel (Gyromitra esculenta)

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False Tinder Fungus (Phellinus igniarius)

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False Turkey Tail (Stereum ostrea)


Fan-shaped Jelly Fungus (Dacryopinax spathularia)


Fire Blight (Erwinia amylovora)


Flame Shield (Pluteus aurantiorugosus)


Flat Crep (Crepidotus applanatus)

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Flowery Blewit (Lepista irina)


Fluted Bird’s Nest (Crucibulum striatus)


Fluted White Elfin Saddle (Helvella crispa)

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Fly Agaric (Amanita muscaria)


Four-rayed Earthstar (Geastrum quadrifidum)


Fragrant Inocybe (Inocybe pyriodora)


Freckled Dapperling (lepiota aspera)

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Fried Chicken Mushroom (Lyophyllum decastes)


Frost’s Amanita (Amanita frostiana)


Funeral Bell (Galerina marginata)

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Gabled False Morel (Gyromitra brunnea)


Gem-Studded Amanita (Amanita gemmata)

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Giant Puffball (Calvatia gigantea)

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Gilled Polypore (Lenzites betulina)

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Golden Coral Fungus (Ramaria aurea)


Golden Ear (Tremella aurantia)

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Golden Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus citrinopileatus)


Golden Pholiota (Pholiota aurivella)


Goldleaf Shield (Pluteus romellii)

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Gray False Death Cap (Amanita citrina var. grisea)


Green Beetle Hanger (Hesperomyces virescens)


Green Wood Cup (Chlorociboria aeruginascens)


Green-spored Parasol (Chlorophyllum molybdites)


Gyromitra ambigua


Gyromitra fastigiata

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Hairy Bracket (Trametes hirsuta)

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Hairy Curtain Crust (Stereum hirsutum)

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Hairy Oyster Mushroom (Panus neostrigosus)

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Handsome Club (Clavulinopsis laeticolor)

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Hare’s Foot Inkcap (Coprinopsis lagopus)

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Hen of the Woods (Grifola frondosa)

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Hexagonal-pored Polypore (Neofavolus alveolaris)

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Honey Mushroom (Armillaria mellea group)


Hooded False Morel (Gyromitra infula)


Horn of Plenty (Craterellus cornucopioides)

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Hygroscopic Earthstar (Astraeus hygrometricus)

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Indigo Milk Cap (Lactarius indigo)

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Inky Mushroom (Agaricus moelleri)


Inocybe mixtilis


Inocybe rimosa

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Jack-o’-Lantern Mushroom (Omphalotus illudens)


Jelly Ear Fungus (Auricularia auricula-judae)

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King Alfred’s Cakes (Daldinia concentrica)


Lacquered Bracket (Ganoderma lucidum)


Lactarius fuliginellus

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Late Oyster Mushroom (Panellus serotinus)


Lavender False Death Cap (Amanita citrina var. lavendula)


Lead-grey Puffball (Bovista plumbea)


Leaf Curl (Taphrina communis)


Leaf Spot (Cerospora xanthoxyli)


Lilac Bonnet (Mycena pura)


Lilac Fibrecap (Inocybe lilacina)


Lion’s Mane (Hericium erinaceus)


Lizard’s Claw Mushroom (Lysurus cruciatus)

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Lobster Mushroom (Hypomyces lactifluorum)

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Long-spined Puffball (Lycoperdon pulcherrimum)


Lurid Bolete (Boletus luridus)


Meadow Mushroom (Agaricus campestris)

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Mica Cap (Coprinellus micaceus)

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Milk-white Toothed Polypore (Irpex lacteus)


Mossy Maze Polypore (Cerrena unicolor)


Mycosphaerella Leaf Spot (Mycosphoerello effiguroto)

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Northern Tooth (Climacodon septentrionalis)

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Oak Anthracnose (Apiognomonia errabunda)

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Oak Leaf Blister (Taphrina caerulescens)


Oak Mazegill (Daedalea quercina)


Oak Wilt (Ceratocystis fagacearum)


Oak-loving Gymnopus (Gymnopus dryophilus)

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Oat Crown Rust (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae)


Ochre Brittlegill (Russula ochroleuca)

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Old Man of the Woods (Strobilomyces strobilaceus)


Orange Bonnet (Mycena acicula)


Orange Jelly Spot (Dacrymyces chrysospermus)


Orange Mycena (Mycena leaiana)

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Orange Peel Fungus (Aleuria aurantia)

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Orange-gilled Waxy Cap (Humidicutis marginata)

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Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus)

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Painted Suillus (Suillus spraguei)


Pale Brittlestem (Psathyrella candolleana)


Panther Cap (Amanita pantherina var. pantherina)

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Parrot Mushroom (Gliophorus psittacinus)


Peach-colored Fly Agaric (Amanita muscaria var. persicina)

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Pear-shaped Puffball (Lycoperdon pyriforme)

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Peeling Puffball (Lycoperdon marginatum)


Peppery Milk Cap (Lactifluus piperatus)

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Phomopsis gall on hickory (Phomopsis spp.)

