upland boneset

(Eupatorium sessilifolium var. brittonianum)

Conservation Status

 

No image available

  IUCN Red List

not listed

     
  NatureServe

N5 - Secure

S2 - Imperiled

     
  Minnesota

not listed

     
           
           
 
Description
 
 

Upland boneset (var. brittonianum) is a 2 to 5 tall, erect, perennial forb that rises on a single stem from a short caudex or rhizome.

The stem is erect, sparsely branched near the top, and leafy. It is hairless except in the inflorescence.

The leaves are opposite, sometimes alternate near the top, hairless, dotted with glands, and lance-shaped. They are mostly stalkless or are attached to the stem on short leaf stalks. The bases are usually broadly rounded, sometimes squared off, but do not wrap around the stem. They taper from above the base to a point at the tip. They are 2 to 5 times as long as wide. The lower leaves are 2¾ to 6 long and ⅓″ to 1 wide, becoming smaller as they ascend the stem. The veins are arranged like the vanes of a feather, with a single prominent midvein extending from the base to the tip and lateral veins originating from several points on each side (pinnately veined). The blade margins have sharp, forward-pointing teeth all the way to the base.

The inflorescence is a branched, widely-spaced cluster of flower heads at the end of the stem and stem branch.

The flower heads are cylinder-shaped. Each flower contains 5 or sometimes 6 disk florets and no ray florets. Each disk floret consists of a white flower tube with 5 short, spreading lobes. A white, forked style protrudes from the floral tube well beyond the lobes.

The fruit is a tiny dark achene with a small tuft of 30 to 40 hairs.

 
     
 

Height

 
 

2 to 5

 
     
 

Flower Color

 
 

White

 
     
 

Similar Species

 
 

Canada goldenrod (Solidago canadensis) is similar in appearance when not in bloom.

Common boneset (Eupatorium perfoliatum var. perfoliatum) leaves are fused around the stem at their bases. They have a conspicuous network of veins, depressed on the upper surface of the blade, giving the blade a wrinkled appearance. The leaf margins have rounded teeth. Each flower contains 9 to 23 disk florets. The flowers are fragrant. The fruit has a tuft of 20 to 30 hairs. It occurs in wetter habitats.

Tall boneset (Eupatorium altissimum) leaves are pointed at both ends. They have 3 prominent lateral veins. The leaf margins are untoothed near the base, toothed above the middle. Each flower contains just 5 disk florets.

White snakeroot (Ageratina altissima var. altissima) leaves are shorter, wider, and on long leaf stalks. The flower heads are much larger.

 
     
 
Habitat
 
 

Dry. Oak woodland edges.

 
     
 
Biology
 
 

Flowering

 
 

August to September

 
     
 

Pests and Diseases

 
 

white snakeroot leaf miner (Liriomyza eupatoriella)

 
     
 
Use
 
 

 

 
     
 
Distribution
 
 

Distribution Map

 

Sources

2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 28.

 
  8/3/2014      
         
 

Nativity

 
 

Native

 
         
 

Occurrence

 
 

 

 
         
 
Taxonomy
 
  Kingdom Plantae (green algae and land plants)  
  Subkingdom Viridiplantae (green plants)  
  Infrakingdom Streptophyta (land plants and green algae)  
  Superdivision Embryophyta (land plants)  
  Division Tracheophyta (vascular plants)  
  Subdivision Spermatophytina (seed plants)  
  Class Magnoliopsida (flowering plants)  
  Superorder Asteranae  
 

Order

Asterales (sunflowers, bellflowers, fanflowers, and allies)  
 

Family

Asteraceae (sunflowers, daisies, asters, and allies)  
  Subfamily Asteroideae  
  Supertribe Helianthodae  
  Tribe Eupatorieae (bonesets, blazingstars, and allies)  
  Subtribe Eupatoriinae  
 

Genus

Eupatorium (thoroughwort)  
  Species Eupatorium sessilifolium (upland boneset)  
       
 

Subordinate Taxa

 
 

Three varieties of Eupatorium sessilifolium have been described, based on the length and width of the leaves. Only var. brittonianum occurs in Minnesota. HHowever, there is a lot on intergradation between the varieties. Recognition of the varieties is not accepted by all toxonomists.

 
       
 

Synonyms

 
     
       
 

Common Names

 
 

upland boneset

woodland boneset

 
       

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

Achene

A dry, one-chambered, single-seeded fruit, formed from a single carpel, with the seed attached to the membranous outer layer (wall) only by the seed stalk; the wall, formed entirely from the wall of the superior ovary, does not split open at maturity, but relies on decay or predation to release the contents.

 

Caudex

A short, thickened, woody, persistent enlargement of the stem, at or below ground level, used for water storage.

 

Pinnately veined

With the veins arranged like the vanes of a feather; a single prominent midvein extending from the base to the tip and lateral veins originating from several points on each side.

 

Rhizome

A horizontal, usually underground stem. It serves as a reproductive structure, producing roots below and shoots above at the nodes.

       
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