liverleaf wintergreen

(Pyrola asarifolia ssp. asarifolia)

               
Conservation Status

IUCN Red List

not listed

liverleaf wintergreen

 

NatureServe

N5 - Secure

SNR - Unranked

Minnesota

not listed

Wetland
Indicator
Status

Great Plains

FACU - Facultative upland

Midwest

FACW - Facultative wetland

Northcentral & Northeast

FACW - Facultative wetland

Nativity

Native

Photo by Luciearl
Occurrence

Common

Habitat

Moist to dry. Deciduous and coniferous forests, swamps, bogs, peatlands, stream banks.

Flowering

June to July

 
Flower Color

White or pink to purplish-red

 
Height

6 to 12 (1.5 to 3.0 dm)

 
 
Identification

Liverleaf wintergreen is common, low-growing, late spring wildflower. It occurs throughout Canada. In the United States it occurs in the northeast, in the upper Midwest, and throughout the west. In Minnesota it is common in the northeast and north-central regions, less common in the northwest, central, and metro regions, and mostly absent from the remainder of the state. It is found in deciduous and coniferous forests, swamps, bogs, and peatlands, and on stream banks. It grows in moist soil. It blooms from June to July, peaking the first week of July.

Liverleaf wintergreen is a 6 to 12 (1.5 to 3.0 dm) tall, erect, perennial forb that rises on a single aerial stem from a shallow, horizontal, underground stem (rhizome). The rhizome is slender, long, and branching. The stem is very short, erect, unbranched, and hairless.

The leaves are crowded and form a radiating cluster (rosette) in the spring. They are consistently described in the literature as “nearly basal” after Gleason and Cronquist (1991). This suggests that they are clustered along the plant’s very short solitary stem. Each leaf is on a to 2916 (15 to 65 mm) long stalk (petiole). The petiole is hairless, channeled above, and usually as long as the leaf blade.

The leaf blades may be round, kidney-shaped, egg-shaped (widest near the base), or elliptic (widest in the middle). They are 1 to 2¾ (24 to 71 mm) long, ½ to 2 (13 to 49 mm) wide, rounded to tapered at the base, and broadly or narrowly angled at the tip. They are leathery in dry habitats, soft in moist habitats. The upper surface is dark green, shiny, and hairless. The lower surface is lighter green and somewhat purplish, dull, and hairless. The margins are untoothed or have shallow, rounded teeth.

The inflorescence is a loose, unbranched cluster (raceme) of 4 to 25 flowers on the upper half of a 6 to 12 (1.5 to 3.0 dm) long inflorescence stalk (peduncle). The peduncle is unbranched and hairless. It has 1 to 3 small, scale-like leaves (bracts). The bracts are egg-shaped, ¼ to (7 to 16 mm) long, to 316 (2.5 to 5 mm) wide. Each flower nods downward at the end of a to 5 16 (4 to 8 mm) long flower stalk (pedicel). At the base of each pedicel there is a linear lance-shaped bractlet. The bractlet is usually as long or longer than the pedicel it subtends.

The flowers are to (10 to 15 mm) wide. There are 5 sepals, 5 petals, 10 stamens, and 1 style. The sepals (together the calyx) are green and are fused at the base then separated into 5 triangular, 116to (1.4 to 3.5 mm) long lobes with narrowly pointed or tapered tips. The margins are whitish or pinkish with thin, translucent (membranous) margins. The petals are widely spreading, inversely egg-shaped (widest at the tip) to round, 316 to (4.8 to 9.1 mm) long, and to ¼ (2.9 to 6.0 mm) wide. They are white or pinkish at the base, rose-red or purplish-red at the tips. The stamens do not protrude beyond the petals. The style is pale green, long, and curved, and conspicuously protrudes below the corolla.

The fruit is a flattened globe-shaped, to 3 16 (4 to 5 mm) long, ¼ to 516 (6 to 8 mm) wide seed capsule. The sepals and style persist with the fruit.

 
Similar
Species

 

 
Distribution Distribution Map  

Sources: 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 24, 28, 29, 30.

