Minnesota Fungi

 
Kingdom Fungi

Fungi is the kingdom of living organisms that is characterized by lacking chlorophyll, feeding on dead and decaying organic matter, producing spores, and having cells with cell walls that contain chitin. The order includes mushrooms, puffballs, rusts, smuts, sac fungi, molds, yeasts, Penicillium, bread molds, and organisms that cause plant and animal diseases such as athlete’s foot and leaf spot.

While there are about 100,000 described fungi species, there are estimated to be over 1,500,000 species worldwide. According to the Bell Museum of Natural History, there are 9,000 species expected to be native to Minnesota “based on the number of vascular plant species native to the state and the ratio of fungi to vascular plants for well documented parts of Europe.”

To date, only two states have declared a state mushroom: Minnesota and Oregon. In 1984, the Minnesota legislature designated the Yellow Morel (Morchella esculenta) as the state mushroom of Minnesota.

Taxonomy
Recent research based on DNA comparisons have resulted in changes in taxonomic order at all levels, even the highest (fungi are now considered to be closer to animals than plants). As a result, authoritative sources of information about fungi on the Web provide differing binomial names and lineages for the same species. The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) on-line database, http://www.itis.gov, avoids this problem by providing only sparse coverage of fungi.


 

Wood Blewit

 

           

Recent Additions

 
Crown-tipped Coral

Crown-tipped Coral (Artomyces pyxidatus) is very common and widespread eastern North America. It grows alone or in groups on dead, well rotted wood of hardwoods, especially aspen, willow, maple, and cottonwood. It can be found throughout Minnesota from spring through fall. It is edible but tough and stringy. It has a peppery taste when raw that goes away when cooked.

The fruiting body is a candelabra-like profusion of whitish, upright branches with a tiny, crown-like tip. The branches turn brownish as they age. Occasionally, the tips of the branches are brown.

Crown-tipped Coral looks superficially similar to many club and coral fungi. It is identified by its growing on wood; the whitish or yellowish color when young; and the crown-like depression at the branch tips with 3 to 6 points.

  Crown-tipped Coral
  Photo by Kirk Nelson
   
   
   
   

Gabled False Morel

Morel mushrooms (Morchella spp.) are some of the best known and most sought after wild mushrooms in North America. They are particularly abundant in the upper Midwest. They are edible, considered delicious, and are hunted for in deciduous woodlands every spring. False morels (Gyromitra spp.) look superficially similar and appear at the same time of year in roughly the same areas. However, false morels are poisonous. They contain the chemical gyromitrin, which is metabolized in the body into a volatile chemical used as a rocket propellant.

Gabled False Morel (Gyromitra brunnea) is the most common false morel in Minnesota and Wisconsin. It is found in the spring, alone or in groups, on the ground under hardwood trees. The cap is tan to reddish-brown, 2 to 4 wide, and loosely wrinkled. It is usually saddle-shaped or winged, divided into 2 or 3 strongly projecting lobes that are fused to each other.

  Gabled False Morel
  Photo by Kirk Nelson
   
   
   
   
   

Snow Morel

Snow Morel (Gyromitra gigas) is a common early mushroom in forests of North America. It is called a “false morel” due to its similarity in appearance and seasonality to true morels. It is found in the spring and early summer alone, scattered, or in groups, on the ground or on rotten wood, under coniferous or hardwood trees, often poking through leaf litter. It is saprobic, obtaining nutrients from rotting wood, and might also be mycorrhizal, having a mutually beneficial relationship with the tiny rootlets of trees. It may exhibit both traits at different parts of its life cycle.

Snow Morel is edible if sautéed but not edible when raw. Some authors suggest that it be avoided due to its similarity in appearance to the poisonous False Morel (Gyromitra esculenta).

Snow Morel is identified by the squarish, blocky, convoluted cap that is compact and rarely has projecting lobes; and the massive, ribbed or longitudinally wrinkled stem that is often mostly or completely hidden by the closely appressed cap.

