Minnesota Birds


Class Aves

Aves (birds) is the class of animals that is characterized by being warm-blooded, laying hard-shelled eggs, and having a backbone, feathers, wings, a beak with no teeth, and two legs for forelimbs. They are the only clade of dinosaurs (Dinosauria) to have survived the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event 65.5 million years ago.

According to the Cornell Lab of Ornithology, there are 11,017 bird species in 250 families worldwide

The American Ornithological Society (AOS) Checklist of North and Middle American Birds covers an area that includes “North and Central America from the North Pole to the boundary of Panama and Colombia, including the adjacent islands under the jurisdiction of the included nations; the Hawaiian Islands; Clipperton Island; Bermuda; The West Indies, including the Bahama Islands, the Greater Antilles, Leeward and Windward Islands in the Lesser Antilles (ending with Grenada); and Swan, Providencia, and San Andrés Islands in the Gulf of Mexico.” The checklist has 2,186 bird species.

According to Avibase – The World Bird Database, hosted by Birds Canada, there are 2,377 bird species in North America north of Mexico, 1,203 species in the United States, and 458 species in Minnesota.

The Minnesota Ornithologists’ Union Checklist of the Birds of Minnesota lists 444 species.

  European Starling  


Recent Additions

White-winged Crossbill

White-winged Crossbill (Loxia leucoptera) is a colorful, medium-sized finch. It occurs in the temperate and subpolar regions of the Northern Hemisphere. In Minnesota it is common to uncommon in the northeastern coniferous and mixed forests, occasional to rare in the remainder of the state. Migration is irruptive, with large numbers visiting the state one year and none the following year.

White-winged Crossbill is found mostly in coniferous forests with spruce, tamarack, and eastern hemlock, sometimes in deciduous forests, and sometimes in towns.

White-winged Crossbill

Photo by Dan W. Andree

Adults feed mostly on spruce and tamarack seeds, but also on the seeds of other coniferous trees and deciduous trees, and occasionally on insects.

White-winged Crossbill breeding male is pinkish-red with black wings and tail. There are two bold white wing bars on each wing. This is the feature that gives the species its common name. The tips of the bill are crossed over, an adaptation that helps when extracting seeds from a spruce seed cone. Females are greenish-yellow streaked with brown.

Cape May Warbler

Cape May Warbler (Setophaga tigrina) is a small perching bird but a medium-sized New World Warbler. Its breeds in Canada from Nova Scotia to the Northwest Territories, and in the United States in northern New England and the Upper Midwest. It builds its nest in a mature forest near the top of a tall spruce or balsam fir tree usually near the trunk. In Minnesota it breeds in Arrowhead region. It winters in the West Indies. It is an uncommon migrant in most of the state in May and from early August through October. It is rare in the west. It feeds on insects, especially spruce budworm, and on flower nectar and fruit juices.

Cape May Warbler

Photo by Ramona Abrego

Cape May Warbler adult is about 5 in length and has a wingspan of about 8. On the breeding male, the upper parts are dark olive green, the chin, sides of the neck (“collar”), and rump are yellow. There is a large chestnut-brown ear patch and a dark eye line. The bill is thin, dark, and slightly curved downward. The breast and flanks are yellow with dark stripes that converge on the throat. The undertail coverts are white. On each wing there is a distinct white patch. The tail is short. The female is paler overall and has two thin white wing patches. The crown is olive-gray and there is a grayish cheek patch.

Lesser Yellowlegs

Lesser Yellowlegs (Tringa flavipes) is a medium-sized sandpiper. It nests in meadows and open woodlands from Alaska to Quebec, and winters mostly in South America. It is a common to locally abundant migrant throughout Minnesota from late March to early June and from July to October. In Minnesota it is found in marshes, wet meadows, mudflats, and flooded agricultural fields, and on the shores of lakes and ponds. It eats mostly flies, beetles, and other insects, but also spiders, small fish, snails, crustaceans, worms, and seeds.

Lesser Yellowlegs

Photo by Lynn Rubey

The population of Lesser Yellowlegs is declining due to habitat loss in part the result of climate change. However, the species range is extremely large and the species is not considered vulnerable.

A Lesser Yellowlegs looks similar to a Greater Yellowlegs but is smaller. The adult is 10 to 11 in length and has a wingspan of 24. It is a slender shorebird with a small head, a thin bill, and long, bright yellow legs. The nonbreeding plumage is uniformly gray on the upper side with fine, dark streaking. The underparts are white with small gray spots. There is a dark line from the bill to the eye. The bill is straight, thin, entirely black, and about the same length as the head.

Olive-sided Flycatcher

Olive-sided Flycatcher (Contopus cooperi) is a medium-sized tyrant flycatcher (family Tyrannidae) but a large “flycatcher” as that common name is applied. Only Great-crested Flycatcher is larger. It has the longest migration of any North American flycatcher. Breeding grounds are the Rocky and Cascade Mountains from Texas to Alaska, across Canada and the northern border states to Newfoundland and Vermont. In Minnesota the breeding range includes the northeast third of the state. Wintering grounds are mostly in Panama and the northern Andes Mountains from northern Venezuela to western Bolivia.

Olive-sided Flycatcher is the only North American flycatcher to feed exclusively on insects caught in flight. When feeding it perches at the top of a tree or on a dead branch, launching occasionally to catch a flying insect in the air, and returning often to the same perch. Small insects are consumed in the air. Larger insects returned to and beaten against the perch to subdue.

Olive-sided Flycatcher

Flycatchers are notoriously difficult to identify by plumage alone. Olive-sided Flycatcher is one exception to this rule. It is easily identified by its white breast and contrasting dark “vest”. It is further distinguished by its large size; indistinct pale wing bars; whitish undertail coverts with well-defined, dark, V-shaped markings; and inconspicuous eye ring.

