European cranberrybush

(Viburnum opulus var. opulus)

Conservation Status
European cranberrybush
Photo by Kirk Nelson
  IUCN Red List

not listed

     
  NatureServe

NNA - Not applicable

     
  Minnesota

not listed

     
           
           
 
Description
 
 

European cranberrybush is a relatively fast-growing, short-lived, tall shrub. It can be up to 20 tall and up to 2 in diameter at breast height, but is usually no more than 12 in height. It rises on multiple stems from scattered, deep, anchoring roots and shallow, spreading, fibrous, soil-binding roots.

Shrubs reproduce vegetatively by layering or tip rooting. In layering, shrubs produce stems that lie on the ground with only the tips ascending (decumbent). A decumbent stem roots at a node, produces an aerial stem, and eventually detaches, forming a new plant. In addition, lower branches may droop to the ground, root at the tip, and send up a new shoot. Vegetative reproduction occasionally results in a thicket.

The stems are upright, slightly spreading, or sometimes arching.

Twigs are moderately stout. First year twigs are green to reddish-green and hairless, with white, conspicuously raised bumps (lenticels). Second-year twigs are yellowish-brown to grayish-brown, round in cross section, and hairless, with widely scattered, small, round lenticels. The pith is white and solid. The leaf scars are narrow, crescent-shaped, and slightly raised. Each leaf scar has three bundle scars. The terminal bud is stalked, greenish-red, mostly hairless, short, plump, oblong egg-shaped, and somewhat flattened. It is not sticky. It is covered by two scales that are fused into a tube at the base and for part of their length, free and overlapping toward the tip. Lateral buds are about half as long and globe-shaped to egg-shaped.

The bark is gray or grayish-brown, relatively smooth, and not peeling. On older stems the bark occasionally becomes somewhat fissured.

The leaves are opposite, undivided (simple), and deciduous. They are attached to the twig on a ¾ to 13 16 long leaf stalk (petiole). The petiole is green or greenish-red and channeled on the upper (ventral) side. It is hairless or may have some scattered short, fine hairs near the tip. It is not winged. There are 2 or 4 projecting, 1 32 to 1 16 in diameter glands near the attachment of the leaf blade. The glands are stout, elliptical in cross section, and indented (concave) on the top with a conspicuous ear-like rim. There is a pair of leaf-like, brislty, 1 32 to 3 16 in long appendages (stipules) at the base of the petiole. The stipules persist for most of the growing season. The glands may disappear or become deformed late in the season. The leaf blades are relatively thin, papery (firm), broadly egg-shaped in outline, shallowly to moderately 3-lobed, 1 to 3 long and wide. They are broadly rounded, broadly tapered, or nearly squared off at the base. The lobes are angled or short-tapered to a sharply-pointed tip. The leaf blades are palmately veined with three main veins, each one extending from the petiole at the base of the blade to the tip of one of the lobes. Each main vein has several pinnate secondary veins. The secondary veins are straight or slightly arched, and most reach the margin and end in a tooth. The veins are depressed on the upper surface of the blade, raised on the lower surface. The upper surface is dark green, has a slightly wrinkled appearance, and is hairless or almost hairless. The lower surface is pale green and moderately to densely hairy especially along the main veins. The margins are coarsely toothed with 3 to 7 teeth per inch, 3 to 7, sometimes to 9, teeth on each side of each lobe. Leaves near the branch tips are often narrow and unlobed. The leaves turn yellow, orange, red or dark reddish-purple in the fall.

The inflorescence is a dense, rounded, flat-topped, 2 to 5 in diameter, branched cluster (cyme). It is borne on a to 2 long stalk (peduncle) at the end of a four-leaved shoot that rises from a lateral bud at the end of a second-year twig. The cymes have 6 to 8 main branches emanating from the tip of the shoot. Each cyme has 100 or more small fertile flowers and an outer ring or 5 to 10 much larger sterile flowers.

The fertile flowers are to ¼ in diameter. There are five sepals, five petals, five stamens, and one style. The sepals are green, fused for most of their length into a minute cup (calyx), and separated at the tip into five minute, egg-shaped lobes. The petals are pale yellow to creamy white, egg-shaped to elliptical, and 1 16 to long. The stamens have white filaments and bright yellow anthers. They are 1 16 to long, longer than the petals. The style is thick, short, light green, and tipped with a three-lobed stigma. The sterile flowers on the margin are flat and ½ to 1 in diameter. The flowers have an unpleasant scent. They appear in late May to late June after the leaves.

The fruit arrangement (infructescence) is a heavy, drooping cluster. Each fruit is a juicy, cranberry-like, ellipse-shaped to nearly spherical, ¼ to in diameter drupe. It contains one seed. It is green initially, turning yellowish as it matures, eventually becoming translucent orange or bright red when ripe. The calyx and stigma persist in fruit, forming a dried tip at the end (apex) of the drupe. The peduncles turn red as the fruit matures. The fruit ripens in early to late August, often remaining on the plant through the winter. It is edible but bitter mildly toxic.

 
     
 

Height

 
 

3 to 20

 
     
 

Flower Color

 
 

White

 
     
 

Similar Species

 
  American highbush cranberry (Viburnum opulus var. americanum) leaf petioles have no more than 4 projecting glands. The glands are smaller, round in cross section, and flat or convex on the top. They do not show an ear-like rim. The channel on the petiole has relatively long, coarse hairs. The leaves are larger, up to to 4¾ long and 4 wide. The leaf margins are untoothed or sparingly toothed. The drupes are tart, not bitter.  
     
 
Habitat
 
 

Moist to wet. Deciduous woodland openings and edges; thickets; streambanks. Full sun to light shade.