  Snow Morel
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

American Eastern Yellow Fly Agaric

American Eastern Yellow Fly Agaric (Amanita muscaria var. guessowii) is a large, conspicuous, yellow variety of one of the most recognizable mushrooms in the world. It is widespread in North America, common in northeastern United States, and not uncommon in Minnesota. It occurs in coniferous, deciduous, or mixed woodlands, woodland edges, and among planted trees. It is found from June to November, solitary, scattered, in groups, or in fairy rings, on the ground under pine, spruce, fir, aspen, or birch trees. It is mycorrhizal, obtaining its nutrients from the rootlets of a tree while facilitating greater absorption of nutrients from the soil by the tree.

Most guidebooks and authorities state that American Eastern Yellow Fly Agaric is poisonous, and it is true that about 90% of mushroom-related fatalities involve Amanitas. Fly agaric contains the hallucinogenic compounds muscimole and ibotenic acid. They may have been involved in prehistoric rituals. It is poisonous in large, possibly even in moderate amounts, but not normally fatal.

Mushrooms in the genus Amanita are identified by pale gills usually not attached to the stem; a white spore print; a universal veil that creates a sac-like base or other distinctive feature at the base of the stem; and caps that are more or less dry. Fly Agarics (Amanita muscaria) are identified by cottony scales on the cap; a partial veil that creates a persistent ring or collar of tissue at the middle or near the top of the stalk; and one ring or two to four concentric rings of scales at the base of the stalk. American Eastern Yellow Fly Agaric is distinguished by a bright yellow or orangish-yellow cap that is often reddish-orange or yellowish-orange in the center.

  American Eastern Yellow Fly Agaric
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

Split Gill

Split Gill (Schizophyllum commune) is one of the most common and widespread mushrooms on the planet. It occurs on six continents, absent only from Antarctica, where there are no trees to support it. It is also one of the best studied fungi species. The genome was sequenced in in 2010, and it is often used in the laboratory because it fruits so readily.

Once thought to be a single species with worldwide distribution, Split Gill is now known to be a complex of several closely related species that cannot be reliably distinguished based on their morphology. There are more than 28,000 sexes of Schizophyllum commune. Each individual is sexually compatible with 27,997 (99.98%) of other individuals worldwide.

Split Gill is found year round, scattered, in small groups, in rows, or in fused clusters, on stumps, logs, and sticks of dead hardwood, especially oak. Worldwide it is found decomposing more than 150 different species. The cap is whitish or grayish, densely hairy, and small, less than 1½ in diameter. The “gills” appear hairy when dry, smooth and split down the middle longitudinally when moist. They close up in dry weather, protecting the spores, and open when moistened. Split Gill is considered inedible in North America and Europe due to its toughness and small size. However, it is used in the cuisines of places with dryer climates, where fleshy mushrooms are difficult to transport to market.

  Split Gill
  Photo by Robert Briggs
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

Other Recent Additions
   

Ravenel’s Stinkhorn (Phallus ravenelii)

Crowded Parchment (Stereum complicatum)

Small Stagshorn (Calocera cornea)

Hairy Bracket (Trametes hirsuta)

Trametes pubescens

  Ravenel’s Stinkhorn
  Photo by Robert Briggs
   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

           
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Aborted Entoloma (Entoloma abortivum)

 

American Eastern Yellow Fly Agaric

American Hawthorn Rust

Artist’s Conk

Aspen Bolete

Black Knot

Black Trumpet

Chanterelle

Chicken of the Woods

Chicken Fat Mushroom

Crowded Parchment

Crown Rust

Crown-tipped Coral

Dead Man’s Fingers

Dryad’s Saddle

Eastern Flat-topped Agaricus

Entomosporium Leaf Spot

Fairy Fingers

False Coral Fungus

False Tinder Fungus

False Turkey Tail

Fan-shaped Jelly Fungus

Fly Agaric

Fried Chicken Mushroom

Gabled False Morel

Giant Puffball

Gray False Death Cap

Hairy Bracket

Hen of the Woods

Honey Mushroom

Indigo Milk Cap

Jack-o’-Lantern Mushroom

Late Oyster Mushroom

Long-spined Puffball

Lobster Mushroom

Northern Tooth

Oak Anthracnose

Old Man of the Woods

Oyster Mushroom

Pear-shaped Puffball

Peeling Puffball

Phomopsis gall on hickory

Purple-spored Puffball

Ravenel’s Stinkhorn

Russula paludosa

Russula pulchra

Scarlet Cup

Scarlet Waxy Cap

Shaggy Mane

Small Stagshorn

Smoky Polypore

Snow Morel

Split Gill

Stalked Scarlet Cup

Tar Spot (Rhytisma americanum)