Ruby-throated Hummingbird

Ruby-throated Hummingbird (Archilochus colubris) is the smallest breeding bird in the eastern United States and southeastern Canada. It is seldom seen but easily recognized because it is the only hummingbird that breeds in or migrates through Minnesota. It is a migratory bird, arriving in Minnesota in late April and early May. It is a solitary breeder—after mating the male has nothing more to do with the female or its offspring. In the fall, adults migrate across the Gulf of Mexico or along the western coast of Mexico to Central or South America.

Ruby-throated Hummingbird

Photo by Bill Reynolds

Other Recent Additions

Red Crossbill (Loxia curvirostra)

Least Sandpiper (Calidris minutilla)

Glossy Ibis (Plegadis falcinellus)

White-faced Ibis (Plegadis chihi)

White-winged Dove (Zenaida asiatica)

Black Tern (Chlidonias niger)

White-winged Dove

Photo by Earl Bye









This list includes only birds that have been recorded in Minnesota, but not all of the birds found in Minnesota.



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Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens)

American Avocet

American Bittern

American Coot

American Crow

American Goldfinch

American Kestrel

American Redstart

American Robin

American Tree Sparrow

American White Pelican

American Widgeon

American Woodcock

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Alder Flycatcher (Empidonax alnorum)

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American Avocet (Recurvirostra americana)

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American Bittern (Botaurus lentiginosus)

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American Black Duck (Anas rubripes)

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American Coot (Fulica americana)

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American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos)


American Golden Plover (Pluvialis dominica)

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American Goldfinch (Spinus tristis)

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American Goshawk (Accipiter atricapillus)

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American Kestrel (Falco sparverius)


American Pipit (Anthus rubescens)

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American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla)

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American Robin (Turdus migratorius)


American three-toed woodpecker (Picoides dorsalis)

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American Tree Sparrow (Spizelloides arborea)

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American White Pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos)

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American Widgeon (Mareca americana)

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American Woodcock (Scolopax minor)









































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Baird’s Sandpiper (Calidris bairdii)

Bald Eagle

Baltimore Oriole Nest

Bank Swallow

Barn Swallow

Barred Owl

Belted Kingfisher

Black Scoter

Black Tern

Black Vulture

Black-and-white Warbler

Black-bellied Whistling-Duck

Black-billed Cuckoo

Black-billed Magpie

Blackburnian Warbler

Black-capped Chickadee

Black-crowned Night Heron

Black-necked Stilt

Blackpoll Warbler

Blue Grosbeak

Blue Jay

Blue-gray Gnatcatcher (Polioptila caerulea)

Blue-headed Vireo

Blue-winged Teal

Blue-winged Warbler


Broad-winged Hawk

Brown Creeper

Brown Thrasher

Brown-headed Cowbird



Baird’s Sparrow (Ammodramus bairdii)

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Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus)

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Baltimore Oriole (Icterus galbula)

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Bank Swallow (Riparia riparia)


Barn Owl (Tyto alba)

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Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica)

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Barred Owl (Strix varia)


Barrow’s Goldeneye (Bucephala islandica)


Bay-breasted Warbler (Setophaga castanea)


Bell’s Vireo (Vireo bellii)

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Belted Kingfisher (Megaceryle alcyon)

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Black Scoter (Melanitta nigra)

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Black Tern (Chlidonias niger)

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Black Vulture (Coragyps atratus)

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Black-and-white Warbler (Mniotilta varia)


Black-backed Woodpecker (Picoides arcticus)


Black-bellied Plover (Pluvialis squatarola)

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Black-bellied Whistling-Duck (Dendrocygna autumnalis)

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Black-billed Cuckoo (Coccyzus erythropthalmus)

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Black-billed Magpie (Pica hudsonia)

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Blackburnian Warbler (Setophaga fusca)

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Black-capped Chickadee (Poecile atricapillus)

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Black-crowned Night Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax)

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Black-necked Stilt (Himantopus mexicanus)

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Blackpoll Warbler (Setophaga striata)


Black-throated Blue Warbler (Setophaga caerulescens)

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Black-throated Green Warbler (Setophaga virens)

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Blue Grosbeak (Passerina caerulea)

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Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata)

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Blue-gray Gnatcatcher (Polioptila caerulea)

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Blue-headed Vireo (Vireo solitarius)

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Blue-winged Teal (Spatula discors)

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Blue-winged Warbler (Vermivora cyanoptera)

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Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus)

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Bohemian Waxwing (Bombycilla garrulus)


Bonaparte’s Gull (Chroicocephalus philadelphia)


Boreal Chickadee (Poecile hudsonicus)

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Boreal Owl (Aegolius funereus)

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Brewer’s Blackbird (Euphagus cyanocephalus)

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Broad-winged Hawk (Buteo platypterus)

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Brown Creeper (Certhia americana)

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Brown Thrasher (Toxostoma rufum)

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Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater)


Buff-breasted Sandpiper (Tryngites subruficollis)

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Bufflehead (Bucephala albeola)


Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia)



































































































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Cackling Goose (Branta hutchinsii)

Canada Goose

Canada Jay

Canada Warbler

Cape May Warbler

Caspian Tern

Cedar Waxwing

Chestnut-sided Warbler

Chipping Sparrow

Clay-colored Sparrow

Cliff Swallow

Common Goldeneye

Common Grackle

Common Loon

Common Merganser

Common Nighthawk

Common Redpoll

Common Yellowthroat

Cooper’s Hawk

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Canada Goose (Branta canadensis)

