toothed evening primrose

(Oenothera serrulata)

Conservation Status
toothed evening primrose
  IUCN Red List

not listed

     
  NatureServe

N5? - Secure

SNR - Unranked

     
  Minnesota

not listed

     
           
           
 
Description
 
 

Toothed evening primrose is an erect, perennial forb that rises up to 24 on usually clustered stems from a taproot rhizome caudex.

The stems are erect or recline on the ground with the tips ascending. They are grayish or whitish, at least above the middle, due to a covering of white, straight, stiff, appressed hairs. The are sometimes somewhat woody near the base.

The leaves are alternate, ¾ to 2 long, and less than ½ wide, linear, oblong, or narrowly inversely lance-shaped with the attachment at the narrow end. The margins are sometimes untoothed but are more often toothed with minute, sharp, forward-pointing teeth. The upper surface is hairy or sparsely hairy. The lower surface is hairy. The leaves fold in the midday sun in order to conserve water.

The inflorescence is a solitary flower borne in the upper leaf axils.

The flowers are to 1 wide and stalkless. The 4 petals are bright yellow and are fused at the base into a funnel-shaped, to ½ long hypanthium. The hypanthium is 4-angled and hairy, sometimes only on the angles. There are 8 stamens. The flowers open in the morning.

The fruit is a linear capsule, ½ to 1 long, 4-angled with rounded angles, and whitish due to a covering of white, straight, stiff, appressed hairs.

 
     
 

Height

 
 

Up to 24

 
     
 

Flower Color

 
 

Bright yellow

 
     
 

Similar Species

 
     
     
 
Habitat
 
 

Dry. Prairies, plains, bluffs. Full sun.

 
     
 
Biology
 
 

Flowering

 
 

June to July

 
     
 
Use
 
 

 

 
     
 
Distribution
 
 

Distribution Map

 

Sources

2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 28.

 
  12/27/2011      
         
 

Nativity

 
 

Native

 
         
 

Occurrence

 
 

Common

 
         
 
Taxonomy
 
  Kingdom Plantae (green algae and land plants)  
  Subkingdom Viridiplantae (green plants)  
  Infrakingdom Streptophyta (land plants and green algae)  
  Superdivision Embryophyta (land plants)  
  Division Tracheophyta (vascular plants)  
  Subdivision Spermatophytina (seed plants)  
  Class Magnoliopsida (dicots)  
  Subclass Rosidae  
  Superorder Rosanae  
  Order Myrtales (myrtles, evening primroses, and allies)  
 

Family

Onagraceae (evening primrose)  
  Subfamily Onagroideae  
  Tribe Onagreae  
 

Genus

Oenothera (evening primroses, sundrops, and beeblossoms)  
  Section Calylophus  
  Subsection Calylophus  
       
 

Toothed evening primrose was originally placed in the genus Oenothera when it was first described by Thomas Nuttall in 1818. In 1964 it was separated into its own genus, Calylophus, by Peter Raven based strictly on morphological features, including a more or less shield-shaped stigma that was entire or only shallowly and broadly four-lobed. More recently, molecular analysis of the evening primrose (Onagraceae) family (W.L. Wagner et al., 2007) showed that toothed evening primrose should be regarded as representing one of fourteen specialized groups within Oenothera. It is now classified as section Calylophus.

 
       
 

Subordinate Taxa

 
 

 

 
       
 

Synonyms

 
 

Calylophus australis

Calylophus serrulatus

Meriolix intermedia

Meriolix oblanceolata

Meriolix serrulata

Oenothera serrulata var. typica

 
       
 

Common Names

 
 

halfshrub calylophus

halfshrub sundrop

plains yellow primrose

serrateleaf eveningprimrose

toothed evening primrose

yellow evening-primrose

yellow sundrops

 
       

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

Axil

The upper angle where the leaf stalk meets the stem.

 

Hypanthium

A cup-like tubular structure of a flower formed from the fused bases of sepals, petals, and stamens, that surrounds the pistil. Its presence is diagnostic of many families, including Rose, Gooseberry, and Pea.

 

Linear

Long, straight, and narrow, with more or less parallel sides, like a blade of grass.

       
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MinnesotaSeasons.com Photos
   

Plant

  toothed evening primrose   toothed evening primrose
       
  toothed evening primrose    
       

Inflorescence

  toothed evening primrose   toothed evening primrose
       
  toothed evening primrose    
       

Flower

  toothed evening primrose   toothed evening primrose
       
       

 

Camera

     
Slideshows
   
  Oenothera perennis SMALL SUNDROPS
Frank Mayfield
 
  Oenothera perennis SMALL SUNDROPS  

 

slideshow

       
Visitor Videos
       

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Other Videos
 
  Botanist Jim Allison: flowering Sun Drops and Winged Elm
Panola Mountain
 
   
 
About

Uploaded on Jun 12, 2011

11 June 2011, Panola Mountain outcrop exploration with botanist Jim Allison: Here, Jim is explaining the Sun Drops. These are located in many spots atop the outcrop. Also identified, the Winged Elm

   
       

 

Camcorder


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