butter and eggs

(Linaria vulgaris)

               
Conservation Status

IUCN Red List

not yet assessed

butter and eggs

NatureServe

NNA - Not applicable

SNA - Not applicable

Minnesota

not listed

Weed Status

Invasive

Nativity

Native to Europe and Asia. Introduced as an ornamental, escaped and naturalized.

Occurrence

 

Habitat

Dry. Fields, roadsides, waste places. Full sun.

Flowering

May to September

     
Flower Color

Creamy white, yellow, and orange

     
Height

12 to 36

     

Identification

This is an easily recognized, 12 to 36 tall, erect, perennial forb that rises on 1 to 25 stems from a taproot up to 40 long and and shallow, creeping rhizomes up to 12 or more long. It aggressively forms colonies.

The stems are erect, often branched near the top, leafy, and hairless below the inflorescence.

The leaves are numerous, crowded, and alternate, but closely spaced so that they may appear opposite or even whorled. They are linear, ¾ to 2 long, and 1 16 to ¼ wide. They are stalkless but are narrowed below to a stalk-like base. A single prominent vein runs from the base to the tip of the blade. The upper and lower surfaces are pale green and hairless. The margins are untoothed.

The inflorescence is an unbranched, elongated, dense, spike-like cluster (raceme) at the end of the stem.

The flowers are crowded, snapdragon-like, and ¾ to 1½ long including the spur. There are 5 white to yellow petals fused into a corolla tube with an upper and a lower lip. The upper lip bends sharply upward and is then divided into 2 spreading lobes. The lower lip is divided into 2 lobes that bend downward and a rounded palate that obstructs the opening of the corolla tube. There is a long nectar spur at the base of the corolla that hangs downward. The upper and lower lips are white to yellow, the palate is yellow at the base to orange at the tip. The upper lip is longer than the lower lip. There are 4 stamens.

The fruit is a round to oval, 5 16 to ½ long capsule with numerous winged seeds.

 
Similar
Species

 


Distribution Distribution Map   Sources: 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 22, 28.

Comments

 


Taxonomy

Family:

Plantaginaceae (plantain)

 

Tribe:

Antirrhineae

 
Synonyms

Linaria linaria

 
Common
Names

butter and eggs

butterandeggs

butter-and-eggs

flaxweed

greater butter-and-eggs

Jacob’s ladder

ramsted

wild snapdragon

yellow toadflax


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

corolla

A collective name for all of the petals of a flower.

 

linear

Long, straight, and narrow, with more or less parallel sides, like a blade of grass.

 

sepal

An outer floral leaf, usually green but sometimes colored, at the base of a flower.

 

wing

A thin, flat, membranous, usually transparent appendage on the margin of a structure.

       

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Habitat

  butter and eggs    
       

Plant

  butter and eggs    
       

Inflorescence

  butter and eggs   butter and eggs
       
  butter and eggs    
       

Leaves

  butter and eggs    
       
       

 

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Slideshows

   
  Toadflax
DianesDigitals
 
  Toadflax  
 
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  Common Toadflax (Linaria vulgaris)
Bill Keim
 
  Common Toadflax (Linaria vulgaris)  
     
  Linaria vulgaris (Butter-and-eggs)
Allen Chartier
 
  Linaria vulgaris (Butter-and-eggs)  

 

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Other Videos

 
  Environmental Laboratory - U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
EnvLabERDC
 
   
 
About

Published on Feb 15, 2013

Linaria vulgaris - Yellow Toadflax

 
     
  Vlasbekje - Linaria vulgaris - Common Toadflax
dreamshot
 
   
 
About

Uploaded on Aug 17, 2010

HD stockshots broadcast format available at: http://www.stockshot.nl/ -

vlasleeuwenbek, vlasleeuwebekje, vlasbekje - Flaaksliuwebekje - linaria vulgaris - Common Toadflax, Yellow Toadflax, Butter-and-eggs - Echte Leinkraut - Gemeines Leinkraut, Gewöhnliches Leinkraut, Kleines Löwenmaul - linaire commune - Almindelig Torskemund - Gulsporre - Lnica pospolita

weegbreefamilie (Plantaginaceae).

 
     
  Common Toadflax (Linaria Vulgaris) - 2012-09-16
W3stlander
 
   
 
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Published on Nov 7, 2012

Linaria vulgaris (Common Toadflax, Yellow Toadflax, or Butter-and-eggs) is a species of toadflax (Linaria)

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Het Vlasbekje (Linaria vulgaris), vroeger "vlasleeuwenbek" genaamd, is een algemeen voorkomende, overblijvende plant uit de weegbreefamilie (Plantaginaceae).

 
     

 

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