large-flowered trillium

(Trillium grandiflorum)

Conservation Status
large-flowered trillium
 
  IUCN Red List

not listed

     
  NatureServe

N5 - Secure

SNR - Unranked

     
  Minnesota

not listed

     
           
 
Description
 
 

Large-flowered trillium is a 8 to 16 tall, erect, perennial forb that rises on 1 to many, usually 2 or 3, scapes from a short, stout rhizome.

There is no central stem. What appears to be the central stem is actually a slender, hairless, pale green or reddish green scape.

There are no above-ground leaves. There is a whorl of 3 leaf-like bracts at the top of the scape. The bracts are hairless, untoothed, diamond-shaped or egg-shaped to almost circular, 4¾to 8 long, 3 to 6 wide, and stalkless or nearly stalkless. They taper gradually to a narrow point at the base, and taper gradually to a sharp point at the tip with concave sides along the tip. They are medium green and have red tones early in the growing season.

The inflorescence is a solitary flower at the end of a ¾ to 3 long, erect or ascending stalk. The flower is held above the bracts and faces outward.

The flowers are 2 to 4 wide. There are 3 sepals, 3 petals, and 6 stamens. The sepals are spreading, lance-shaped, and green, rarely streaked with maroon-purple. The petals are white, turning pinkish-purple with age, and thin. The shape of the petals is variable, from narrowly lance-shaped to broadly egg-shaped to almost circular. The veins on the upper side of the petals are conspicuous but do not appear engraved. The filaments are white and much shorter than the anthers. The anthers are pale pale yellow with dark yellow pollen. There is no floral scent.

The fruit is a pale green, globular, mealy, moist but not juicy berry.

 
     
 

Height

 
 

8 to 16

 
     
 

Flower Color

 
 

White

 
     
 

Similar Species

 
  When in flower, the large size of the flower petals and bracts distinguish large-flowered trillium from all other trilliums that occur in Minnesota.  
     
 
Habitat
 
 

Wet to moderate moisture. Woods. Partial sun to full shade.

 
     
 
Biology
 
 

Flowering

 
 

May to June

 
     
 

Pests and Diseases

 
 

 

 
     
 
Use
 
 

 

 
     
 
Distribution
 
 

Distribution Map

 

Sources

2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 24, 28, 30.

 
  10/25/2021      
         
 

Nativity

 
 

Native

 
         
 

Occurrence

 
 

 

 
         
 
Taxonomy
 
  Kingdom Plantae (green algae and land plants)  
  Subkingdom Viridiplantae (green plants)  
  Infrakingdom Streptophyta (land plants and green algae)  
  Superdivision Embryophyta (land plants)  
  Division Tracheophyta (vascular plants)  
  Subdivision Spermatophytina (seed plants)  
  Class Liliopsida (monocots)  
 

Order

Liliales (lilies, supplejacks, and allies)  
 

Family

Melanthiaceae (bunchflowers)  
  Tribe Parideae  
 

Genus

Trillium (Trillium)  
       
 

Synonyms

 
 

Trillium rhomboideum var. grandiflorum

 
       
 

Common Names

 
 

big white trillium

great white trillium

large-flowered trillium

snow trillium

white trillium

white wake-robin

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

Bract

Modified leaf at the base of a flower stalk, flower cluster, or inflorescence.

 

Rhizome

A horizontal, usually underground stem. It serves as a reproductive structure, producing roots below and shoots above at the nodes.

 

Scape

An erect, leafless stalk growing from the rootstock and supporting a flower or a flower cluster.

 

Sepal

An outer floral leaf, usually green but sometimes colored, at the base of a flower.

 
 
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Nancy Falkum

 
 

Trillium grandiflorum and ginger

 
    large-flowered trillium      
           
 

Trillium up the hillside to the left of the photo

 
    large-flowered trillium      
           
 
MinnesotaSeasons.com Photos
 
 

Habitat

 
    large-flowered trillium   large-flowered trillium  
           
 

Plant

 
    large-flowered trillium   large-flowered trillium  
           
 

Flower

 
    large-flowered trillium   large-flowered trillium  
           
    large-flowered trillium      

 

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slideshow

       
 
Visitor Videos
 
       
 

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Other Videos
 
  Trillium grandiflorum, spring ephemeral perennial
leMeow1
 
   
 
About

Uploaded on May 9, 2010

May 7th, spring ephemeral perennial, Trillium, an official symbol of the Government of Ontario, Canada.

   
  Trillium grandiflorum with Dan Jaffe
newenglandwild
 
   
 
About

Published on May 18, 2013

New England Wild Flower Society propagator and stock bed grower, Dan Jaffe, discusses one of his favorite Trillium species for New England Gardens including the natural species as well as two unusual forms.

   
  White trillium, spring explosion, Manitoulin Island, Ontario
Andy Fyon
 
   
 
About

Published on May 13, 2012

At the north end of Lake Kagawong, Manitoulin Island, the land was covered by an ancient lake. Because lake levels changed dramatically following glaciation, over the last 5000 years, this part of the land now stand high and dry above the present lake. Because of this geological history, the ancient lake deposited very fertile soil. This soil now supports a deciduous forest. The forest floor is covered by millions of large-flowered trillium (Trillium grandiflorum), trout lily (Erythronium americanum), and two varieties of toothwort (Cardamine).

   
  12 Trillium grandiflorum Séquence 14-Vivaces printanières 1.m4v
Jeanfilm2
 
   
 
About

Uploaded on Jan 9, 2010

Le trille à grandes fleurs, du printemps à l'automne. Trillium grandiflorum de la primavera hasta el otoño. Large flowerwed trillim from spring to fall.

   
  White Trillium (Trillium grandiflorum)
wvoutdoorman
 
   
 
About

Published on Mar 27, 2012

White Trillium (Trillium grandiflorum)

   

 

Camcorder

 
 
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  Nancy Falkum
9/18/2021

Location: Bald Eagle Bluff SNA

Trillium grandiflorum and ginger

large-flowered trillium  
           
 
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