broad-leaved arrowhead

(Sagittaria latifolia)

               
Conservation Status

IUCN Red List

not yet assessed

broad-leaved arrowhead

NatureServe

N5 - Secure

SNR - Unranked

Minnesota

not listed

Wetland
Indicator
Status

Great Plains

OBL - Obligate wetland

Midwest

OBL - Obligate wetland

Northcentral & Northeast

OBL - Obligate wetland

Nativity

Native

 
Occurrence

Extremely frequent and widespread

 
Habitat

Shallow water. Margins of lakes and ponds, sloughs, marshes, fens, ditches, slow streams. Full or partial sun.

 
Flowering

July to August

     
Flower Color

White

     
Height

Up to 18 above water

     

Identification

This is an erect, perennial, emergent, aquatic forb that rises on a rosette of leaves and a single flowering stem from a tuft of coarse roots. It is found in water up to 5 deep and emerges above the water up to 18. The roots are tipped with starchy tubers (corms). The plant spreads by long, creeping, above-ground, horizontal stems (stolons), and it often forms dense colonies.

The leaves emerge from the water on long stalks (petioles). The petioles are stout, erect to ascending, and about as long as the water is deep. They are triangular in cross section for most of their length, round near the base. They are somewhat inflated and sheath the stem at the base.

The leaf blades normally held above the water (emersed). In the rare occurrences when the leaves are submerged the blades are absent or are very long and narrow (linear). When emersed, the leaf blades are arrow-shaped, 2 to 20 long, and ¾ to 3¾ wide, though they are usually no more than 12 long. The blade width is variable—it may be long and very narrow, with almost linear lobes, or wide with broadly elliptic or egg-shaped lobes. The lobes at the base of the blade normally point downward, rarely outward, and are half as long to as long as the rest of the blade. The tip of the blade is pointed and the tips of the lobes, when present, are sharply pointed. There is a prominent primary vein (midrib) extending from the base of the blade to the tip, and, when lobes are present, form the base of the blade to the tip of each lobe. There are also several slightly less prominent secondary veins arching from the base of the midrib to the tip of the blade and each lobe. These main veins are connected by numerous faint parallel veins. The upper and lower leaf surfaces are hairless or sparsely hairy. The margins are untoothed.

The inflorescence is usually an unbranched array (raceme), rarely a branched array (panicle), of 3 to 9 whorls of mostly 3 flowers per whorl. The flowering stalk (peduncle) is slender, unbent, and erect. It rises 4 to 24 above the surface of the water, often rising above the leaves. Separate male and female flowers occur on the same plant. Each flower is on an ascending, unthickened, to 2 long stalk (pedicel). The flowers in the upper whorls are male and are on short pedicels The flowers in the lower 1 to 5 whorls are female and are on longer, ascending pedicels. At the base of each pedicel there is a single, leaf-like appendage (bract). The bract is boat-shaped and to ½ long. It is broadest at the base and rounded or narrowly pointed at the tip. It is fused at the base for at least ¼ of its length with the other bract(s) at the base of the whorl of flowers.

Each flower is showy and up to 1½ in diameter. There are 3 sepals and 3 petals attached to the base of a globe-shaped receptacle. The sepals are pale green, egg-shaped, and 3 16to 7 16 long. They spread outward or are bent backward in flower and are always bent backward in fruit. The petals are white, unlobed, and to ¾ long. On the male flower there are 20 to 40 stamens with yellow anthers. The filaments are hairless, are longer than the anthers, and are not swollen at the base. On female flowers the receptacle is covered with 1,500 or more pistils. The pistils are arranged in a spiral pattern. The female flower does not have a ring of sterile stamens.

The fruiting head is a globe-shaped, to in diameter cluster of seed cases (achenes). The achene is inversely lance-shaped and 1 16 to long. It is ribbed but not winged. At the tip of the achene there is a conspicuous, 1 32to 116 long, prolonged tip (beak) that is at right angles to the body of the fruit.

 
Similar
Species

Arum-leaved arrowhead (Sagittaria cuneata) has submerged, floating, and emersed leaves. The floating leaves are arrowhead-shaped and are much smaller than the emersed leaves, no more than 3½ long. The lobes at the base of the blade are much shorter than the rest of the blade .The beak on the fruit is ascending to erect, not perpendicular, and is no more than 164 long.