Thin-Walled Maze Polypore

True Tinder Polypore

Turkey Tail

White Cheese Polypore

White False Death Cap

White Jelly Fungus

Witches’ Butter

Wood Blewit

Wrinkled Peach

Yellow Morel

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American Eastern Yellow Fly Agaric (Amanita muscaria var. guessowii)

 
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American Hawthorn Rust (Gymnosporangium globosum)

 
     

Angels Wings (Pleurocybella porrigens)

 
     

Apricot Jelly fungus (Tremiscus helvelloides)

 
     

Arrhenia obscurata

 
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Artist’s Conk (Ganoderma applanatum)

 
     

Ashen Chanterelle (Cantharellus cinereus)

 
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Aspen Bolete (Leccinum insigne)

 
     

Bear’s Head Tooth (Hericium americanum)

 
     

Birch Polypore (Piptoporus betulinus)

 
     

Bitter Bolete (Tylopilus felleus)

 
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Black Knot (Apiosporina morbosa)

 
     

Black Morel (Morchella elata)

 
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Black Trumpet (Craterellus fallax)

 
     

Black Witches’ Butter (Exidia glandulosa)

 
     

Blue Chanterelle (Polyozellus multiplex)

 
     

Blue Cheese Polypore (Tyromyces caesius)

 
     

Boletus subcaerulescens

 
     

Brown Witches’ Butter (Tremella foliacea)

 
     

Calvatia bovista

 
     

Ceratocystis Canker of Bitternut Hickory (Ceratocystis smalleyi)

 
     

Chaga (Inonotus obliquus)

 
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Chanterelle (Cantharellus cibarius)

 
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Chicken of the Woods (Laetiporus sulphureus)

 
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Chicken Fat Mushroom (Suillus americanus)

 
     

Chrome-footed Bolete (Harrya chromapes)

 
     

Cinnabar Polypore (Pycnoporus cinnabarinus)

 
     

Clitocybe subconnexa

 
     

Clouded Funnel (Clitocybe nebularis)

 
     

Comb Tooth (Hericium coralloides)

 
     

Common Funnel (Clitocybe gibba)

 
     

Common Stinkhorn (Phallus impudicus)

 
     

Confusing Bolete (Strobilomyces confusus)

 
     

Crimped Gill (Plicaturopsis crispa)

 
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Crowded Parchment (Stereum complicatum)

 
     

Crown Fungus (Sarcosphaera crassa)

 
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Crown Rust (Puccinia coronata)

 
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Crown-tipped Coral (Artomyces pyxidatus)

 
     

Curtis’s Puffball (Vascellum curtisii)

 
     

Cytospora Canker (Valsa sordida)

 
     

Dark-stalked Bolete (Leccinum atrostipitatum)

 
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Dead Man’s Fingers (Xylaria polymorpha)

 
     

Dead Man’s Foot (Pisolithus tinctorius)

 
     

Deadly Galerina (Galerina autumnalis)

 
     

Deadly Parasol (lepiota josserandii)

 
     

Death Cap (Amanita phalloides)

 
     

Deer Mushroom (Pluteus cervinus)

 
     

Destroying Angel (Amanita bisporigera)

 
     

Destroying Angel (Amanita virosa)

 
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Dryad’s Saddle (Polyporus squamosus)

 
     

Early Morel (Verpa bohemica)

 
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Eastern Flat-topped Agaricus (Agaricus placomyces)

 
     

Elderberry Rust (Puccinia bolleyana)

 
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Entomosporium Leaf Spot (Diplocarpon mespili)

 
     

Eyelash Cup (Scutellinia scutellata)

 
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Fairy Fingers (Clavaria fragilis)

 
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False Coral Fungus (Tremellodendron pallidum)

 
     

False Morel (Gyromitra esculenta)

 
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False Tinder Fungus (Phellinus igniarius)

 
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False Turkey Tail (Stereum ostrea)

 
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Fan-shaped Jelly Fungus (Dacryopinax spathularia)

 
     

Fire Blight (Erwinia amylovora)

 
     

Fluted White Elfin Saddle (Helvella crispa)

 
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Fly Agaric (Amanita muscaria)