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Plum Pocket (Taphrina communis)


Powdery Mildew (Phyllactinia guttata)


Phyllosticta Leaf Spot (Mycosphoerello fraxinicola)


Pinkish-orange Pholiota (Pholiota astragalina)


Powdery Mildews (Order Erysiphales)


Psathyrella cystidiosa


Psathyrella rhodospora


Pseudospiropes longipilus

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Purple Bordered Leaf Spot (Phyllosticta minima)

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Purple Jellydisc (Ascocoryne sarcoides)

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Purple-bloom Russula (Russula mariae)

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Purple-gilled Laccaria (Laccaria ochropurpurea)

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Purple-spored Puffball (Calvatia cyathiformis)

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Ravenel’s Stinkhorn (Phallus ravenelii)


Red Chanterelle (Cantharellus cinnabarinus)


Red-banded Polypore (Fomitopsis pinicola)


Ringed Cone Head (Pholiotina rugosa)


Rounded Earthstar (Geastrum saccatum)


Ruddy Puffball (Lycoperdon subincarnatum)


Russula sp.


Russula flavisiccans

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Russula paludosa

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Russula pulchra

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Rust of Prickly Ash (Puccinia andropogonis var. xanthoxyli)


Rusty Gilled Polypore (Gloeophyllum sepiarium)

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Saffron Milk Cap (Lactarius deliciosus)


Sandy Laccaria (Laccaria trullissata)


Sarcosoma globosum


Scaly Rustgill (Gymnopilus sapineus)

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Scarlet Cup (Sarcoscypha austriaca)


Scarlet Waxy Cap (Hygrocybe punicea)

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Scarlet Waxcap (Hygrocybe coccinea)


Scurfy Twiglet (Tubaria furfuracea)


Septoria Leaf Spot (Septoria aceris)


Sessile Earthstar (Geastrum fimbriatum)

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Shaggy Mane (Coprinus comatus)


Shaggy Parasol (Chlorophyllum rhacodes)


Shaggy Pholiota (Pholiota squarrosa)

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Sharp-scaly Pholiota (Pholiota squarrosoides)


Shield Dapperling (Lepiota clypeolaria)


Shoehorn Oyster Mushroom (Hohenbuehelia petaloides)


Short-stemmed Russula (Russula brevipes)


Shrimp Russula (Russula xerampelina)


Slipery Jack (Suillus luteus)

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Small Stagshorn (Calocera cornea)

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Smoky Polypore (Bjerkandera adusta)


Smooth Patch (Aleurodiscus oakesii)

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Snow Morel (Gyromitra gigas)


Speckled Tar Spot (Rhytisma punctatum)


Spiny Puffball (Lycoperdon echinatum)

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Split Gill (Schizophyllum commune)


Spring Polypore (Polyporus arcularius)


Stalked Orange Peel Fungus (Sowerbyella rhenana)

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Stalked Scarlet Cup (Sarcoscypha occidentalis)


Stem Canker (Diplodia natalensis)


Stinking Dapperling (Lepiota cristata)


Striate Earthstar (Geastrum striatum)


Strict-branched Coral Fungus (Ramaria stricta)


Suede Bolete (Xerocomus subtomentosus)


Suillus weaverae


Summer Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus pulmonarius)

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Tar Spot (Rhytisma acerinum)

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Tar Spot (Rhytisma americanum)


Tar Spot (Rhytisma salicinum)


Thick-Walled Maze Polypore (Daedalea quercina)


Thiers’ amanita (Amanita thiersii)

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Thin-Walled Maze Polypore (Daedaleopsis confragosa)


Tiny Earthstar (Geastrum minimum)


Toothed Jelly Fungus (Pseudohydnum gelatinosum)

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Trametes pubescens

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Trembling Phlebia (Phlebia tremellosa)

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True Tinder Polypore (Fomes fomentarius)


Tubakia leaf spot (Tubakia dryina)

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Turkey Tail (Trametes versicolor)


Umbrella False Morel (Gyromitra sphaerospora)


Veiled Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus dryinus)


Veined Brown Cup Fungus (Disciotis venosa)

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Velvet Foot (Flammulina velutipes)


Vermilion Waxcap (Hygrocybe miniata)


Violet-pored Bracket Fungus (Trichaptum abietinum)


Violet-toothed Polypore (Trichaptum biforme)


White Chanterelle (Cantharellus subalbidus)

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White Cheese Polypore (Tyromyces chioneus)


White Coral Jelly Fungus (Tremella reticulata)

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White False Death Cap (Amanita citrina var. alba)

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White Jelly Fungus (Ductifera pululahuana)


white mold (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum)

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White-Pored Chicken of the Woods (Laetiporus cincinnatus)


Willow Shield (Pluteus salicinus)

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Witches’ Butter (Tremella mesenterica)

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Witch’s Hat (Hygrocybe conica)

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Wood Blewit (Clitocybe nuda)


Wrinkled Crust (Phlebia radiata)

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Wrinkled Peach (Rhodotus palmatus)

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Yellow Fairy Cup Fungus (Bisporella citrina)


Yellow Fieldcap (Bolbitius titubans)

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Yellow Morel (Morchella esculenta)


Yellow Stagshorn Fungus (Calocera viscosa)




No Species Page Yet?

If you do not see a linked page for a fungi in the list at left you can still upload a photo or video as an email attachment or report a sighting for that fungi. Click on one of the buttons below and type in the common name and/or scientific name of the fungi in your photo, video, or sighting. A new page will be created for that fungi featuring your contribution.

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Capitalization of Common Names

Fungi common names are governed by International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN). According to the ICN, fungi common names can be either capitalized or not. In Britain fungi common names are governed by The British Mycological Society (BMS). The BMS formed a working party in 2005 to standardize common names of fungi. The project is ongoing, but a current checklist is available on the BMS Website. According to BMS, “the use of capitals for the English name in published texts will be to an extent determined by the publisher.” The BMS checklist uses capitalized common English language names. Most authors today also use capitalized common names for fungi. MinnesotaSeasons.com will adhere to the convention adopted by BMS.


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