long-styled black snakeroot

(Sanicula canadensis var. grandis)

Conservation Status

 

No image available

  IUCN Red List

not listed

     
  NatureServe

NNR - Unranked

SNR - Unranked

     
  Minnesota

not listed

     
           
Wetland Indicator Status
     
  Great Plains

FACU - Facultative upland

     
  Midwest

FACU - Facultative upland

     
  Northcentral & Northeast

FACU - Facultative upland

     
           
 
Description
 
 

Basal and lower stem leaves are palmately divided into 3 leaflets. The leaflets of these leaves are at least 3 long and at least 1½ wide. The lateral leaflets are often deeply cut making the leaf appear to have 5 leaflets — “3 looks like 5”. Rarely, there will be 5 leaflets with two deeply cut, looking like 7 leaflets.

The flowers are white. There are only 2 to 7 flowers in each flower cluster. All umbellets include both perfect and male flowers. Perfect flowers are stalked. Male flowers are short-stalked and are concealed by the perfect flowers. The sepals are longer than the petals. The styles are inconspicuous, shorter than the bristles.

The seed capsules are 1 16 to 3 16long.

 
     
 

Height

 
 

8 to 40

 
     
 

Flower Color

 
 

White

 
     
 

Similar Species

 
 

The number of leaflets on the basal and lower stem leaves of black snakeroots (Sanicula spp.) is an important identifying feature. However, the lateral leaflets are often deeply lobed, often to the base, appearing to be two separate leaflets.

Canadian black snakeroot (Sanicula canadensis var. canadensis) leaflets of the basal and lower stem leaves are less than 3 long and less than 1½ wide.

Clustered black snakeroot (Sanicula odorata) basal and lower stem leaves are mostly 5-parted — “5 looks like 5”. The flowers are greenish-yellow. Some flower clusters have 3 perfect (containing both male and female parts) and 12 to 25 male flowers, others have all male flowers. The sepals are much shorter than the petals. The styles are conspicuous, much longer than the bristles.

Large-fruited black snakeroot (Sanicula trifoliata) is much less common. Male flowers are long-stalked, rising above the perfect flowers. The styles are inconspicuous, shorter than the bristles. The seed capsules are ¼ to 5 16 long. The sepals in fruit converge, forming a beak as long or longer than the bristles.

Maryland black snakeroot (Sanicula marilandica) basal and lower stem leaves are 5-parted with two deeply cut — “5 looks like 7”. The flowers are greenish-white. Some flower clusters have 3 perfect (containing both male and female parts) and 12 to 25 male flowers, others have all male flowers. Perfect flowers are stalkless. Male flowers are long-stalked, rising above the perfect flowers. The sepals are as long or only nearly as long as the petals.

 
     
 
Habitat
 
 

Moist to slightly dry woodlands; streambanks, prairie margins. Light to medium shade.

 
     
 
Biology
 
 

Flowering

 
 

June to August

 
     
 
Use
 
 

 

 
     
 
Distribution
 
 

Distribution Map

 

Sources

4, 29, 30.

 
  3/13/2021      
         
 

Nativity

 
 

Native

 
         
 

Occurrence

 
 

Rare

 
         
 
Taxonomy
 
  Kingdom Plantae (green algae and land plants)  
  Subkingdom Viridiplantae (green plants)  
  Infrakingdom Streptophyta (land plants and green algae)  
  Superdivision Embryophyta (land plants)  
  Division Tracheophyta (vascular plants)  
  Subdivision Spermatophytina (seed plants)  
  Class Magnoliopsida (flowering plants)  
  Superorder Asteranae  
 

Order

Apiales (carrots, ivies, and allies)  
  Suborder Apiineae  
 

Family

Apiaceae (carrots)  
  Subfamily Saniculoideae  
  Tribe Saniculeae  
 

Genus

Sanicula (sanicle)  
  Species Sanicula canadensis (Canadian black snakeroot)  
       
 

National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) places the genera Eryngium and Sanicula in the tribe Saniculeae in the the subfamily Saniculoideae. Germplasm Resource Information Network (GRIN) places the genera within the same tribe Saniculeae in the subfamily Apioideae. ITIS does not recognize either the subfamily or the tribe. The APG IV system on the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website by the Missouri Botanical Garden (MOBOT) also places the two genera in the subfamily Saniculoideae. At least two recent molecular DNA studies of the subfamily Saniculeae maintain the placement of both genera within the subfamily Saniculoideae. No discussion of moving the genera could be found. If the placement in the subfamily Apioideae is an error, that error is repeated by Wikipedia on both Eryngium and Sanicula pages.

 
       
 

Synonyms

 
 

Sanicula floridana

Sanicula canadensis var. floridana

Sanicula canadensis var. typica

 
       
 

Common Names

 
 

Canadian black snakeroot

Canadian black-snakeroot

Canadian blacksnakeroot

long-styled black snakeroot

long-styled Canadian sanicle

 
       
 

The varietal epithet grandis refers to the size of the fruit, which is significantly larger in var. grandis than in var. canadensis.

 
       

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

Palmate

Similar to a hand. Having more than three lobes or leaflets that radiate from a single point at the base of the leaf.

 

Perfect

Referring to a flower that has both male and female reproductive organs.

 

Pistillate

Referring to a flower that has a female reproductive organ (pistil) but does not have male reproductive organs (stamens).

 

Sepal

An outer floral leaf, usually green but sometimes colored, at the base of a flower.

 

Style

Part of the pistil, usually a slender stalk, connecting the ovary to the stigma(s).

 
 
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