Sessile-fruited arrowhead (Sagittaria rigida) inflorescence is abruptly bent at the lowest whorl of flowers.

Hooded arrowhead (Sagittaria montevidensis ssp. calycina) has bisexual and sometimes also male flowers but no female flowers. The bisexual flowers have a ring of sterile stamens around the receptacle. The sepals are appressed or ascending in fruit.


Distribution Distribution Map   Sources: 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 28.

Comments

 


Taxonomy

Family:

Alismataceae (water plantain)

 
Synonyms

Sagittaria engelmanniana ssp. longirostra

Sagittaria esculenta

Sagittaria latifolia var. latifolia

Sagittaria latifolia var. obtusa

Sagittaria latifolia var. pubescens

Sagittaria longirostra

Sagittaria obtusa

Sagittaria ornithorhyncha

Sagittaria planipes

Sagittaria pubescens

Sagittaria variabilis var. obtusa

Sagittaria viscosa

 
Common
Names

broadleaf arrowhead

broad-leaved arrowhead

common arrowhead

duck-potato

muskrat-potato

wapato

wapatoo


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

achene

A dry, one-chambered, single-seeded fruit, formed from a single carpel, with the seed attached to the membranous outer layer (wall) only by the seed stalk; the wall, formed entirely from the wall of the superior ovary, does not split open at maturity, but relies on decay or predation to release the contents.

 

beak

A comparatively short and stout, narrow or prolonged tip on a thickened organ, as on some fruits and seeds.

 

bract

Modified leaf at the base of a flower stalk or flower cluster.

 

corm

A short, solid, vertical, thickened, underground stem that serves as a storage organ.

 

emersed

Rooted in water but with most of the growth held above the surface of the water.

 

filament

On plants: The thread-like stalk of a stamen which supports the anther. On Lepidoptera: One of a pair of long, thin, fleshy extensions extending from the thorax, and sometimes also from the abdomen, of a caterpillar.

 

linear

Long, straight, and narrow, with more or less parallel sides, like a blade of grass.

 

panicle

A pyramidal inflorescence with a main stem and branches. Flowers on the lower, longer branches mature earlier than those on the shorter, upper ones.

 

pedicel

In plants: the stalk of a single flower in a cluster of flowers. In Hymenoptera and Araneae: the narrow stalk connecting the thorax to the abdomen.

 

peduncle

In angiosperms, the stalk of a single flower or a flower cluster; in club mosses, the stalk of a strobilus or a group of strobili.

 

petiole

The stalk of a leaf blade or compound leaf that attaches the leaf blade to the stem.

 

raceme

An unbranched, elongated inflorescence with stalked flowers. The flowers mature from the bottom up.

 

receptacle

The thickened, upper part of a flower stalk to which flowers or flower parts are attached. In composite flowers, the part on which the flowers are borne. In accessory fruits the receptacle gives rise to the edible part of the fruit.

 

stolon

An above-ground, creeping stem that grows along the ground and produces roots and sometimes new plants at its nodes. A runner.

       

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Inflorescence

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Male Flowers

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Female Flowers

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Leaves

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  Broad-leaved Arrowhead (Sagittaria latifolia)
Bill Keim
 
  Broad-leaved Arrowhead (Sagittaria latifolia)  
     
  Sagittaria latifolia (Common Arrowhead)
Allen Chartier
 
  Sagittaria latifolia (Common Arrowhead)  

 

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  common arrowhead / broadleaf arrowhead (Sagittaria latifolia)
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About

Uploaded on May 19, 2010

Aquatic and Invasive Plant Identification Series by the UF/IFAS Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants ( http://plants.ifas.ufl.edu ) and the Florida Fish and Wildlife Commission, Invasive Plant Management Section.

For more information about common arrowhead / broadleaf arrowhead, go to http://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/node/389

Video editor/videographer - Phil Chiocchio

 
     
  Broadleaf Arrowhead (Sagittaria latifolia)
AquariumFishAndPlant
 
   
 
About

Published on Aug 22, 2012

Also called duck potato, Indian potato, or wapato. This plant produces edible tubers that were extensively used by the Indigenous peoples of the Americas.

 
     

 

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