meadow garlic

(Allium canadense var. canadense)

Conservation Status
meadow garlic
 
  IUCN Red List

not listed

     
  NatureServe

N5 - Secure

SNR - Unranked

     
  Minnesota

not listed

     
           
Weed Status
   
 

 

     
           
Wetland Indicator Status
     
  Great Plains

FACU - Facultative upland

     
  Midwest

FACU - Facultative upland

     
  Northcentral & Northeast

FACU - Facultative upland

     
           
 
Description
 
 

Meadow garlic is an erect, perennial, forb rising from 1 to 4, sometimes more, clustered bulbs.

The bulbs are ½ to 1 tall, to ¾ wide, and oval or egg-shaped. They are encased in a dense network of brown, crisscrossed fibers. They have no bulbels. They gradually taper to the stem. They have a strong onion odor.

A single flowering stem (scape), 8 to 24 tall, with 3 to 6 leaves, is produced..

The leaves are basally sheathing, attached only in the lower quarter or third of the stem—they do not ascend the stem. They are grass-like and flat, 6 to 16 long and less than ¼ wide. The leaves remain green after the flowers are fully formed.

The inflorescence is a single umbrella-like cluster at the top of the scape. The cluster is shaped like half of a sphere. It has 0 to 60 flowers. There are usually 3, sometimes 4, large bracts (spathe) at the base of the cluster.

The flowers are ½ wide and bell-shaped. They are composed of 6 white or pink tepals (3 petals and 3 sepals that are similar in appearance). They are on ¼ to 1 long flower stalks, the inner ones on shorter stalks, the outer ones on longer stalks, like an umbrella. Many or all of the flowers are replaced by egg-shaped, ¼ long, stalkless bulblets.

A fruit is rarely produced. The fruit is a shiny seed capsule.

 
     
 

Height

 
 

8 to 24

 
     
 

Flower Color

 
 

White or pink

 
     
 

Similar Species

 
 

The bulblets in the inflorescence are enough to distinguish this plant from any other Allium species that occurs in Minnesota.

Field garlic (Allium vineale), an introduced species, also has bulblets in the inflorescence. However the leaves are round and ascend the stem. It does not occur in Minnesota.

Nodding wild onion (Allium cernuum var. cernuum) blooms much later, July to September. The scape nods near the top. There are no bulblets in the inflorescence. The flowers are ¼ wide.

Prairie onion (Allium stellatum) blooms much later, July to September. The scape nods near the top when the flowers are in bud but becomes erect by the time the flowers are fully open. There are no bulblets in the inflorescence. The flowers are star-shaped.

Textile onion (Allium textile) is a shorter plant, reacing only 4 to 12 at maturity. It has only 1 or 2 basal leaves. The leaves are half-round, more or less straight, and solid, with a wide, rounded channel running the length of the blade. The tepals are white, only rarely pink, and have distinct red or reddish-brown midribs.

 
     
 
Habitat
 
 

Dry, moderate moisture, or wet. Prairies, open woods. Full sun.

 
     
 
Biology
 
 

Flowering

 
 

May to June

 
     
 

Pests and Diseases

 
 

 

 
     
 
Use
 
 

 

 
     
 
Distribution
 
 

Distribution Map

 

Sources

2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 28, 30.

 
  9/21/2021      
         
 

Nativity

 
 

Native

 
         
 

Occurrence

 
 

 

 
         
 
Taxonomy
 
  Kingdom Plantae (green algae and land plants)  
  Subkingdom Viridiplantae (green plants)  
  Infrakingdom Streptophyta (land plants and green algae)  
  Superdivision Embryophyta (land plants)  
  Division Tracheophyta (vascular plants)  
  Subdivision Spermatophytina (seed plants)  
  Class Liliopsida (monocots)  
 

Order

Asparagales (agaves, orchids, irises, and allies)  
 

Family

Amaryllidaceae (amaryllis, onions, and allies)  
  Subfamily Allioideae  
  Tribe Allieae  
 

Genus

Allium (onion)  
  Subgenus Amerallium  
  Section Amerallium  
       
 

Synonyms

 
 

Allium acetabulum

Allium canadense var. ovoideum

Allium canadense var. robustum

Allium continuum

Allium mutabile

 
       
 

Common Names

 
 

Canada garlic

Canadian meadow garlic

meadow garlic

wild garlic

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

Bract

Modified leaf at the base of a flower stalk, flower cluster, or inflorescence.

 

Bulbel

A small bulb formed at the base of a mature bulb.

 

Linear

Long, straight, and narrow, with more or less parallel sides, like a blade of grass.

 

Scape

An erect, leafless stalk growing from the rootstock and supporting a flower or a flower cluster.

 

Sepal

An outer floral leaf, usually green but sometimes colored, at the base of a flower.

 

Spathe

One or two large bracts that subtend, hood, or sometimes envelope a flower or flower cluster, as with a Jack-in-the-pulpit.

 

Tepal

Refers to both the petals and the sepals of a flower when they are similar in appearance and difficult to tell apart. Tepals are common in lilies and tulips.

 

Umbel

A flat-topped or convex umbrella-shaped cluster of flowers or buds arising from more or less a single point.

 
 
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MinnesotaSeasons.com Photos
 
 

Plant

 
    meadow garlic   meadow garlic  
           
    meadow garlic   meadow garlic  
           
 

Inflorescence

 
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    meadow garlic   meadow garlic  
           
 

Flowers

 
    meadow garlic   meadow garlic  
           
 

Infructescence

 
    meadow garlic   meadow garlic  

 

Camera

     
 
Slideshows
 
  Allium canadense
Zi W
 
  Allium canadense  
  Allium canadense WILD ONION
Frank Mayfield
 
  Allium canadense WILD ONION  
 
About

early growth through blooming stage of Allium canadense WILD ONION

 

 

slideshow

       
 
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Other Videos
 
  EatTheWeeds: Episode 140: Wild Onions/Wild Garlic
EatTheWeeds
 
   
 
About

Published on May 16, 2013

http://www.eattheweeds.com
http://www.eattheweeds.com/forum/

In this video about Wild Onions also called Wild Garlic. The entire plant's edible from the bulbs underground to bulbets on top.

   

 

Camcorder

 
 
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