clustered black snakeroot

(Sanicula odorata)

Conservation Status
clustered black snakeroot
  IUCN Red List

not listed

     
  NatureServe

N5 - Secure

SNR - Unranked

     
  Minnesota

not listed

     
           
Wetland Indicator Status
     
  Great Plains

FAC - Facultative

     
  Midwest

FAC - Facultative

     
  Northcentral & Northeast

FAC - Facultative

     
           
 
Description
 
 

Basal and lower stem leaves are palmately divided into 5 leaflets. The lateral leaflets may be shallowly lobed but rarely deeply enough to look like additional leaflets — “5 looks like 5”.

The flowers are greenish-yellow. Some flower clusters have 3 perfect (containing both male and female parts) and 12 to 25 male flowers, others have all male flowers. The perfect flowers are stalked. The male flowers are short-stalked and are concealed by the perfect flowers. The outer floral bracts (sepals) are much shorter than the petals. The styles are conspicuous, much longer than the bristles. They curve backward but persist in fruit.

 
     
 

Height

 
 

12 to 32

 
     
 

Flower Color

 
 

Greenish-yellow

 
     
 

Similar Species

 
 

The number of leaflets on the basal and lower stem leaves of black snakeroots (Sanicula spp.) is an important identifying feature. However, the lateral leaflets are often deeply lobed, often to the base, appearing to be two separate leaflets.

Canadian black snakeroot (Sanicula canadensis var. canadensis) basal and lower stem leaves are 3-parted with two deeply cut — “3 looks like 5”. There are only 2 to 7 flowers in each flower cluster. The flowers are white. The sepals are longer than the petals. The styles are inconspicuous, shorter than the bristles.

Large-fruited black snakeroot (Sanicula trifoliata) is much less common, mostly restricted to the southeastern counties. Basal and lower stem leaves are 3-parted, sometimes with with two deeply cut — “3 looks like 3 (or 5)”. There are only 2 to 7 flowers in each flower cluster. All flower clusters include both perfect and male flowers. The flowers are white. Perfect flowers are stalkless. Male flowers are long-stalked, rising above the perfect flowers. The sepals in flower are longer than the petals. The fruits are ¼ to 5 16 long. The styles are inconspicuous, shorter than the bristles. The sepals in fruit converge, forming a beak as long or longer than the bristles.

long-styled black snakeroot (Sanicula canadensis var. grandis) basal and lower stem leaves are 3-parted with two deeply cut — “3 looks like 5”. There are only 2 to 7 flowers in each flower cluster. The flowers are white. The sepals are longer than the petals. The styles are inconspicuous, shorter than the bristles.

Maryland black snakeroot (Sanicula marilandica) is sometimes a taller plant, up to 48 in height. Basal and lower stem leaves are 5-parted with two deeply cut — “5 looks like 7”. The flowers are greenish-white. Perfect flowers are stalkless. Male flowers are long-stalked, rising above the perfect flowers. The sepals are as long or only nearly as long as the petals.

 
     
 
Habitat
 
 

Moist. Woodlands. Partial sun to medium shade.

 
     
 
Biology
 
 

Flowering

 
 

June to August

 
     
 
Use
 
 

 

 
     
 
Distribution
 
 

Distribution Map

 

Sources

2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 28, 29, 30.

 
  4/19/2018      
         
 

Nativity

 
 

Native

 
         
 

Occurrence

 
 

Common

 
         
 
Taxonomy
 
  Kingdom Plantae (green algae and land plants)  
  Subkingdom Viridiplantae (green plants)  
  Infrakingdom Streptophyta (land plants and green algae)  
  Superdivision Embryophyta (land plants)  
  Division Tracheophyta (vascular plants)  
  Subdivision Spermatophytina (seed plants)  
  Class Magnoliopsida (dicots)  
  Superorder Asteranae  
 

Order

Apiales (carrots, ivies, and allies)  
  Suborder Apiineae  
 

Family

Apiaceae (carrots)  
  Subfamily Saniculoideae  
  Tribe Saniculeae  
 

Genus

Sanicula (sanicle)  
       
 

National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) places the genera Eryngium and Sanicula in the tribe Saniculeae in the the subfamily Saniculoideae. Germplasm Resource Information Network (GRIN) places the genera within the same tribe Saniculeae in the subfamily Apioideae. ITIS does not recognize either the subfamily or the tribe. The APG IV system on the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website by the Missouri Botanical Garden (MOBOT) also places the two genera in the subfamily Saniculoideae. At least two recent molecular DNA studies of the subfamily Saniculeae maintain the placement of both genera within the subfamily Saniculoideae. No discussion of moving the genera could be found. If the placement in the subfamily Apioideae is an error, that error is repeated by Wikipedia on both Eryngium and Sanicula pages.

 
       
 

Subordinate Taxa

 
 

 

 
       
 

Synonyms

 
 

Sanicula gregaria

Triclinium odoratum

 
       
 

Common Names

 
 

cluster sanicle

clustered black snakeroot

clustered blacksnakeroot

 
       

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

Palmate

Similar to a hand. Having more than three lobes or leaflets that radiate from a single point at the base of the leaf.

 

Perfect

Referring to a flower that has both male and female reproductive organs.

 

Pistillate

Referring to a flower that has a female reproductive organ (pistil) but does not have male reproductive organs (stamens).

 

Sepal

An outer floral leaf, usually green but sometimes colored, at the base of a flower.

 

Style

Part of the pistil, usually a slender stalk, connecting the ovary to the stigma(s).

       
Visitor Photos
   

Share your photo of this plant.

This button not working for you?
Simply email us at info@MinnesotaSeasons.com.
Attach one or more photos and, if you like, a caption.

       
MinnesotaSeasons.com Photos
   

Basal Leaf

  clustered black snakeroot    
       
       
       

 

Camera

     
 
Slideshows
 
 
     
     
     

 

slideshow

       
Visitor Videos
       

Share your video of this plant.

This button not working for you?
Simply email us at info@MinnesotaSeasons.com.
Attach one or more videos or YouTube links and, if you like, a caption.

       
       
Other Videos
 
       
       
       

 

Camcorder


Last Updated:

About Us | Privacy Policy | Contact Us | © 2021 MinnesotaSeasons.com. All rights reserved.