 
Comments

 

 
Taxonomy

Family:

Ericaceae (heath)

 

Subfamily:

Pyroloideae

 

Tribe:

Pyroleae

 

Genus:

Pyrola

 
Synonyms

Pyrola asarifolia var. incarnata

Pyrola asarifolia var. ovata

Pyrola asarifolia var. purpurea

Pyrola californica

Pyrola cordata

 

Pyrola elata

Pyrola rotundifolia ssp. asarifolia

Pyrola rotundifolia var. asarifolia

Pyrola uliginosa

Pyrola uliginosa var. gracilis

 
Common
Names

bog wintergreen

liverleaf wintergreen

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

Bract

Modified leaf at the base of a flower stalk or flower cluster.

 

Bractlet

A small, often secondary bract within an inflorescence; a bract that is borne on a petiole instead of subtending it; bracteole.

 

Calyx

The group of outer floral leaves (sepals) below the petals, occasionally forming a tube. Plural: calyces.

 

Elliptic

Narrowly oval, broadest at the middle, narrower at both ends, with the ends being equal.

 

Linear

Long, straight, and narrow, with more or less parallel sides, like a blade of grass.

 

Pedicel

In plants: the stalk of a single flower in a cluster of flowers. In Hymenoptera and Araneae: the narrow stalk connecting the thorax to the abdomen.

 

Peduncle

In angiosperms, the stalk of a single flower or a flower cluster; in club mosses, the stalk of a strobilus or a group of strobili.

 

Petiole

The stalk of a leaf blade or compound leaf that attaches the leaf blade to the stem.

 

Raceme

An unbranched, elongated inflorescence with stalked flowers. The flowers mature from the bottom up.

 

Rhizome

A horizontal, usually underground stem. It serves as a reproductive structure, producing roots below and shoots above at the nodes.

 

Scape

On plants: An erect, leafless stalk growing from the rootstock and supporting a flower or a flower cluster. On insects: The basal segment of the antenna.

 

Sepal

An outer floral leaf, usually green but sometimes colored, at the base of a flower.

 

Spreading

Extending nearly horizontal.

       
Visitor Photos
   
Share your photo of this plant.
 

This button not working for you?
Simply email us at info@MinnesotaSeasons.com.
Attach one or more photos and, if you like, a caption.

       
Luciearl
       
  liverleaf wintergreen   liverleaf wintergreen
       
       
MinnesotaSeasons.com Photos
   
       
       

 

Camera

     
Slideshows
   
     
     
     
     

 

slideshow

       
Visitor Videos
       
Share your video of this plant.
   

This button not working for you?
Simply email us at info@MinnesotaSeasons.com.
Attach a video, a YouTube link, or a cloud storage link.

       
       
       
Other Videos
 
  Pyrola asarifolia
Kawasaki FMG
 
   
 
About

Aug 19, 2018

   
       
  [E] Pyrola asarifolia / 紅花一薬草(ベニバナイチヤクソウ )\
North Local Tube
 
   
 
About

Jul 2, 2018

ツツジ科 / Ericaceae イチヤクソウ属 / Pyrola
🚑〔Medicinal〕It seems to become beriberi and diuretic.
〔Area〕山地帯から高山帯下部の草地、低木林、林縁など
🌏 本州中部以北~北海道、朝鮮、中国東北部、カムチャツカ、シベリア、アラスカ
🎶 Emotion / MFP/DOVA-SYNDROME 
#Pyrola#ベニバナイチヤクソウ

   
       

 

Camcorder

         
Visitor Sightings
   
Report a sighting of this plant.
 
This button not working for you?
Simply email us at info@MinnesotaSeasons.com.
Be sure to include a location.

Luciearl
9/28/2020

Location: Cass County

liverleaf wintergreen


     
     
 
MinnesotaSeasons.com Sightings
   
     

 

 

Binoculars


Created: 10/29/2020

Last Updated:

About Us | Privacy Policy | Contact Us | © 2020 MinnesotaSeasons.com. All rights reserved.