Flame Shield

(Pluteus aurantiorugosus)

               
Conservation Status

IUCN Red List

not listed

Xxxxxxxxxx

NatureServe

not listed

Minnesota

not listed

Occurrence

Rare

Season

Early summer to late fall

Habitat/Hosts

Woodlands. Hardwood stumps and logs

 

 

    Photo by Maureen Burkle
 
Identification

Flame Shield is a beautiful but rare wood-rotting gill mushroom. It occurs in Europe, Japan, South Korea, North America, and Mexico. In North America its range is restricted to the northeast and upper Midwest. It is rare wherever it occurs, including in Minnesota. It is found alone or in small groups on long dead stumps and well-rotted logs and branches of deciduous trees, especially elm but also ash and possibly other hardwoods. It gets its nutrients from decaying wood (saprobic).

The cap is ¾ to 23 16 (20 to 55 mm) in diameter. It is convex and bright orange to orangish-red at first. As it ages fades to orangish-yellow, flattens out and becomes depressed in the middle. Older caps sometimes have a raised bump in the middle (umbonate). The upper surface may be dry or moist, and smooth to the touch or slightly granular, especially near the center. The margin is straight and unlined or only faintly lined (striate).

The stem is 13 16 to 2 (3 to 6 cm) long and 3 16 to (5 to 10 mm) thick. It is whitish to yellowish near the top, flushed with the same color as the cap near the bottom, and covered with ling fibers. The vegetative part of the mushroom (mycelium) is visible at the base of the stem. The basal mycelium is white or yellowish and woolly.

The gills are broad, closely spaced to nearly crowded, and not attached to the stem (free). They are whitish at first, often yellowish near the margin, turning pinkish with age. Between the primary gills there are short, secondary gills originating at the margin.

The flesh is white or pale yellow and firm. It does not change color when cut. It is edible but the taste is “not distinctive”. It may contain Psilocybin, a hallucinogenic substance. For this reason, and due to the mushroom’s rarity, collecting is not advised.

The spore print is pink.

 
Similar
Species

 

 
Distribution Distribution Map  

Sources: 4, 24, 26, 29, 30, 77.

 
Comments

 

 
Taxonomy

Division:

Basidiomycota (club fungi)

 

Subdivision:

Agaricomycotina (jelly fungi, yeasts, and mushrooms)

 

Class:

Agaricomycetes (mushroom-forming fungi)

 

Subclass:

Agaricomycetidae

 

Order:

Agaricales (gill mushrooms)

 

Family:

Pluteaceae

 
Synonyms

Agaricus aurantiorugosus

Pluteus caloceps

Pluteus coccineus

Pluteus leoninus

Pluteus leoninus var. coccineus

 
Common
Names

Flame Shield

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

Mycelium

The vegetative part of a fungus; consisting of a mass of branching, thread-like hyphae, through which a fungus absorbs nutrients from its environment; and excluding the fruiting, reproductive structure.

 

Saprobic

Obtaining nutrients from non-living organic matter, such as decaying plant or animal matter.

 

Striate

Striped or grooved in parallel lines (striae).

 

Umbonate

On mushrooms, having a distinct, raised, knob-like projection in the center of the cap.

       
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Maureen Burkle
       

There were only two, both near each other on same decaying hardwood (hackberry, maple or pine most likely) in the Izaac Walton Wetlands Preserve in SE Minnesota, Olmsted County.

  Flame Shield   Flame Shield
       
  Flame Shield    
       
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Maureen Burkle
9/15/2019

Location: Izaac Walton Wetlands Preserve in SE Minnesota, Olmsted County

There were only two, both near each other on same decaying hardwood (hackberry, maple or pine most likely) in the Izaac Walton Wetlands Preserve in SE Minnesota, Olmsted County.

Flame Shield


     
 
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Created: 9/23/2019

Last Updated:

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