butter and eggs

(Linaria vulgaris)

Conservation Status
butter and eggs
 
  IUCN Red List

not listed

     
  NatureServe

NNA - Not applicable

SNA - Not applicable

     
  Minnesota

not listed

     
           
Weed Status
     
 

Invasive

     
           
 
Description
 
 

Butter and eggs is an easily recognized, 12 to 36 tall, erect, perennial forb that rises on 1 to 25 stems from a taproot up to 40 long and and shallow, creeping rhizomes up to 12 or more long. It aggressively forms colonies.

The stems are erect, often branched near the top, leafy, and hairless below the inflorescence.

The leaves are numerous, crowded, and alternate, but closely spaced so that they may appear opposite or even whorled. They are linear, ¾ to 2 long, and 1 16 to ¼ wide. They are stalkless but are narrowed below to a stalk-like base. A single prominent vein runs from the base to the tip of the blade. The upper and lower surfaces are pale green and hairless. The margins are untoothed.

The inflorescence is an unbranched, elongated, dense, spike-like cluster (raceme) at the end of the stem.

The flowers are crowded, snapdragon-like, and ¾ to 1½ long including the spur. There are 5 white to yellow petals fused into a corolla tube with an upper and a lower lip. The upper lip bends sharply upward and is then divided into 2 spreading lobes. The lower lip is divided into 2 lobes that bend downward and a rounded palate that obstructs the opening of the corolla tube. There is a long nectar spur at the base of the corolla that hangs downward. The upper and lower lips are white to yellow, the palate is yellow at the base to orange at the tip. The upper lip is longer than the lower lip. There are 4 stamens.

The fruit is a round to oval, 5 16 to ½ long capsule with numerous winged seeds.

 
     
 

Height

 
 

12 to 36

 
     
 

Flower Color

 
 

Creamy white, yellow, and orange

 
     
 

Similar Species

 
     
     
 
Habitat
 
 

Dry. Fields, roadsides, waste places. Full sun.

 
     
 
Biology
 
 

Flowering

 
 

May to September

 
     
 
Use
 
 

 

 
     
 
Distribution
 
 

Distribution Map

 

Sources

2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 22, 24, 28.

 
  10/14/2014      
         
 

Nativity

 
 

Native to Europe and Asia. Introduced as an ornamental, escaped and naturalized.

 
         
 

Occurrence

 
 

 

 
         
 
Taxonomy
 
  Kingdom Plantae (green algae and land plants)  
  Subkingdom Viridiplantae (green plants)  
  Infrakingdom Streptophyta (land plants and green algae)  
  Superdivision Embryophyta (land plants)  
  Division Tracheophyta (vascular plants)  
  Subdivision Spermatophytina (seed plants)  
  Class Magnoliopsida (dicots)  
  Superorder Asteranae  
 

Order

Lamiales (mints, plantains, olives, and allies)  
 

Family

Plantaginaceae (plantain)  
  Tribe Antirrhineae  
  Genus Linaria (toadflax)  
       
 

Synonyms

 
  Linaria linaria  
       
 

Common Names

 
 

butter and eggs

butterandeggs

butter-and-eggs

flaxweed

greater butter-and-eggs

Jacob’s ladder

ramsted

wild snapdragon

yellow toadflax

 
       

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

Corolla

A collective name for all of the petals of a flower.

 

Linear

Long, straight, and narrow, with more or less parallel sides, like a blade of grass.

 

Sepal

An outer floral leaf, usually green but sometimes colored, at the base of a flower.

 

Wing

A thin, flat, membranous, usually transparent appendage on the margin of a structure.

       
Visitor Photos
   

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Alfredo Colon
       
  butter and eggs   butter and eggs
       
  butter and eggs    
       
MinnesotaSeasons.com Photos
   

Habitat

  butter and eggs    
       

Plant

  butter and eggs    
       

Inflorescence

  butter and eggs   butter and eggs
       
  butter and eggs    
       

Leaves

  butter and eggs    
       

 

Camera

     
Slideshows
   
  Toadflax
DianesDigitals
 
  Toadflax  
 
About

Copyright DianesDigitals

 
     
  Common Toadflax (Linaria vulgaris)
Bill Keim
 
  Common Toadflax (Linaria vulgaris)  
     
  Linaria vulgaris (Butter-and-eggs)
Allen Chartier
 
  Linaria vulgaris (Butter-and-eggs)  

 

slideshow

       
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Other Videos
 
  Environmental Laboratory - U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
EnvLabERDC
 
   
 
About

Published on Feb 15, 2013

Linaria vulgaris - Yellow Toadflax

   
       
  Vlasbekje - Linaria vulgaris - Common Toadflax
dreamshot
 
   
 
About

Uploaded on Aug 17, 2010

HD stockshots broadcast format available at: http://www.stockshot.nl/ -

vlasleeuwenbek, vlasleeuwebekje, vlasbekje - Flaaksliuwebekje - linaria vulgaris - Common Toadflax, Yellow Toadflax, Butter-and-eggs - Echte Leinkraut - Gemeines Leinkraut, Gewöhnliches Leinkraut, Kleines Löwenmaul - linaire commune - Almindelig Torskemund - Gulsporre - Lnica pospolita

weegbreefamilie (Plantaginaceae).

   
       
  Common Toadflax (Linaria Vulgaris) - 2012-09-16
W3stlander
 
   
 
About

Published on Nov 7, 2012

Linaria vulgaris (Common Toadflax, Yellow Toadflax, or Butter-and-eggs) is a species of toadflax (Linaria)

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Het Vlasbekje (Linaria vulgaris), vroeger "vlasleeuwenbek" genaamd, is een algemeen voorkomende, overblijvende plant uit de weegbreefamilie (Plantaginaceae).

   
       

 

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