meadow salsify

(Tragopogon pratensis)

Conservation Status
meadow salsify
  IUCN Red List

not listed

     
  NatureServe

NNA - Not applicable

SNA - Not applicable

     
  Minnesota

not listed

     
           
           
 
Description
 
 

Meadow salsify is a 16 to 32 tall, erect, biennial forb that rises on one or more stems from a fleshy taproot.

In its first year it shows only a rosette of basal leaves. In the second year it sends up one to five sparingly branched, sparsely-leaved stems that terminate in a single flowering stalk with a solitary flower head.

The stems are erect and usually branched near the top. They are often covered with a whitish, waxy bloom (glaucous). They usually have patches of white, woolly or cobwebby hairs when young and are hairless or almost hairless at maturity. The stems and leaves exude a milky sap when broken.

Basal leaves are grass-like, linear, up to 12 long, and stalkless. They are rounded and wide at the base, up to ¾ wide, then abruptly narrowed and tapered evenly to the tip. They are sometimes strongly curved backward, often coiled, toward the tip. The upper and lower surfaces are usually glaucous. They are hairy with woolly or cobwebby hairs when young, and hairless or almost hairless at maturity. The margins are untoothed. Basal leaves are sometimes withered by flowering time.

Stem leaves are alternate. They surround the stem (clasp) at the base and are otherwise similar to basal leaves. They become progressively smaller as they ascend the stem.

The inflorescence is a solitary, 1 to 2½ wide flower head at the end on a long, leafless flower stalk (peduncle). The flower stalk is not swollen below the flower head. There are usually 8 bracts at the base of the flower head. The bracts do not extend beyond the outer margin of the rays. Occasionally, there are 12 bracts. There are usually 50 to 110, sometimes more, ray florets. The ray florets are lemon yellow to bright yellow and to 1 long. The flower heads open in the morning and are closed by the afternoon.

The fruiting head is a whitish, spherical pappus, 3 to 3½ in diameter, resembling a large dandelion. The peduncle occasionally becomes slightly inflated toward the tip when the plant is in fruit.

 
     
 

Height

 
 

16 to 32

 
     
 

Flower Color

 
 

Bright yellow

 
     
 

Similar Species

 
 

Yellow goat's beard (Tragopogon dubius) leaves are straight, not curved backward or coiled. The peduncle is inflated at the tip when the plant is in flower. There are usually 13, occasionally 8, bracts. The bracts usually extend well beyond the ray florets. The ray florets are pale yellow. It is found in drier habitats.

 
     
 
Habitat
 
 

Moderate moisture. Roadsides, railroads, disturbed sites. Full sun.

 
     
 
Biology
 
 

Flowering

 
 

May to August

 
     
 

Pests and Diseases

 
 

 

 
     
 
Use
 
 

Faunal Associations

 
 

 

 
     
 

Toxicity

 
 

 

 
     
 
Distribution
 
 

Distribution Map

 

Sources

2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 28.

 
  1/31/2014      
         
 

Nativity

 
 

Native to western Asia and to Europe. Introduced and naturalized in North America.

 
         
 

Occurrence

 
 

 

 
         
 
Taxonomy
 
  Kingdom Plantae (green algae and land plants)  
  Subkingdom Viridiplantae (green plants)  
  Infrakingdom Streptophyta (land plants and green algae)  
  Superdivision Embryophyta (land plants)  
  Division Tracheophyta (vascular plants)  
  Subdivision Spermatophytina (seed plants)  
  Class Magnoliopsida (flowering plants)  
  Superorder Asteranae  
 

Order

Asterales (sunflowers, bellflowers, fanflowers, and allies)  
 

Family

Asteraceae (sunflowers, daisies, asters, and allies)  
  Subfamily Cichorioideae (chicories, dandelions, and allies)  
  Tribe Cichorieae  
  Subtribe Scorzonerinae  
  Genus Tragopogon (salsify)  
       
 

The use of the name Tragopogon pratensis for the introduced North American species may prove to be incorrect.

 
       
 

Subordinate Taxa

 
 

 

 
       
 

Synonyms

 
 

Tragopogon lamottei

Tragopogon orientalis

Tragopogon pratensis ssp. orientalis

Tragopogon pratensis ssp. pratensis

 
       
 

Common Names

 
 

goat’s-beard

Jack-go-to-bed-at-noon

Johnny-go-to-bed-at-noon

lesser goat’s-beard

meadow salsify

shepherd’s-clock

showy goat’s-beard

yellow goat’s-beard

 
       

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

Bract

Modified leaf at the base of a flower stalk, flower cluster, or inflorescence.

 

Clasping

Describing a leaf that wholly or partly surrounds the stem but does not fuse at the base.

 

Glaucous

Pale green or bluish gray due to a whitish, powdery or waxy film, as on a plum or a grape.

 

Lanceolate

Lance-shaped; much longer than wide, thickest toward the base, and gradually tapering toward the tip.

 

Linear

Long, straight, and narrow, with more or less parallel sides, like a blade of grass.

 

Pappus

The modified calyx composed of awns, scales, bristles, or feather-like hairs in plants of the Aster family such as thistles and dandelions.

 

Peduncle

The stalk of a single flower or flower cluster.

       
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Plant

  meadow salsify   meadow salsify
       
  meadow salsify    
       

Flower Head

  meadow salsify   meadow salsify
       
  meadow salsify    
       

Leaves

  meadow salsify    
       
       

 

Camera

     
Slideshows
   
  Tragopogon pratensis COMMON GOAT'S BEARD
Frank Mayfield
 
  Tragopogon pratensis COMMON GOAT'S BEARD  

 

slideshow

       
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Other Videos
 
  Oriental Salsify (Tragopogon pratensis subsp. orientalis) - 2012-06-25
W3stlander
 
   
 
About

Published on Jun 27, 2012

Oriental Salsify (Tragopogon pratensis subsp. orientalis).

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De oosterse morgenster (Tragopogon pratensis subsp. orientalis) is een vaste plant uit de composietenfamilie (Asteraceae).

   
       
  Flower Time Lapse (Samsung SMX-F40)
WaveHectorx
 
   
 
About

Uploaded on Jun 7, 2011

Tragopogon pratensis.

   
       
  The Opening of the Giant Dandelion
Camilla Pandolfi
 
   
 
About

Uploaded on Jun 9, 2011

Meadow Salsify

   
       

 

Camcorder

         
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