 
     

Freckled Dapperling (lepiota aspera)

 
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Fried Chicken Mushroom (Lyophyllum decastes)

 
     

Frost’s Amanita (Amanita frostiana)

 
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Gabled False Morel (Gyromitra brunnea)

 
     

Gem-Studded Amanita (Amanita gemmata)

 
     

Gem-Studded Puffball (Lycoperdon perlatum)

 
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Giant Puffball (Calvatia gigantea)

 
     

Golden Ear (Tremella aurantia)

 
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Gray False Death Cap (Amanita citrina var. grisea)

 
     

Green-spored Parasol (Chlorophyllum molybdites)

 
     

Gyromitra ambigua

 
     

Gyromitra fastigiata

 
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Hairy Bracket (Trametes hirsuta)

 
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Hairy Curtain Crust (Stereum hirsutum)

 
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Hen of the Woods (Grifola frondosa)

 
     

Hexagonal-pored Polypore (Polyporus alveolaris)

 
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Honey Mushroom (Armillaria mellea group)

 
     

Hooded False Morel (Gyromitra infula)

 
     

Horn of Plenty (Craterellus cornucopioides)

 
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Indigo Milk Cap (Lactarius indigo)

 
     

Inocybe mixtilis

 
     

Inocybe rimosa

 
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Jack-o’-Lantern Mushroom (Omphalotus illudens)

 
     

Jelly Ear Fungus (Auricularia auricula-judae)

 
     

Lacquered Bracket (Ganoderma lucidum)

 
     

Lactarius fuliginellus

 
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Late Oyster Mushroom (Panellus serotinus)

 
     

Lavender False Death Cap (Amanita citrina var. lavendula)

 
     

Leaf Curl (Taphrina communis)

 
     

Lilac Bonnet (Mycena pura)

 
     

Lion’s Mane (Hericium erinaceus)

 
     

Lizard’s Claw Mushroom (Lysurus cruciatus)

 
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Lobster Mushroom (Hypomyces lactifluorum)

 
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Long-spined Puffball (Lycoperdon pulcherrimum)

 
     

Lurid Bolete (Boletus luridus)

 
     

Meadow Mushroom (Agaricus campestris)

 
     

Mica Cap (Coprinellus micaceus)

 
     

Milk-white Toothed Polypore (Irpex lacteus)

 
     

Mossy Maze Polypore (Cerrena unicolor)

 
     

Mycosphaerella Leaf Spot (Mycosphoerello effiguroto)

 
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Northern Tooth (Climacodon septentrionalis)

 
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Oak Anthracnose (Apiognomonia errabunda)

 
     

Oak Leaf Blister (Taphrina caerulescens)

 
     

Oak Mazegill (Daedalea quercina)

 
     

Oak Wilt (Ceratocystis fagacearum)

 
     

Ochre Brittlegill (Russula ochroleuca)

 
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Old Man of the Woods (Strobilomyces strobilaceus)

 
     

Orange Jelly Fungus (Dacrymyces palmatus)

 
     

Orange Peel Fungus (Aleuria aurantia)

 
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Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus)

 
     

Painted Bolete (Suillus spraguei)

 
     

Panther Cap (Amanita pantherina var. pantherina)

 
     

Peach-colored Fly Agaric (Amanita muscaria var. persicina)

 
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Pear-shaped Puffball (Lycoperdon pyriforme)

 
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Peeling Puffball (Lycoperdon marginatum)

 
     

Peppery Milk Cap (Lactifluus piperatus)

 
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Phomopsis gall on hickory (Phomopsis spp.)

 
     

Phyllosticta Leaf Spot (Mycosphoerello fraxinicola)

 
     

Psathyrella cystidiosa

 
     

Psathyrella rhodospora

 
     

Pseudospiropes longipilus

 
     

Purple Bordered Leaf Spot (Phyllosticta minima)

 
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Purple-spored Puffball (Calvatia cyathiformis)

 
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Ravenel’s Stinkhorn (Phallus ravenelii)

 
     

Red Raspberry Slime (Tubifera ferruginosa)

 
     

Red-Belt Conk (fomitopsis pinicola)

 
     

Ringed Cone Head (Pholiotina rugosa)

 
     

Russula sp.

