northern bedstraw

(Galium boreale)

               
Conservation Status

IUCN Red List

not yet assessed

northern bedstraw

NatureServe

NNR - Unranked

SNR - Unranked

Minnesota

not listed

Wetland
Indicator
Status

Great Plains

FACU - Facultative upland

Midwest

FAC - Facultative

Northcentral & Northeast

FAC - Facultative

Nativity

Native

 
Occurrence

 

 
Habitat

Dry to wet. Woods, forests, prairies, meadows, fields.

 
Flowering

June to July

     
Flower Color

White to cream

     
Height

6 to 40

     

Identification

This is a 6 to 40 tall, erect, perennial forb that rises on numerous stems from a creeping rhizome.

The stems are ascending, erect, or reclining on the ground. They are slender, 4-angled, hollow, and many branched. They are usually hairless except for a short beard of hairs just below the nodes. Sometimes they are rough with minute, stiff hairs. They do not have hooked hairs.

The leaves are stalkless and in whorls of 4. The blades are linear lance-shaped, to 1¾long, and up to 3 16 wide. They have 3 veins, 1 prominent midvein and 2 less prominent but plainly visible lateral veins, running from the base to the tip. They are rounded at the tip. The upper surface is green and hairless. The lower surface is light green and sparsely hairy. The margins are untoothed and have a fringe of hairs. The leaves do not have hooked hairs.

The inflorescence is a showy, branched, about 4 long and wide, round-topped cluster (cyme) of numerous stalked flowers at the end of the stem. Each division of the cyme is subtended by a pair of elliptic bracts.

The flowers are to ¼ wide. There are 4 white to cream-colored petals fused at the base into a short tube then separated into 4 short lobes with pointed tips. There are 4 stamens with white filaments and yellowish-brown anthers, and 2 styles. There are 2 carpels at the base of the flower. The carpels are light green, hairy, and joined together. They do not have hooked hairs.

The fruit is a green, sometimes hairy, ball-like, 1-seeded capsule, joined in pairs. It does not have hooked hairs.

 
Similar
Species

Licorice bedstraw (Galium circaezans var. hypomalacum) has much wider leaves and 3 prominent parallel veins.


Distribution Distribution Map   Sources: 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 28.

Comments

Leaf Size
A feature I often notice but never see commented on is the variation in size of individual leaves within a whorl of 4. There are often two leaves opposite each other within a whorl that are significantly longer than the other two. Other bedstraws have leaves within a whorl that are identical in size.


Taxonomy

Family:

Rubiaceae (madder)

 

Subfamily:

Rubioideae

 

Tribe:

Rubieae

 
Synonyms

Galium boreale var. hyssopifolium

Galium boreale var. intermedium

Galium boreale var. linearifolium

Galium boreale var. scabrum

Galium boreale ssp. septentrionale

Galium boreale var. typicum

Galium hyssopifolium

Galium septentrionale

Galium strictum

 
Common
Names

northern bedstraw


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

bract

Modified leaf at the base of a flower stalk or flower cluster.

 

carpel

The female reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of an ovary, styles, and stigmas.

 

cyme

A branched, flat-topped or convex flower cluster in which the terminal flower opens first and the outermost flowers open last.

 

rhizome

A horizontal, usually underground stem. It serves as a reproductive structure, producing roots below and shoots above at the nodes.

       

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Habitat

  northern bedstraw   northern bedstraw
       

Plant

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Inflorescence

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Flowers

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  northern bedstraw    
       
       

 

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About

Galium boreale

 
     

 

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About

Published on Jul 24, 2013

No description available.

 
     

 

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Visitor Sightings

   
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MinnesotaSeasons.com Sightings

   

Afton State Park

Anna Gronseth Prairie

Badoura Jack Pine Forest SNA

Banning State Park

Big Stone Lake State Park

Blanket Flower Prairie SNA

Blazing Star Prairie

Blue Devil Valley SNA

Boot Lake SNA

Buffalo River State Park

Bunker Hills Regional Park

Butternut Valley Prairie SNA

Camden State Park

Cannon River Wilderness Area

Carpenter St. Croix Valley Nature Center

Carver Park Reserve

Cedar Mountain SNA

Crow Wing State Park

Des Moines River SNA

Englund Ecotone SNA

Falls Creek SNA

Felton Prairie SNA
Bicentennial Unit

Felton WMA

Fort Ridgely State Park

Franconia Bluffs SNA

Frenchman’s Bluff SNA

Frontenac State Park

Glacial Lakes State Park

Glendalough State Park

Glynn Prairie SNA

Gneiss Outcrops SNA

Great River Bluffs State Park

Greenwater Lake SNA

Hardscrabble Woods / MG Tusler Sanctuary

Hayes Lake State Park

Hemlock Ravine SNA

Hyland Lake Park Reserve

Hythecker Prairie SNA

Iron Horse Prairie SNA

Itasca State Park

Itasca Wilderness Sanctuary SNA

Jay Cooke State Park

John A. Latsch State Park

Joseph A. Tauer Prairie SNA

Kasota Prairie

Kasota Prairie SNA

Kilen Woods State Park

King’s and Queen’s Bluff SNA

Lake Bemidji State Park

Lake Bronson State Park

Lake Carlos State Park

Lake Elmo Park Reserve

Lake Louise State Park

Lake Maria State Park

Lebanon Hills Regional Park

Leif Mountain

Lost 40 SNA

Malmberg Prairie SNA

Maplewood State Park

Margherita Preserve-Audubon Prairie

McCarthy Beach State Park

Mille Lacs Kathio State Park

Mille Lacs Moraine SNA

Miller Prairie
West Unit

Minneopa State Park

Morton Outcrops SNA

Mound Spring Prairie SNA

Murphy-Hanrehan Park Reserve

Nelson Wildlife Sanctuary

Nerstrand Big Woods State Park

Northern Tallgrass Prairie NWR
Touch the Sky Prairie Unit

Old Mill State Park

Ottertail Prairie SNA

Paul Bunyan Savanna

Prairie Coteau SNA

Prairie Smoke Dunes SNA

Regal Meadow

Ripley Esker SNA

Roscoe Prairie SNA

Rushford Sand Barrens SNA

St. Croix Savanna SNA

St. Croix State Park

Santee Prairie SNA

Savage Fen SNA

Schaefer Prairie

Sedan Brook Prairie SNA

Seven Sisters Prairie

Sheepberry Fen

Sibley State Park

Spring Lake Park Reserve

Staffanson Prairie

Strandness Prairie

Swedes Forest, Homme-Kollin Unit SNA

Twin Lakes SNA

Twin Valley Prairie SNA

Two Rivers Aspen Prairie Parkland SNA

Tympanuchus Prairie

Upper Sioux Agency State Park

Verlyn Marth Memorial Prairie SNA

Whitewater State Park

Wild Indigo Prairie SNA

Wild River State Park

William O’Brien State Park

Zumbro Falls Woods SNA


 

 

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