late horse gentian

(Triosteum perfoliatum)

Conservation Status
late horse gentian
  IUCN Red List

not listed

     
  NatureServe

N5? - Secure

SNR - Unranked

     
  Minnesota

not listed

     
           
           
           
           
           
           
 
Description
 
 

Late horse gentian is a 2 to 4 tall, erect, perennial forb rising on 1 or more stems from a taproot.

The stems are 2 to 4 tall and are covered with short, glandular hairs that are less than 0.5 mm long. Mixed in with the glandular hairs are longer non-glandular hairs.

The leaves are opposite, light green, untoothed, and attached to the stem without a stalk. They are 4 to 12 long, 1½ to 6 wide, and broadly-elliptic. They taper gradually to a pointed tip and taper broadly to the base. They have sparse, glandular hairs on the upper surface, and dense, soft hairs on the lower surface. At least 3 of the pairs of lower and middle leaves are fused at the base, appearing to be pierced by the stem.

The inflorescence is a tight cluster of 1 to 4 (usually 3 to 4) flowers in the upper leaf axils.

At the base of the flower are 5 linear, erect sepals. They are uniformly hairy on the back and along the margins, and sometimes also have glandular hairs.

The flowers are to long with 5 maroon, reddish-purple to brown, or yellowish-green petals. The petals are fused into a tubular or bell-shaped floral tube along most of their length. The tube is swollen on one side at the base. The lobes of the tube are unequal in length. The style is longer than and protrudes from the floral tube.

The fruit is berry-like, dull orange-yellow, and hairy. Each fruit contains 3 oblong stones.

 
     
 

Height

 
 

2 to 4

 
     
 

Flower Color

 
 

Maroon, reddish-purple to brown, or yellowish-green

 
     
 

Similar Species

 
  Early horse gentian (Triosteum aurantiacum var. aurantiacum) stems are covered with short hairs that are more than 0.5 mm long. The leaves do not fuse at the base. The style is shorter than and does not protrude from the floral tube.  
     
 
Habitat
 
 

Dry. Woods, thickets.

 
     
 
Biology
 
 

Flowering

 
 

May to June

 
     
 
Use
 
 

 

 
     
 
Distribution
 
 

Distribution Map

 

Sources

2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 28.

 
         
         
 

Nativity

 
 

 

 
         
 

Occurrence

 
 

 

 
         
 
Taxonomy
 
  Kingdom Plantae (green algae and land plants)  
  Subkingdom Viridiplantae (green plants)  
  Infrakingdom Streptophyta (land plants and green algae)  
  Superdivision Embryophyta (land plants)  
  Division Tracheophyta (vascular plants)  
  Subdivision Spermatophytina (seed plants)  
  Class Magnoliopsida (flowering plants)  
  Subclass Caryophyllidae  
  Superorder Asteranae  
 

Order

Dipsacales (honeysuckles, moschatels, and allies)  
 

Family

Caprifoliaceae (honeysuckle)  
  Subfamily Caprifolioideae  
 

Genus

Triosteum (horse gentian)  
       
 

Subordinate Taxa

 
 

 

 
       
 

Synonyms

 
 

 

 
       
 

Common Names

 
 

common horsegentian

feverwort

late horse gentian

late horse-gentian

perfoliate horse gentian

tinker’s-weed

wild coffee

wild-coffee

 
       

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

Axil

The upper angle where the leaf stalk meets the stem.

 

Glandular hairs

Hairs spread over aerial vegetation that secrete essential oils. The oils act to protect against herbivores and pathogens or, when on a flower part, attract pollinators. The hairs have a sticky or oily feel.

 

Linear

Long, straight, and narrow, with more or less parallel sides, like a blade of grass.

       
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Plant

  late horse gentian   late horse gentian
       

Inflorescence

  late horse gentian    
       

Leaves

  late horse gentian    
       

Infructescence

  late horse gentian    
       
       

 

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  triosteum perfoliatum
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Uploaded on Aug 22, 2011

triosteum perfoliatum

   
       

 

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