upland boneset

(Eupatorium sessilifolium var. brittonianum)

               
Conservation Status

IUCN Red List

not listed

 

No image available

NatureServe

N5 - Secure

S2 - Imperiled

Minnesota

Threatened
Nativity

Native

Occurrence

 

Habitat

Dry. Oak woodland edges.

Flowering

August to September

     
Flower Color

White

     
Height

2 to 5

     
 
Identification

This is a 2 to 5 tall, erect, perennial forb that rises on a single stem from a short caudex or rhizome.

The stem is erect, sparsely branched near the top, and leafy. It is hairless except in the inflorescence.

The leaves are opposite, sometimes alternate near the top, hairless, dotted with glands, and lance-shaped. They are mostly stalkless or are attached to the stem on short leaf stalks. The bases are usually broadly rounded, sometimes squared off, but do not wrap around the stem. They taper from above the base to a point at the tip. They are 2 to 5 times as long as wide. The lower leaves are 2¾ to 6 long and to 1 wide, becoming smaller as they ascend the stem. The veins are arranged like the vanes of a feather, with a single prominent midvein extending from the base to the tip and lateral veins originating from several points on each side (pinnately veined). The blade margins have sharp, forward-pointing teeth all the way to the base.

The inflorescence is a branched, widely-spaced cluster of flower heads at the end of the stem and stem branch.

The flower heads are cylinder-shaped. Each flower contains 5 or sometimes 6 disk florets and no ray florets. Each disk floret consists of a white flower tube with 5 short, spreading lobes. A white, forked style protrudes from the floral tube well beyond the lobes.

The fruit is a tiny dark achene with a small tuft of 30 to 40 hairst.

 
Similar
Species

Canada goldenrod (Solidago canadensis) is similar in appearance when not in bloom.

Common boneset (Eupatorium perfoliatum var. perfoliatum) leaves are fused around the stem at their bases. They have a conspicuous network of veins, depressed on the upper surface of the blade, giving the blade a wrinkled appearance. The leaf margins have rounded teeth. Each flower contains 9 to 23 disk florets. The flowers are fragrant. The fruit has a tuft of 20 to 30 hairs. It occurs in wetter habitats.

Tall boneset (Eupatorium altissimum) leaves are pointed at both ends. They have 3 prominent lateral veins. The leaf margins are untoothed near the base, toothed above the middle. Each flower contains just 5 disk florets.

White snakeroot (Ageratina altissima var. altissima) leaves are shorter, wider, and on long leaf stalks. The flower heads are much larger.

 
Pests and Diseases

Leaf miner fly (Liriomyza eupatoriella)

 
Distribution Distribution Map   Sources: 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 28.
 
Comments

 

 
Taxonomy

Family:

Asteraceae (aster)

 

Subfamily:

Asteroideae

 

Supertribe:

Helianthodae

 

Tribe:

Eupatorieae

 

Subtribe:

Eupatoriinae

 
Synonyms

 

 
Common
Names

upland boneset

woodland boneset

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

Achene

A dry, one-chambered, single-seeded fruit, formed from a single carpel, with the seed attached to the membranous outer layer (wall) only by the seed stalk; the wall, formed entirely from the wall of the superior ovary, does not split open at maturity, but relies on decay or predation to release the contents.

 

Caudex

A short, thickened, woody, persistent enlargement of the stem, at or below ground level, used for water storage.

 

Pinnately veined

With the veins arranged like the vanes of a feather; a single prominent midvein extending from the base to the tip and lateral veins originating from several points on each side.

 

Rhizome

A horizontal, usually underground stem. It serves as a reproductive structure, producing roots below and shoots above at the nodes.

       
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