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Canada Jay (Perisoreus canadensis)

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Canada Warbler (Cardellina canadensis)

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Canvasback (Aythya valisineria)

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Cape May Warbler (Setophaga tigrina)

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Caspian Tern (Hydroprogne caspia)

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Cedar Waxwing (Bombycilla cedrorum)

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Cerulean Warbler (Setophaga cerulea)


Chestnut-collared Longspur (Calcarius ornatus)

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Chestnut-sided Warbler (Setophaga pensylvanica)

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Chimney Swift (Chaetura pelagica)

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Chipping Sparrow (Spizella passerina)


Cinnamon Teal (Anas cyanoptera)


Clark’s Grebe (Aechmophorus clarkii)


Clark’s Nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana)

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Clay-colored Sparrow (Spizella pallida)

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Cliff Swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota)


Common Gallinule (Gallinula galeata)

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Common Goldeneye (Bucephala clangula)

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Common Grackle (Quiscalus quiscula)

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Common Loon (Gavia immer)

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Common Merganser (Mergus merganser)


Common Moorhen (Gallinula chloropus)

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Common Nighthawk (Chordeiles minor)

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Common Raven (Corvus corax)

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Common Redpoll (Acanthis flammea)

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Common Tern (Sterna hirundo)

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Common Yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas)


Connecticut Warbler (Oporonis agilis)

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Cooper’s Hawk (Accipiter cooperii)























































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Dark-eyed Junco (Junco hyemalis)

Dark-eyed Junco

Dark-eyed Junco

Double-crested Cormorant

Downy Woodpecker

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Dickcissel (Spiza americana)

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Double-crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus)

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Downy Woodpecker (Dryobates pubescens)


Dunlin (Calidris alpina)





















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Eared Grebe (Podiceps nigricollis)

Eastern Bluebird

Eastern Kingbird

Eastern Phoebe

Eastern Screech Owl

Eastern Towhee

Eastern Wood-peewee

Eurasian Collared-Dove

European Starling

Evening Grosbeak

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Eastern Bluebird (Sialia sialis)

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Eastern Kingbird (Tyrannus tyrannus)

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Eastern Meadowlark (Sturnella magna)

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Eastern Phoebe (Sayornis phoebe)

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Eastern Screech Owl (Megascops asio)

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Eastern Towhee (Pipilo erythrophthalmus)


Eastern Whip-poor-will (Caprimulgus vociferus)

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Eastern Wood-peewee (Contopus virens)

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Eurasian Collared-Dove (Streptopelia decaocto)

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European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris)

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Evening Grosbeak (Coccothraustes vespertinus)







































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Ferruginous Hawk (Buteo regalis)

Field Sparrow

Forster’s Tern

Fox Sparrow

Franklin’s Gull

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Field Sparrow (Spizella pusilla)

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Forster’s Tern (Sterna forsteri)

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Fox Sparrow (Passerella iliaca)

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Franklin’s Gull (Leucophaeus pipixcan)














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Gadwall (Mareca strepera)

Glossy Ibis

Golden Eagle

Golden-crowned Kinglet

Golden-winged Warbler

Grasshopper Sparrow

Gray Catbird

Gray-cheeked Thrush

Great Blue Heron

Great Crested Flycatcher

Great Egret

Greater Prairie-chicken

Great Gray Owl

Great Horned Owl

Greater Scaup

Greater Yellowlegs

Green Heron

Green-winged Teal


Glaucous Gull (Larus hyperboreus)

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Glossy Ibis (Plegadis falcinellus)

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Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos)

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Golden-crowned Kinglet (Regulus satrapa)

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Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera)

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Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum)

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Gray Catbird (Dumetella carolinensis)

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Gray Partridge (Perdix perdix)

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Gray-cheeked Thrush (Catharus minimus)

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Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias)

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Great Crested Flycatcher (Myiarchus crinitus)

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Great Egret (Ardea alba)

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Greater Prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus cupido)

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Great Gray Owl (Strix nebulosa)

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Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus)

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Greater Scaup (Aythya marila)


Greater White-fronted Goose (Anser albifrons)

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Greater Yellowlegs (Tringa melanoleuca)

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Green Heron (Butorides virescens)

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Green-winged Teal (Anas crecca)


Gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus)



























































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Hairy Woodpecker (Leuconotopicus villosus)

Hairy Woodpecker

Harris’s Sparrow

Hermit Thrush

Herring Gull

Hooded Merganser

Horned Grebe

Horned Lark

House Finch

House Sparrow

House Wren

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Harris’s Sparrow (Zonotrichia querula)


Helmeted Guineafowl (Numida meleagris)

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Henslow’s Sparrow (Centronyx henslowii)

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Hermit Thrush (Catharus guttatus)

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Herring Gull (Larus argentatus)


Hoary Redpoll (Acanthis hornemanni)

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Hooded Merganser (Lophodytes cucullatus)


Hooded Warbler (Setophaga citrina)

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Horned Grebe (Podiceps auritus)

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Horned Lark (Eremophila alpestris)

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House Finch (Haemorhous mexicanus)

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House Sparrow (Passer domesticus)

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House Wren (Troglodytes aedon)


Hudsonian Godwit (Limosa haemastica)
































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Iceland Gull (Larus glaucoides)

Indigo Bunting
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Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea)






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Kentucky Warbler (Geothlypis formosa)


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Killdeer (Charadrius vociferus)

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King Rail (Rallus elegans)


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Lapland Longspur (Calcarius lapponicus)

Lapland Longspur

Lark Sparrow

Laughing Gull

Lazuli Bunting

Least Flycatcher

Least Sandpiper

Lesser Yellowlegs

Long-billed Curlew

Long-billed Dowitcher

Long-eared Owl

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Lark Sparrow (Chondestes grammacus)

