birdfoot violet

(Viola pedata)

Conservation Status
birdfoot violet
 
  IUCN Red List

not listed

     
  NatureServe

NNR - Unranked

SNR - Unranked

     
  Minnesota

not listed

     
           
Wetland Indicator Status
     
  Great Plains

UPL - Obligate upland

     
  Midwest

UPL - Obligate upland

     
  Northcentral & Northeast

UPL - Obligate upland

     
           
 
Description
 
 

Birdfoot violet is a 3 to 6 tall, erect, perennial forb that rises from an erect, tuberous caudex and fibrous roots.

The leaves are all basal, rising from the rootstock on hairless leaf stalks. Outer leaves are on stalks up to 1 long, inner leaves on stalks up to 2 long. Outer leaves are about ¾ wide, long, and palmately divided into 3 deeply cut segments. The lateral segments are again divided into 3 to 5 narrowly inversely egg-shaped or inversely lance-shaped lobes. The lobes may have 2 to 4 deeply cut teeth near the tip. Inner leaves are about 1½ wide, 1 long, and palmately divided into 3 or 5 deeply cut segments. The segments may be again divided into 3 to 7 secondary lobes. The lobes are linear or inversely lance-shaped. Both types of leaves are hairless or nearly hairless. The margins have a fringe of minute, stiff, appressed hairs.

There is no central stem.

The inflorescence is a single flower at the end of a hairless, leafless, often purplish stalk. The stalk is at least as long as the leaf stalks and may be up to 4 long.

The flowers are ¾ to 1½ wide. The 5 petals are usually lilac purple, though the upper 2 petals are sometimes dark violet. The 2 lateral petals do not have tufts of hairs near the throat. The lower petal fades to white with purple veins near the throat, and has a hooked, rounded spur at the base. The 5 stamens are orange, conspicuously protruding, and converging, but not fused, around the ovary. Self-polinating (cleistogamous) flowers are not produced.

The fruit is a ¼ to long, hairless, yellowish-brown capsule.

 
     
 

Height

 
 

3 to 6

 
     
 

Flower Color

 
 

Lilac purple

 
     
 

Similar Species

 
  Birdfoot violet is easily identified by the deeply lobed leaves, unbearded lateral petals, and conspicuous, protruding, orange stamens.  
     
 
Habitat
 
 

Dry. Woods, prairies. Full to partial sun.

 
     
 
Biology
 
 

Flowering

 
 

April to June

 
     
 

Pests and Diseases

 
 

 

 
     
 
Use
 
 

 

 
     
 
Distribution
 
 

Distribution Map

 

Sources

2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 24, 28, 30.

 
  10/21/2021      
         
 

Nativity

 
 

Native

 
         
 

Occurrence

 
 

 

 
         
 
Taxonomy
 
  Kingdom Plantae (green algae and land plants)  
  Subkingdom Viridiplantae (green plants)  
  Infrakingdom Streptophyta (land plants and green algae)  
  Superdivision Embryophyta (land plants)  
  Division Tracheophyta (vascular plants)  
  Subdivision Spermatophytina (seed plants)  
  Class Magnoliopsida (flowering plants)  
  Subclass Rosidae  
  Superorder Rosanae  
 

Order

Malpighiales (nances, willows, and allies)  
 

Family

Violaceae (violet)  
  Subfamily Violoideae  
  Tribe Violeae  
  Genus Viola (violet)  
       
 

Synonyms

 
 

Viola pedata var. concolor

Viola pedata var. lineariloba

Viola pedata var. ranunculifolia

 
       
 

Common Names

 
 

beardless birdfoot violet

birdfoot violet

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

Bearded

Bearing one or more tufts of hairs.

 

Caudex

A short, thickened, woody, persistent enlargement of the stem, at or below ground level, used for water storage.

 

Cleistogamous

Automatically self-pollinating. Refers to bud-like flowers that do not open but automatically self-pollinate, or to plants with such flowers.

 

Linear

Long, straight, and narrow, with more or less parallel sides, like a blade of grass.

 

Palmate

Similar to a hand. Having more than three lobes or leaflets that radiate from a single point at the base of the leaf.

 
 
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Nancy Falkum

 
 

Birds Foot Violet

 
    birdfoot violet      
           
 

Bird’s Foot Violet, Hairy Puccoon, and Lyre Leaved Rock Cress

 
    birdfoot violet      
           
 
MinnesotaSeasons.com Photos
 
 

Plant

 
    birdfoot violet   birdfoot violet  
           
    birdfoot violet   birdfoot violet  
           
 

Flower

 
    birdfoot violet   birdfoot violet  
           
    birdfoot violet   birdfoot violet  
           
 

Leaves

 
    birdfoot violet   birdfoot violet  

 

Camera

     
 
Slideshows
 
 
     
     

 

slideshow

       
 
Visitor Videos
 
       
 

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Other Videos
 
  Native bee on Viola pedata
Retha Meier
 
   
 
About

Published on Jul 23, 2014

This video was recorded at our research site at Cuivre River State Park, just outside of Troy, Missouri. Andrena carlini, the most common visitor to our Cuivre River population, inverts its body to forage on Viola pedata. The occurrence of the two color morphs of V. pedata is approximately 50/50 at this site.

   
  Viola pedata bicolor with bee
Retha Meier
 
   
 
About

Published on Jul 24, 2014

Note how the native bee positions itself on the Viola pedata.

   

 

Camcorder

 
 
Visitor Sightings
 
           
 

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  Nancy Falkum
4/24/2021

Location: Kellogg Weaver Dunes SNA, Weaver Dunes Unit

Birds Foot Violet

birdfoot violet  
  Nancy Falkum
5/9/2017

Location: Kellogg Weaver Dunes SNA, Weaver Dunes Unit

Bird’s Foot Violet, Hairy Puccoon, and Lyre Leaved Rock Cress

birdfoot violet  
           
 
MinnesotaSeasons.com Sightings
 
   

 

 

Binoculars


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