 
     

Russula flavisiccans

 
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Russula paludosa

 
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Russula pulchra

 
     

Rust of Prickly Ash (Puccinia andropogonis var. xanthoxyli)

 
     

Rusty Gilled Polypore (Gloeophyllum sepiarium)

 
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Saffron Milk Cap (Lactarius deliciosus)

 
     

Sandy Laccaria (Laccaria trullissata)

 
     

Sarcosoma globosum

 
     

Scaly Rustgill (Gymnopilus sapineus)

 
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Scarlet Cup (Sarcoscypha austriaca)

 
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Scarlet Waxy Cap (Hygrocybe punicea)

 
     

Septoria Leaf Spot (Septoria aceris)

 
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Shaggy Mane (Coprinus comatus)

 
     

Shaggy Parasol (Chlorophyllum rhacodes)

 
     

Shoehorn Oyster Mushroom (Hohenbuehelia petaloides)

 
     

Short-stemmed Russula (Russula brevipes)

 
     

Shrimp Russula (Russula xerampelina)

 
     

Slipery Jack (Suillus luteus)

 
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Small Stagshorn (Calocera cornea)

 
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Smoky Polypore (Bjerkandera adusta)

 
     

Smooth Patch (Aleurodiscus oaksii)

 
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Snow Morel (Gyromitra gigas)

 
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Speckled Tar Spot (Rhytisma punctatum)

 
     

Spiny Puffball (Lycoperdon echinatum)

 
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Split Gill (Schizophyllum commune)

 
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Stalked Scarlet Cup (Sarcoscypha occidentalis)

 
     

Strict-branched Coral Fungus (Ramaria stricta)

 
     

Suillus weaverae

 
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Tar Spot (Rhytisma acerinum)

 
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Tar Spot (Rhytisma americanum)

 
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Tar Spot (Rhytisma salicinum)

 
     

Thick-Walled Maze Polypore (Daedalea quercina)

 
     

Thiers’ amanita (Amanita thiersii)

 
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Thin-Walled Maze Polypore (Daedaleopsis confragosa)

 
     

Toothed Jelly Fungus (Pseudohydnum gelatinosum)

 
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Trametes pubescens

 
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True Tinder Polypore (Fomes fomentarius)

 
     

Tubakia leaf spot (Tubakia dryina)

 
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Turkey Tail (Trametes versicolor)

 
     

Umbrella False Morel (Gyromitra sphaerospora)

 
     

Veiled Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus dryinus)

 
     

Veined Brown Cup Fungus (Disciotis venosa)

 
     

Vermilion Waxcap (Hygrocybe miniata)

 
     

Violet-pored Bracket Fungus (Trichaptum abietinum)

 
     

Violet-toothed Polypore (Trichaptum biforme)

 
     

White Chanterelle (Cantharellus subalbidus)

 
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White Cheese Polypore (Tyromyces chioneus)

 
     

White Coral Jelly Fungus (Tremella reticulata)

 
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White False Death Cap (Amanita citrina var. alba)

 
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White Jelly Fungus (Ductifera pululahuana)

 
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Witches’ Butter (Tremella mesenterica)

 
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Wood Blewit (Clitocybe nuda)

 
     

Woolly Inkcap (Coprinopsis lagopus)

 
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Wrinkled Peach (Rhodotus palmatus)

 
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Yellow Morel (Morchella esculenta)

 
     

Yellow Stagshorn Fungus (Calocera viscosa)

 
         

 

 

No Species Page Yet?

If you do not see a linked page for a fungi in the list at left you can still upload a photo or video as an email attachment or report a sighting for that fungi. Click on one of the buttons below and type in the common name and/or scientific name of the fungi in your photo, video, or sighting. A new page will be created for that fungi featuring your contribution.

 

Capitalization of Common Names

Fungi common names are governed by International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN). According to the ICN, fungi common names can be either capitalized or not. In Britain fungi common names are governed by The British Mycological Society (BMS). The BMS formed a working party in 2005 to standardize common names of fungi. The project is ongoing, but a current checklist is available on the BMS Website. According to BMS, “the use of capitals for the English name in published texts will be to an extent determined by the publisher.” The BMS checklist uses capitalized common English language names. Most authors today also use capitalized common names for fungi. MinnesotaSeasons.com will adhere to the convention adopted by BMS.

 

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