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Laughing Gull (Leucophaeus atricilla)

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Lazuli Bunting (Passerina amoena)


Le Conte’s Sparrow (Ammodramus leconteii)


Least Bittern (Ixobrychus exilis)

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Least Flycatcher (Empidonax minimus)

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Least Sandpiper (Calidris minutilla)


Lesser Black-backed Gull (Larus fuscus)

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Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis)

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Lesser Yellowlegs (Tringa flavipes)

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Lewis’s Woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis)


Lincoln’s Sparrow (Melospiza lincolnii)


Little Blue Heron (Egrettacaerulea)

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Loggerhead Shrike (Lanius ludovicianus)

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Long-billed Curlew (Numenius americanus)

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Long-billed Dowitcher (Limnodromus scolopaceus)

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Long-eared Owl (Asio otus)


Long-tailed Duck (Clangula hyemalis)

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Louisiana Waterthrush (Parkesia motacilla)




















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Magnolia Warbler (Setophaga magnolia)

Magnolia Warbler


Marbled Godwit

Mourning Dove

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Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos)

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Marbled Godwit (Limosa fedoa)


Marsh Wren (Othorus palustris)


Merlin (Falco columbarius)


Mountain Bluebird (Sialia currucoides)

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Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura)


Mourning Warbler (Geothlypis tolmiei)


Mute Swan (Cygnus olor)






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Nashville Warbler (Leiothlypis ruficapilla)

Nashville Warbler

Northern Cardinal

Northern Flicker

Northern Harrier

Northern Hawk Owl

Northern Rough-winged Swallow

Northern Shoveler

Northern Shrike

Northern Waterthrush

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Nelson’s Sparrow (Ammospiza nelsoni)


Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus)

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Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis)

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Northern Flicker (Colaptes auratus)

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Northern Harrier (Circus hudsonius)

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Northern Hawk Owl (Surnia ulula)


Northern Mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos)


Northern Parula (Setophaga americana)

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Northern Pintail (Anas acuta)

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Northern Rough-winged Swallow (Stelgidopteryx serripennis)


Northern Saw-whet Owl (Aegolius acadicus)

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Northern Shoveler (Spatula clypeata)

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Northern Shrike (Lanius borealis)

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Northern Waterthrush (Parkesia noveboracensis)

























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Olive-sided Flycatcher (Contopus cooperi)

Olive-sided Flycatcher

Orchard Oriole



Orange-crowned Warbler (Vermivora celata)

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Orchard Oriole (Icterus spurius)

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Osprey (Pandion haliaetus)

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Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla)












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Palm Warbler (Setophaga palmarum)

Palm Warbler

Peregrine Falcon

Pied-billed Grebe

Pileated Woodpecker

Pine Grosbeak

Purple Finch

Purple Martin

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Pectoral Sandpiper (Calidris melanotos)

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Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus)


Philadelphia Vireo (Vireo philadelphicus)

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Pied-billed Grebe (Podilymbus podiceps)

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Pileated Woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus)

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Pine Grosbeak (Pinicola enucleator)


Pine Siskin (Carduelis pinus)


Pine Warbler (Setophaga pinus)


Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus)


Prairie Falcon (Falco mexicanus)


Prairie Warbler (Setophaga discolor)


Prothonotary Warbler (Protonotaria citrea)

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Purple Finch (Haemorhous purpureus)

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Purple Martin (Progne subis)


















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Red-bellied Woodpecker (Melanerpes carolinus)

Red-bellied Woodpecker

Red-breasted Merganser

Red-breasted Nuthatch

Red Crossbill

Red-eyed Vireo

Red-headed Woodpecker

Red-necked Grebe

Red-shouldered Hawk

Red-tailed Hawk

Red-winged Blackbird

Ring-billed Gull

Ring-necked Pheasant

Rose-breasted Grosbeak

Rough-legged Hawk

Ruby-crowned Kinglet

Ruby-throated Hummingbird

Ruddy Turnstone

Ruffed Grouse

Rusty Blackbird

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Red-breasted Merganser (Mergus serrator)

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Red-breasted Nuthatch (Sitta canadensis)

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Red Crossbill (Loxia curvirostra)

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Red-eyed Vireo (Vireo olivaceus)

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Redhead (Aythya americana)

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Red-headed Woodpecker (Melanerpes erythrocephalus)


Red Knot (Calidris canutus)

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Red-necked Grebe (Podiceps grisegena)


Red-necked Phalarope (Phalaropus lobatus)

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Red-shouldered Hawk (Buteo lineatus)

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Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis)


Red-throated Loon (Gavia stellata)

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Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus)

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Ring-billed Gull (Larus delawarensis)

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Ring-necked Duck (Aythya collaris)

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Ring-necked Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus)

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Rock Pigeon (Columba livia)

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Rose-breasted Grosbeak (Pheucticus ludovicianus)


Ross’s Goose (Chen rossii)

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Rough-legged Hawk (Buteo lagopus)

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Ruby-crowned Kinglet (Regulus calendula)

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Ruby-throated Hummingbird (Archilochus colubris)

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Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis)

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Ruddy Turnstone (Arenaria interpres)

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Ruffed Grouse (Bonasa umbellus)

  Photo Video Audio  

Rusty Blackbird (Euphagus carolinus)











































































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Sanderling (Calidris alba)

Sandhill Crane

Scarlet Tanager

Sedge Wren

Sharp-shinned Hawk

Sharp-tailed Grouse

Short-billed Dowitcher

Snow Bunting

Snowy Egret

Solitary Sandpiper

Song Sparrow


Spotted Sandpiper

Spotted Towhee

Swainson’s thrush

  Photo Video Audio  

Sandhill Crane (Antigone canadensis)

