solidstem burnet saxifrage

(Pimpinella saxifraga ssp. saxifraga)

Conservation Status
solidstem burnet saxifrage
 
  IUCN Red List

not listed

     
  NatureServe

NNA - Not applicable

SNA - Not applicable

     
  Minnesota

not listed

     
           
Weed Status
   
 

Solidstem burnet saxifrage is a restricted invasive plant in Wisconsin. Minnesota does not list it as invasive. According to the Minnesota Department of Transportation, there are “several infestations” in Elm Creek Park Reserve.

     
           
Wetland Indicator Status
     
  Midwest

UPL - Obligate upland

     
  Northcentral & Northeast

FACU - Facultative upland

     
           
 
Description
 
 

Solidstem burnet saxifrage is a 12 to 32 tall, erect, perennial forb that rises on one to several stems from a dark, thick, branched, semi-woody taproot.

The stems are branched, round, and hollow when young but soon becoming filled with pith. They are very slightly ribbed, more so near the bottom, and are densely covered with very short hairs.

The leaves are alternate. Basal leaves are oval in outline and up to 12 long. They are pinnately divided (once-pinnate) into several pairs of opposite leaflets and a terminal leaflet. The central axis (rachis) is short-hairy. The leaflets are broadly egg-shaped to almost round and are covered with short hairs. They are coarsely toothed and sometimes shallowly lobed. The terminal leaflet is often deeply lobed. Lower stem leaves are similar but smaller, and become even smaller and less divided as they ascend the stem.

Middle stem leaves are pinnately divided into several segments. Each segment is again pinnately divided (twice pinnate) into several narrow, pointed lobes. The lobes are often themselves lobed. Upper stem leaves are much smaller. They are once-pinnate with narrow, widely-separated leaflets. The leaf stalk forms a sheath at the base that wraps around the stem. Sometimes only the sheath is present and the sheath may have one or more small leaflets at the tip. The sheaths are noticeably grooved lengthwise (striate) and often turn purplish.

The inflorescence is a compound, umbrella-shaped cluster (umbel) at the end of the stem and each branch. The umbel is stalked, round, more or less flat-topped, and ¾ to 2 in diameter. It has 8 to 20 slender branches (rays). The rays are to 1¾ long and hairless. At the end of each ray is a smaller, secondary umbel (umbellet). There are no modified leaves (bracts) at the base of the umbel and no secondary bracts (bracteoles) at the base of the umbellets. There are 6 to 20 individual flowers in each umbellet.

The flowers are about 3 16 (5 mm) wide. Inner flowers of the umbellet are symmetrical on every plane, like a starfish (actinomorphic). Outer flowers are sometimes symmetrical on only one plane (zygomorphic). There are sometimes 1 or more minute sepals, but usually there are none. There are 5 petals, 5 stamens, and 2 styles. The petals are white, sometimes tinged with pink, and inversely egg-shaped. The tip of each petal curves deeply inward, making the petal appear notched when viewed at a distance. The underside is hairy. The styles are white and straight. They spread out widely from the base like the arms of a TV antenna of the 1960s. They are shorter than the petals when in flower, elongating as the fruit develops, then dropping off when the fruit ripens.

The fruit is dry, dark brown, broadly egg-shaped to elliptic, 1 16 to (2 to 2.5 mm) long capsule containing 2 seeds.

 
     
 

Height

 
 

12 to 32

 
     
 

Flower Color

 
 

White

 
     
 

Similar Species

 
     
     
 
Habitat
 
 

Dry. Meadows, pastures, abandoned fields, roadsides, and disturbed areas. Full sun. Sandy and calcareous soils with short turf.

 
     
 
Biology
 
 

Flowering

 
 

June to September

 
     
 
Use
 
 

 

 
     
 
Distribution
 
 

Distribution Map

 

Sources

2, 3, 4, 7, 22, 28, 29, 30.

 
         
         
 

Nativity

 
 

Native to Europe and Asia. Introduced.

 
         
 

Occurrence

 
 

 

 
         
 
Taxonomy
 
  Kingdom Plantae (green algae and land plants)  
  Subkingdom Viridiplantae (green plants)  
  Infrakingdom Streptophyta (land plants and green algae)  
  Superdivision Embryophyta (land plants)  
  Division Tracheophyta (vascular plants)  
  Subdivision Spermatophytina (seed plants)  
  Class Magnoliopsida (flowering plants)  
  Superorder Asteranae  
 

Order

Apiales (carrots, ivies, and allies)  
  Suborder Apiineae  
 

Family

Apiaceae (carrots)  
  Subfamily Apioideae  
  Tribe Pimpinelleae  
 

Genus

Pimpinella (burnet saxifrage)  
  Species Pimpinella saxifraga (solidstem burnet saxifrage)  
       
 

Subordinate Taxa

 
 

 

 
       
 

Synonyms

 
 

 

 
       
 

Common Names

 
 

burnet saxifrage

burnet-saxifrage

lesser saxifrage (Europe)

solidstem burnet saxifrage

 
       

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

Bract

Modified leaf at the base of a flower stalk, flower cluster, or inflorescence.

 

Bracteole

A small, often secondary bract within an inflorescence; a bract that is borne on a petiole instead of subtending it; bractlet.

 

Corolla

A collective name for all of the petals of a flower.

 

Pinnate

Having the leaflets of a compound leaf arranged on opposite sides of a common stalk.

 

Rachis

The main axis of a compound leaf, appearing as an extension of the leaf stalk; the main axis of an inflorescence.

 

Ray

A strap-shaped flower, or the strap-shaped portion of a flower, in the Asteraceae (aster) family. A branch of an umbel in the Apiaceae (carrot) family.

 

Umbel

A flat-topped or convex, umbrella-shaped cluster of flowers or buds arising from more or less a single point.

 

Umbellet

A secondary umbel in a compound umbel.

       
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  solidstem burnet saxifrage    
       

Inflorescence

  solidstem burnet saxifrage   solidstem burnet saxifrage
       

Middle Stem Leaf

  solidstem burnet saxifrage    
       
       
       

 

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