 
     
 
Biology
 
 

Flowering

 
 

Late May to late June

 
     
 
Use
 
 

Toxicity

 
 

The fruit is edible in small quantities but is mildly toxic. It may cause vomiting and diarrhea if large amounts are eaten.

 
     
 

Horticulture

 
 

European cranberrybush is sold in nurseries as “high-bush cranberry”.

 
     
 
Distribution
 
 

Distribution Map

 

Sources

4, 7, 8, 22, 24, 28.

 
  3/12/2021      
         
 

Nativity

 
 

Native to Europe and Asia. Introduced, cultivated, escaped cultivation, and now naturalized in North America.

 
         
 

Occurrence

 
 

Common in southeast Minnesota

 
         
 
Taxonomy
 
  Kingdom Plantae (green algae and land plants)  
  Subkingdom Viridiplantae (green plants)  
  Infrakingdom Streptophyta (land plants and green algae)  
  Superdivision Embryophyta (land plants)  
  Division Tracheophyta (vascular plants)  
  Subdivision Spermatophytina (seed plants)  
  Class Magnoliopsida (dicots)  
  Superorder Asteranae  
 

Order

Dipsacales (honeysuckles, moschatels, and allies)  
 

Family

Adoxaceae (moschatel)  
 

Genus

Viburnum (viburnum)  
  Species Viburnum opulus (Guelder rose)  
       
 

Subordinate Taxa

 
 

 

 
       
 

Synonyms

 
 

Viburnum roseum

Viburnum opulus ssp. opulus

Viburnum opulus var. roseum

 
       
 

Common Names

 
 

European cranberrybush is a deciduous shrub, not a true cranberry (Vaccinium Oxycoccos), which is an evergreen dwarf shrub.

 
       
 

crampbark

European cranberry-bush

European cranberrybush

Guelder rose

Guelder-rose

snowballbush

 
       

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

Calyx

The group of outer floral leaves (sepals) below the petals, occasionally forming a tube.

 

Cyme

A branched, flat-topped or convex flower cluster in which the terminal flower opens first and the outermost flowers open last.

 

Decumbent

Reclining on the ground but with the tips ascending.

 

Drupe

A fleshy fruit with a single hard, stone-like core, like a cherry or peach.

 

Layering

A method of propagation where a stem or branch comes into permanent contact with the soil, sprouts roots, and then detaches from the main plant.

 

Lenticel

A corky, round or stripe-like, usually raised, pore-like opening in bark that allows for gas exchange.

 

Palmate

Similar to a hand. Having more than three lobes or leaflets that radiate from a single point at the base of the leaf.

 

Peduncle

In angiosperms, the stalk of a single flower or a flower cluster; in club mosses, the stalk of a strobilus or a group of strobili.

 

Petiole

The stalk of a leaf blade or compound leaf that attaches the leaf blade to the stem.

 

Pinnately veined

With the veins arranged like the vanes of a feather; a single prominent midvein extending from the base to the tip and lateral veins originating from several points on each side.

 

Pith

The spongy cells in the center of the stem.

 

Simple leaf

A leaf that is not divided into leaflets, though it may be deeply lobed or cleft.

 

Stipule

A small, leaf-like, scale-like, glandular, or rarely spiny appendage found at the base of a leaf stalk, usually occurring in pairs and usually dropping soon.

 

Winged leaf stalk

A leaf stalk with a leaf-like or membrane-like extension along both sides.

       
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shrub

  European cranberrybush    
       

bark

  European cranberrybush    
       

glands

  European cranberrybush    
       

flowers

  European cranberrybush    
       

fruit

  European cranberrybush    
       
MinnesotaSeasons.com Photos
   

Plant

  European cranberrybush    
       

Leaves

  European cranberrybush    
       

Glands on Petiole

  European cranberrybush    
       

Infructescence

  European cranberrybush   European cranberrybush
       

Fruit

  European cranberrybush    
       
       
       

 

Camera

     
Slideshows
   
  Guelder-rose
Wez Smith
 
  Guelder-rose  
 
About

Guelder-rose (Viburnum opulus).

 
     

 

slideshow

       
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Other Videos
 
  Guelder Rose (Viburnum opulus) - 2012-10-06
W3stlander
 
   
 
About

Published on Oct 9, 2012

Viburnum opulus (Guelder Rose, Water Elder, European Cranberrybush, Cramp Bark, Snowball Tree) is a species of Viburnum, native to Europe and Asia.

---------------
De Gelderse roos (Viburnum opulus) is een plant uit de muskuskruidfamilie (Adoxaceae).

52.01788 4.32096

   
       
  Viburnum opulus 2
wander van laar
 
   
 
About

Published on Aug 23, 2014

Viburnum opulus of Gelderse roos is een inheemse bladverliezende heester die het liefst op een vochthoudende bodem staat. De bloei van Viburnum opulus valt in de periode mei-juni. De witte schermvormige bloemen van Viburnum opulus hebben een diameter van 5 tot 10 cm.

Na de bloei vormt Viburnum opulus talrijke rode (giftige) bessen van ongeveer een cm groot.

Google Translation

Viburnum opulus or Guelder Rose is a native deciduous shrub that state prefers a moist soil . The flowering Viburnum opulus falls in the period May-June. The white screen -shaped flowers of Viburnum opulus have a diameter of 5 to 10 cm.

After flowering is Viburnum opulus numerous red (poisonous ) berries of about one cm.

   
       
  viburnum opulus
zebrablu
 
   
 
About

Uploaded on Aug 14, 2011

z

   
       

 

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Kirk Nelson
5/29/2017

Location: Fort Snelling State Park

European cranberrybush


     
     
 
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