  Photo Video Audio  

Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis)


Say’s Phoebe (Sayornis saya)

  Photo Video Audio  

Scarlet Tanager (Piranga olivacea)

  Photo Video Audio  

Sedge Wren (Cistothorus platensis)


Semipalmated Plover (Charadrius semipalmatus)


Semipalmated Sandpiper (Calidris pusilla)

  Photo Video Audio  

Sharp-shinned Hawk (Accipiter striatus)

  Photo Video Audio  

Sharp-tailed Grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus)

  Photo Video Audio  

Short-billed Dowitcher (Limnodromus griseus)

  Photo Video Audio  

Short-eared Owl (Asio flammeus)

  Photo Video Audio  

Snow Bunting (Plectrophenax nivalis)

    Video Audio  

Snow Goose (Anser caerulescens)

  Photo Video Audio  

Snowy Egret (Egretta thula)

    Video Audio  

Snowy Owl (Bubo scandiacus)

  Photo Video Audio  

Solitary Sandpiper (Tringa solitaria)

  Photo Video Audio  

Song Sparrow (Melospiza melodia)

  Photo Video Audio  

Sora (Porzana carolina)

  Photo Video Audio  

Spotted Sandpiper (Actitis macularius)

  Photo Video Audio  

Spotted Towhee (Pipilo maculatus)


Sprague’s Pipit (Anthus spragueii)


Spruce Grouse (Falcipennis canadensis)


Stilt Sandpiper (Calidris himantopus)


Summer Tanager (Piranga rubra)


Surf Scoter (Melanitta perspicillata)


Swainson’s Hawk (Buteo swainsoni)

  Photo Video Audio  

Swainson’s Thrush (Catharus ustulatus)

  Photo Video Audio  

Swamp Sparrow (Melospiza georgiana)


swans (Cygnus spp.)































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  Photo Video Audio  

Tennessee Warbler (Leiothlypis peregrina)

Tennessee Warbler

Tree Swallow

Trumpeter Swan

Tundra Swan

Turkey Vulture


Townsend’s Solitaire (Myadestes townsendi)

  Photo Video Audio  

Tree Swallow (Tachycineta bicolor)


Tricolored Heron (Egretta tricolor)

  Photo Video Audio  

Trumpeter Swan (Cygnus buccinator)

    Video Audio  

Tufted Titmouse (Baeolophus bicolor)

  Photo Video Audio  

Tundra Swan (Cygnus columbianus)

  Photo Video Audio  

Turkey Vulture (Cathartes aura)
















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  Photo Video Audio  

Upland Sandpiper (Bartramia longicauda)

Dan W. Andree






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Varied Thrush (Ixoreus naevius)

Vesper Sparrow

Virginia Rail

    Video Audio  

Veery (Catharus fuscescens)

  Photo Video Audio  

Vesper Sparrow (Pooecetes gramineus)

  Photo Video Audio  

Virginia Rail (Rallus limicola)






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Warbling Vireo (Vireo gilvus)

Western Cattle Egret

Western Meadowlark

White-breasted Nuthatch

White-crowned Sparrow

White-faced Ibis

White-throated Sparrow

White-winged Crossbill

White-winged Dove

Wild Turkey


Wilson’s Snipe

Wood Duck

  Photo Video Audio  

Western Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis)

  Photo Video Audio  

Western Grebe (Aechmophorus occidentalis)


Western Kingbird (Tyrannus verticalis)

  Photo Video Audio  

Western Meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta)

  Photo Video Audio  

White-breasted Nuthatch (Sitta carolinensis)

  Photo Video Audio  

White-crowned Sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys)

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White-faced Ibis (Plegadis chihi)


White-rumped Sandpiper (Calidris fuscicollis)

  Photo Video Audio  

White-throated Sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis)

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White-winged Crossbill (Loxia leucoptera)

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White-winged Dove (Zenaida asiatica)


White-winged Scoter (Melanitta deglandi)


Whooping Crane (Grus americana)

  Photo Video Audio  

Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo)

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Willet (Tringa semipalmata)


Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii)

  Photo Video Audio  

Wilson’s Phalarope (Phalaropus tricolor)

  Photo Video Audio  

Wilson’s Snipe (Gallinago delicata)

  Photo Video Audio  

Wilson’s Warbler (Cardellina pusilla)


Winter Wren (Troglodytes troglodytes)

  Photo Video Audio  

Wood Duck (Aix sponsa)

  Photo Video Audio  

Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina)



































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  Photo Video Audio  

Yellow Rail (Coturnicops noveboracensis)

Yellow Warbler

Yellow-bellied Flycatcher

Yellow-bellied Sapsucker

Yellow-headed Blackbird

Yellow-rumped Warbler


  Photo Video Audio  

Yellow Warbler (Setophaga petechia)

  Photo Video Audio  

Yellow-bellied Flycatcher (Empidonax flaviventris)

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Yello-bellied Sapsucker (Sphyrapicus varius)


Yellow-billed Cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus)


Yellow-crowned Night-heron (Nyctanassa violacea)

  Photo Video Audio  

Yellow-headed Blackbird (Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus)

  Photo Video Audio  

Yellow-rumped Warbler (Setophaga coronata)


Yellow-throated Vireo (Vireo flavifrons)


















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Acanthis flammea (Common Redpoll)

Acanthis hornemanni (Hoary Redpoll)

Accipiter cooperii (Cooper’s Hawk)

Accipiter atricapillus (American Goshawk)

Accipiter striatus (Sharp-shinned Hawk)

