large-fruited black snakeroot

(Sanicula trifoliata)

Conservation Status

 

No image available

  IUCN Red List

not listed

     
  NatureServe

N4 - Apparently Secure

S3 - Vulnerable

     
  Minnesota

Special Concern

     
           
Wetland Indicator Status
     
  Great Plains

 

     
  Midwest

 

     
  Northcentral & Northeast

 

     
           
 
Description
 
 

Basal and lower stem leaves are palmately divided into 3 leaflets. The lateral leaflets are sometimes deeply cut making the leaf appear to have 5 leaflets — “3 looks like 3 (or 5)”.

The flowers are white. There are 4 to 11 flowers, usually 7 or fewer, in each flower cluster. All umbellets include both male flowers and usually 3 perfect flowers. Perfect flowers are stalkless. Male flowers are on long stalks, rising above the perfect flowers. The sepals are longer than the petals. There are 1 to 8 stamens. They do not protrude beyond the calyx lobes. The styles are inconspicuous, shorter than the calyx.

The seed capsules are ¼ to 5 16 long. The sepals in fruit converge, forming a beak as long or longer than the bristles. The styles in fruit are inconspicuous, shorter than the bristles.

 
     
 

Height

 
 

Up to 40

 
     
 

Flower Color

 
 

White

 
     
 

Similar Species

 
 

The number of leaflets on the basal and lower stem leaves of black snakeroots (Sanicula spp.) is an important identifying feature. However, the lateral leaflets are often deeply lobed, often to the base, appearing to be two separate leaflets.

 
     
 
Habitat
 
 

Moderately moist. Deciduous forests. Full shade. North-facing slopes.

 
     
 
Biology
 
 

Flowering

 
 

Mid-May to July

 
     
 
Use
 
 

 

 
     
 
Distribution
 
 

Distribution Map

 

Sources

2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 28, 29, 30, 72.

 
         
         
 

Nativity

 
 

Native

 
         
 

Occurrence

 
 

Rare

 
         
 
Taxonomy
 
  Kingdom Plantae (green algae and land plants)  
  Subkingdom Viridiplantae (green plants)  
  Infrakingdom Streptophyta (land plants and green algae)  
  Superdivision Embryophyta (land plants)  
  Division Tracheophyta (vascular plants)  
  Subdivision Spermatophytina (seed plants)  
  Class Magnoliopsida (dicots)  
  Superorder Asteranae  
 

Order

Apiales (carrots, ivies, and allies)  
  Suborder Apiineae  
 

Family

Apiaceae (carrots)  
  Subfamily Saniculoideae  
  Tribe Saniculeae  
 

Genus

Sanicula (sanicle)  
       
 

National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) places the genera Eryngium and Sanicula in the tribe Saniculeae in the the subfamily Saniculoideae. Germplasm Resource Information Network (GRIN) places the genera within the same tribe Saniculeae in the subfamily Apioideae. ITIS does not recognize either the subfamily or the tribe. The APG IV system on the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website by the Missouri Botanical Garden (MOBOT) also places the two genera in the subfamily Saniculoideae. At least two recent molecular DNA studies of the subfamily Saniculeae maintain the placement of both genera within the subfamily Saniculoideae. No discussion of moving the genera could be found. If the placement in the subfamily Apioideae is an error, that error is repeated by Wikipedia on both Eryngium and Sanicula pages.

 
       
 

Subordinate Taxa

 
 

 

 
       
 

Synonyms

 
 

 

 
       
 

Common Names

 
 

beaked sanicle

beaked snakeroot

large-fruited black snakeroot

large-fruited sanicle

largefruit blacksnakeroot

 
       

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

Calyx

The group of outer floral leaves (sepals) below the petals, occasionally forming a tube.

 

Palmate

Similar to a hand. Having more than three lobes or leaflets that radiate from a single point at the base of the leaf.

 

Perfect

Referring to a flower that has both male and female reproductive organs.

 

Pistillate

Referring to a flower that has a female reproductive organ (pistil) but does not have male reproductive organs (stamens).

 

Sepal

An outer floral leaf, usually green but sometimes colored, at the base of a flower.

 

Style

Part of the pistil, usually a slender stalk, connecting the ovary to the stigma(s).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

       
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