Actitis macularius (Spotted Sandpiper)

Aechmophorus clarkii (Clark’s Grebe)

Aechmophorus occidentalis (Western Grebe)

Aegolius acadicus (Northern Saw-whet Owl)

Aegolius funereus (Boreal Owl)

Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird)

Aix sponsa (Wood Duck)

Ammodramus bairdii (Baird’s Sparrow)

Ammodramus leconteii (Le Conte’s Sparrow)

Ammodramus savannarum (Grasshopper Sparrow)

Ammospiza nelsoni (Nelson’s Sparrow)

Anas acuta (Northern Pintail)

Spatula clypeata (Northern Shoveler)

Anas crecca (Green-winged Teal)

Anas cyanoptera (Cinnamon Teal)

Anas platyrhynchos (Mallard)

Anas rubripes (American Black Duck)

Anser albifrons (Greater White-fronted Goose)

Anser caerulescens (Snow Goose)

Anser rossii (Ross’s Goose)

Anthus rubescens (American Pipit)

Anthus spragueii (Sprague’s Pipit)

Antigone canadensis (Sandhill Crane)

Aquila chrysaetos (Golden Eagle)

Archilochus colubris (Ruby-throated Hummingbird)

Ardea alba (Great Egret)

Ardea herodias (Great Blue Heron)

Arenaria interpres (Ruddy Turnstone)

Asio flammeus (Short-eared Owl)

Asio otus (Long-eared Owl)

Athene cunicularia (Burrowing Owl)

Aythya affinis (Lesser Scaup)

Aythya americana (Redhead)

Aythya collaris (Ring-necked Duck)

Aythya marila (Greater Scaup)

Aythya valisineria (Canvasback)




Baeolophus bicolor (Tufted Titmouse)

Bartramia longicauda (Upland Sandpiper)

Bombycilla cedrorum (Cedar Waxwing)

Bombycilla garrulus (Bohemian Waxwing)

Bonasa umbellus (Ruffed Grouse)

Botaurus lentiginosus (American Bittern)

Branta canadensis (Canada Goose)

Branta hutchinsii (Cackling Goose)

Bubo scandiacus (Snowy Owl)

Bubo virginianus (Great Horned Owl)

Bubulcus ibis (Western Cattle Egret)

Bucephala albeola (Bufflehead)

Bucephala clangula (Common Goldeneye)

Bucephala islandica (Barrow’s Goldeneye)

Buteo jamaicensis (Red-tailed Hawk)

Buteo lagopus (Rough-legged Hawk)

Buteo lineatus (Red-shouldered Hawk)

Buteo platypterus (Broad-winged Hawk)

Buteo regalis (Ferruginous Hawk)

Buteo swainsoni (Swainson’s Hawk)

Butorides virescens (Green Heron)




Calcarius lapponicus (Lapland Longspur)

Calcarius ornatus (Chestnut-collared Longspur)

Calidris alba (Sanderling)

Calidris alpina (Dunlin)

Calidris bairdii (Baird's Sandpiper)

Calidris canutus (Red Knot)

Calidris fuscicollis (White-rumped Sandpiper)

Calidris himantopus (Stilt Sandpiper)

Calidris melanotos (Pectoral Sandpiper)

Calidris minutilla (Least Sandpiper)

Calidris pusilla (Semipalmated Sandpiper)

Caprimulgus vociferus (Eastern Whip-poor-will)

Cardellina canadensis (Canada Warbler)

Cardellina pusilla (Wilson’s Warbler)

Cardinalis cardinalis (Northern Cardinal)

Carduelis pinus (Pine Siskin)

Cathartes aura (Turkey Vulture)

Catharus fuscescens (Veery)

Catharus guttatus (Hermit Thrush)

Catharus minimus (Gray-cheeked Thrush)

Catharus ustulatus (Swainson’s Thrush)

Centronyx henslowii (Henslow’s Sparrow)

Certhia americana (Brown Creeper)

Chaetura pelagica (Chimney Swift)

Charadrius melodus (Piping Plover)

Charadrius semipalmatus (Semipalmated Plover)

Charadrius vociferus (Killdeer)

Chlidonias niger (Black Tern)

Chondestes grammacus (Lark Sparrow)

Chordeiles minor (Common Nighthawk)

Chroicocephalus philadelphia (Bonaparte’s Gull)

Circus hudsonius (Northern Harrier)

Cistothorus platensis (Sedge Wren)

Clangula hyemalis (Long-tailed Duck)

Coccothraustes vespertinus (Evening Grosbeak)

Coccyzus americanus (Yellow-billed Cuckoo)

Coccyzus erythropthalmus (Black-billed Cuckoo)

Colaptes auratus (Northern Flicker)

Colinus virginianus (Northern Bobwhite)

Columba livia (Rock Pigeon)

Contopus cooperi (Olive-sided Flycatcher)

Contopus virens (Eastern Wood-peewee)

Coragyps atratus (Black Vulture)

Corvus brachyrhynchos (American Crow)

Corvus corax (Common Raven)

Coturnicops noveboracensis (Yellow Rail)

Cyanocitta cristata (Blue Jay)

Cygnus buccinator (Trumpeter Swan)

Cygnus columbianus (Tundra Swan)

Cygnus olor (Mute Swan)

Cygnus spp. (swan)




Dendrocygna autumnalis (Black-bellied Whistling-Duck)

Dolichonyx oryzivorus (Bobolink)

Dryobates pubescens (Downy Woodpecker)

Dryocopus pileatus (Pileated Woodpecker)

Dumetella carolinensis (Gray Catbird)




Egretta thula (Snowy Egret)

Egretta tricolor (Tricolored Heron)

Egrettacaerulea (Little Blue Heron)

Empidonax alnorum (Alder Flycatcher)

Empidonax flaviventris (Yellow-bellied Flycatcher)

Empidonax minimus (Least Flycatcher)

Empidonax traillii (Willow Flycatcher)

Empidonax virescens (Acadian Flycatcher)

Eremophila alpestris (Horned Lark)

Euphagus carolinus (Rusty Blackbird)

Euphagus cyanocephalus (Brewer’s Blackbird)




Falcipennis canadensis (Spruce Grouse)

Falco columbarius (Merlin)

Falco mexicanus (Prairie Falcon)

Falco peregrinus (Peregrine Falcon)

Falco rusticolus (Gyrfalcon)

Falco sparverius (American Kestrel)

Fulica americana (American Coot)




Gallinago delicata (Wilson’s Snipe)

Gallinula chloropus (Common Moorhen)

Gallinula galeata (Common Gallinule)

Gavia immer (Common Loon)

Gavia stellata (Red-throated Loon)

Geothlypis formosa (Kentucky Warbler)

Geothlypis tolmiei (Mourning Warbler)

Geothlypis trichas (Common Yellowthroat)

Grus americana (Whooping Crane)




Haemorhous mexicanus (House Finch)

Haemorhous purpureus (Purple Finch)

Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Bald Eagle)

Himantopus mexicanus (Black-necked Stilt)

Hirundo rustica (Barn Swallow)

Hydroprogne caspia (Caspian Tern)

Hylocichla mustelina (Wood Thrush)




Icterus galbula (Baltimore Oriole)

Icterus spurius (Orchard Oriole)

Ixobrychus exilis (Least Bittern)

Ixoreus naevius (Varied Thrush)



Junco hyemalis (Dark-eyed Junco)







Lanius borealis (Northern Shrike)

Lanius ludovicianus (Loggerhead Shrike)

Larus argentatus (Herring Gull)

Larus delawarensis (Ring-billed Gull)

Larus fuscus (Lesser Black-backed Gull)

Larus glaucoides (Iceland Gull)

Larus hyperboreus (Glaucous Gull)

Leiothlypis peregrina (Tennessee Warbler)

Leiothlypis ruficapilla (Nashville Warbler)

Leuconotopicus villosus (Hairy Woodpecker)

Leucophaeus atricilla (Laughing Gull)

Leucophaeus pipixcan (Franklin’s Gull)

Limnodromus griseus (Short-billed Dowitcher)

Limnodromus scolopaceus (Long-billed Dowitcher)

Limosa fedoa (Marbled Godwit)

Limosa haemastica (Hudsonian Godwit)

Lophodytes cucullatus (Hooded Merganser)

Loxia curvirostra (Red Crossbill)

Loxia leucoptera (White-winged Crossbill)




Mareca americana (American Widgeon)

Mareca strepera (Gadwall)

Megaceryle alcyon (Belted Kingfisher)

Megascops asio (Eastern Screech Owl)

Melanerpes carolinus (Red-bellied Woodpecker)

Melanerpes erythrocephalus (Red-headed Woodpecker)

Melanerpes lewis (Lewis’s Woodpecker)

Melanitta deglandi (White-winged Scoter)

Melanitta nigra (Black Scoter)

Melanitta perspicillata (Surf Scoter)

Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey)

Melospiza georgiana (Swamp Sparrow)

Melospiza lincolnii (Lincoln’s Sparrow)

Melospiza melodia (Song Sparrow)

Mergus merganser (Common Merganser)

Mergus serrator (Red-breasted Merganser)

Mimus polyglottos (Northern Mockingbird)

Mniotilta varia (Black-and-white Warbler)

Molothrus ater (Brown-headed Cowbird)

Myadestes townsendi (Townsend’s Solitaire)

Myiarchus crinitus (Great Crested Flycatcher)




Nucifraga columbiana (Clark’s Nutcracker)

Numenius americanus (Long-billed Curlew)

Numida meleagris (Helmeted Guineafowl)

Nyctanassa violacea (Yellow-crowned Night-heron)

Nycticorax nycticorax (Black-crowned Night Heron)




Oporonis agilis (Connecticut Warbler)

Othorus palustris (Marsh Wren)

Oxyura jamaicensis (Ruddy Duck)




Pandion haliaetus (Osprey)

Parkesia motacilla (Louisiana Waterthrush)

Parkesia noveboracensis (Northern Waterthrush)

Passer domesticus (House Sparrow)

Passerculus sandwichensis (Savannah Sparrow)

Passerella iliaca (Fox Sparrow)

Passerina amoena (Lazuli Bunting)

Passerina caerulea (Blue Grosbeak)

Passerina cyanea (Indigo Bunting)

Pelecanus erythrorhynchos (American White Pelican)

Perdix perdix (Gray Partridge)

Perisoreus canadensis (Canada Jay)

Petrochelidon pyrrhonota (Cliff Swallow)

Phalacrocorax auritus (Double-crested Cormorant)

Phalaropus lobatus (Red-necked Phalarope)

Phalaropus tricolor (Wilson’s Phalarope)

Phasianus colchicus (Ring-necked Pheasant)

Pheucticus ludovicianus (Rose-breasted Grosbeak)

Pica hudsonia (Black-billed Magpie)

Picoides arcticus (Black-backed Woodpecker)

Picoides dorsalis (American three-toed woodpecker)

Pinicola enucleator (Pine Grosbeak)

Pipilo erythrophthalmus (Eastern Towhee)

Pipilo maculatus (Spotted Towhee)

Piranga olivacea (Scarlet Tanager)

Piranga rubra (Summer Tanager)

Plectrophenax nivalis (Snow Bunting)

Plegadis chihi (White-faced Ibis)

Plegadis falcinellus (Glossy Ibis)

Pluvialis dominica (American Golden Plover)

Pluvialis squatarola (Black-bellied Plover)

Podiceps auritus (Horned Grebe)

Podiceps grisegena (Red-necked Grebe)

Podiceps nigricollis (Eared Grebe)

Podilymbus podiceps (Pied-billed Grebe)

Poecile atricapillus (Black-capped Chickadee)

Poecile hudsonicus (Boreal Chickadee)

Polioptila caerulea (Blue-gray Gnatcatcher)

Pooecetes gramineus (Vesper Sparrow)

Porzana carolina (Sora)

Progne subis (Purple Martin)

Protonotaria citrea (Prothonotary Warbler)



Quiscalus quiscula (Common Grackle)




Rallus elegans (King Rail)

Rallus limicola (Virginia Rail)

Recurvirostra americana (American Avocet)

Regulus calendula (Ruby-crowned Kinglet)

Regulus satrapa (Golden-crowned Kinglet)

Riparia riparia (Bank Swallow)




Sayornis phoebe (Eastern Phoebe)

Sayornis saya (Say’s Phoebe)

Scolopax minor (American Woodcock)

Seiurus aurocapilla (Ovenbird)

Setophaga americana (Northern Parula)

Setophaga caerulescens (Black-throated Blue Warbler)

Setophaga castanea (Bay-breasted Warbler)

Setophaga cerulea (Cerulean Warbler)

Setophaga citrina (Hooded Warbler)

Setophaga coronata (Yellow-rumped Warbler)

Setophaga discolor (Prairie Warbler)

Setophaga fusca (Blackburnian Warbler)

Setophaga magnolia (Magnolia Warbler)

Setophaga palmarum (Palm Warbler)

Setophaga pensylvanica (Chestnut-sided Warbler)

Setophaga petechia (Yellow Warbler)

Setophaga pinus (Pine Warbler)

Setophaga ruticilla (American Redstart)

Setophaga striata (Blackpoll Warbler)

Setophaga tigrina (Cape May Warbler)

Setophaga virens (Black-throated Green Warbler)

Sialia currucoides (Mountain Bluebird)

Sialia sialis (Eastern Bluebird)

Sitta canadensis (Red-breasted Nuthatch)

Sitta carolinensis (White-breasted Nuthatch)

Spatula discors (Blue-winged Teal)

Sphyrapicus varius (Yellow-bellied Sapsucker)

Spinus tristis (American Goldfinch)

Spiza americana (Dickcissel)

Spizella pallida (Clay-colored Sparrow)

Spizella passerina (Chipping Sparrow)

Spizella pusilla (Field Sparrow)

Spizelloides arborea (American Tree Sparrow)

Stelgidopteryx serripennis (Northern Rough-winged Swallow)

Sterna forsteri (Forster’s Tern)

Sterna hirundo (Common Tern)

Streptopelia decaocto (Eurasian Collared-Dove)

Strix nebulosa (Great Gray Owl)

Strix varia (Barred Owl)

Sturnella magna (Eastern Meadowlark)

Sturnella neglecta (Western Meadowlark)

Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling)

Surnia ulula (Northern Hawk Owl)




Tachycineta bicolor (Tree Swallow)

Toxostoma rufum (Brown Thrasher)

Tringa flavipes (Lesser Yellowlegs)

Tringa melanoleuca (Greater Yellowlegs)

Tringa semipalmata (Willet)

Tringa solitaria (Solitary Sandpiper)

Troglodytes aedon (House Wren)

Troglodytes troglodytes (Winter Wren)

Tryngites subruficollis (Buff-breasted Sandpiper)

Turdus migratorius (American Robin)

Tympanuchus cupido (Greater Prairie-chicken)

Tympanuchus phasianellus (Sharp-tailed Grouse)

Tyrannus tyrannus (Eastern Kingbird)

Tyrannus verticalis (Western Kingbird)

Tyto alba (Barn Owl)







Vermivora celata (Orange-crowned Warbler)

Vermivora chrysoptera (Golden-winged Warbler)

Vermivora cyanoptera (Blue-winged Warbler)

Vireo bellii (Bell’s Vireo)

Vireo flavifrons (Yellow-throated Vireo)

Vireo gilvus (Warbling Vireo)

Vireo olivaceus (Red-eyed Vireo)

Vireo philadelphicus (Philadelphia Vireo)

Vireo solitarius (Blue-headed Vireo)






Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus (Yellow-headed Blackbird)







Zenaida asiatica (White-winged Dove)

Zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove)

Zonotrichia albicollis (White-throated Sparrow)

Zonotrichia leucophrys (White-crowned Sparrow)

Zonotrichia querula (Harris’s Sparrow)




No Species Page Yet?

If you do not see a linked page for a bird in the list at left you can still upload a photo or video or report a sighting for that bird. Click on one of the buttons below and type in the common name and/or scientific name of the bird in your photo, video, or sighting. A new page will be created for that bird featuring your contribution.

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Simply email us at info@MinnesotaSeasons.com.


Capitalization of Common Names

Bird common names are governed by the International Ornithologists’ Union (IOU). In 1991 the IOU began a project to standardize English language names of birds. The goal was to officially sanction a single, unique name for each species. In 2006 the project was completed and the resulting list was published in book form as Birds of the World: Recommended English Names, by Frank Gill & Minturn Wright. According to the IOU, English language bird names have “graduated from the realm of ‘common/vernacular’ names,” and must be regarded as proper nouns. For this reason, bird common names are capitalized.


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