blackberry lily

(Iris domestica)

               
Conservation Status

IUCN Red List

not yet assessed

blackberry lily

NatureServe

NNA - Not applicable

Minnesota

Invasive

Nativity

Native to Asia. Introduced, cultivated, and escaped cultivation. Naturalized.

Occurrence

Uncommon

Habitat

Moist to dry. Hillsides, pastures, woodland openings, thickets, roadsides, old fields, old homesteads, disturbed areas. Full or partial sun.

Flowering

June to July

 
Flower Color

Orange with red or purple spots

 
Height

12 to 40

 

Identification

This is an erect, 12 to 40 tall, perennial forb that rises on a cluster of basal leaves and a leafy stem from a thickened crown at the base of the plant, underground stems (rhizomes), and fibrous roots. The rhizomes are shallow, stout, orangish-yellow, and creeping. It sometimes forms dense colonies.

Basal leaves are linear, green to grayish-green, 12 to 24 long, and to ¾ wide. They are half as long to as long as the flowering stem. The basal third to half of the leaf is folded longitudinally, the remainder flat. The tip is sharply pointed. The leaf blade is parallel-veined and lacks a prominent midvein. The upper and lower surfaces are hairless and covered with a whitish, waxy bloom (glaucous). The margins are untoothed. Basal leaves are often spread out fan-like. Stem leaves are arranged alternately in two overlapping ranks. They are shorter, stalkless, and narrowly lance-shaped to linear, but otherwise similar to basal leaves.

The stem is erect or ascending, pale green, hairless, glaucous, round in cross section, and 24 to 40 long. It usually has 3 to 5 branches but may be unbranched.

The inflorescence is a flattened, branched cluster (cyme) of 3 to 6 large flowers at the end of each branch. A pair of modified leaves (bracts) subtend each node of the inflorescence.

The flowers are 1¼ to 2 in diameter and have a to ¾ long stalk. They are semi-erect or horizontal – they do not hang downward. There are 3 petals, 3 petal-like sepals (6 tepals), 3 stamens, and 1 style. The tepals are lance-shaped, to 1 long, fused and ascending at the base, but separated and widely spreading for most of their length. They are orangish-red to orange with large, irregularly scattered, red to brownish-purple spots. A yellow version is available in cultivation. The sepals are slightly longer than the petals. The stamens have yellow to orange, to ½ long filaments; and yellow, ¼ to 5 16 long anthers. The style is 3-angled near the base, thickened in the upper half, and split into 3 branches at the tip. The flowers bloom from dawn to dusk and last only a single day. Within each cluster only a single flower blooms at a time. At the end of the day they curl up on a tight spiral, appearing like what has been described as a wrung-out dishcloth. The flowers are not fragrant.

The fruit is a green, egg-shaped, 1 to 13 16 long, to ¾ in diameter capsule with 3 longitudinal lobes. When ripe it splits open along 3 fissures to reveal blackberry-like masses of round, shiny, black seeds.

 
Similar
Species

Michigan lily (Lilium michiganense) is much taller, 3 to 6 at maturity. The leaves are whorled except near the top, where they are single, in pairs, or in partial whorls. The flowers are much larger, 2½ to 3 wide, and hang downward. They are Turk’s-cap shaped, with tepals that bend backward to their base.

Wood lily (Lilium philadelphicum var. andinum) upper stem leaves are whorled.


Distribution Distribution Map  

Sources: 2, 5, 7, 24, 29.


Comments

Uncommon Invasive
Blackberry lily has been recorded only three times in Minnesota: once, date unknown but prior to 1991, in Waseca, where it was planted and escaped cultivation; once in 2014 in Baker Park Reserve, Hennepin County; and once in 2017 in Barn Bluff Park, Redwing.

Taxonomy
Prior to 2005, the scientific name of blackberry lily was Belamcanda chinensis. It was the sole species in that genus. In that year, based on molecular DNA analysis, it was transferred to the genus Iris, and became Iris domestica. Several online sources, including GRIN,38 GBIF29, and FNA45, retain the old name.

What’s in a Name?
The common name of this plant is a misnomer. Blackberry lily is an iris, family Iridaceae, not a lily, family Liliaceae. It gets its name from the lily-like appearance of the flowers and the blackberry-like appearance of the fruit.


Taxonomy

Family:

Iridaceae (iris)

 

Subfamily:

Iridoideae

 

Tribe:

Irideae

 

Genus:

Iris

 

Subgenus:

Hermodactyloides

 
Synonyms

Belamcanda chinensis

Gemmingia chinensis

 
Common
Names

belamcanda

blackberry lily

leopard-lily

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

bract

Modified leaf at the base of a flower stalk or flower cluster.

 

cyme

A branched, flat-topped or convex flower cluster in which the terminal flower opens first and the outermost flowers open last.

 

filament

On plants: The thread-like stalk of a stamen which supports the anther. On Lepidoptera: One of a pair of long, thin, fleshy extensions extending from the thorax, and sometimes also from the abdomen, of a caterpillar.

 

glaucous

Pale green or bluish gray due to a whitish, powdery or waxy film, as on a plum or a grape.

 

linear

Long, straight, and narrow, with more or less parallel sides, like a blade of grass.

 

node

The small swelling of the stem from which one or more leaves, branches, or buds originate.

 

rhizome

A horizontal, usually underground stem. It serves as a reproductive structure, producing roots below and shoots above at the nodes.

 

sepal

An outer floral leaf, usually green but sometimes colored, at the base of a flower.

 

tepal

Refers to both the petals and the sepals of a flower when they are similar in appearance and difficult to tell apart. Tepals are common in lilies and tulips.

       

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  blackberry lily    

       
       
       

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  blackberry lily    
       

Inflorescence

  blackberry lily    
       

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  blackberry lily   blackberry lily
       

Basal Leaves

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Slideshows

   
  Plant portrait - Blackberry lily (Belamcanda chinensis)
Identify that Plant
 
   
 
About

Published on Sep 29, 2013

A detailed look at characteristics of Blackberry lily (Belamcanda chinensis). These images can help to accurately identify the plant during different seasons of the year.

 
     
  射干(Blackberry Lily )
Siokhui Fan
 
   
 
About

Uploaded on Feb 11, 2012

射干

 
     
  Iris Doméstica
fafapadula
 
   
 
About

Uploaded on Mar 2, 2011

Minha flor preferida atualmente.

 
     

 

slideshow

     

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  Blackberry Lily
www.flowers.ms
 
   
 
About

Uploaded on Aug 15, 2011

Blackberry Lily

 
     
  Iris domestica Blackberry Lily
dullard69
 
   
 
About

Published on Aug 30, 2015

I call these orchid lilies myself because the flowers, at a glance look like "orchidish." They are also called Leopard Lilly.

 
     
  Iris domestica - Blackberry Lily
ISU Horticulture Herbaceous Ornamentals
 
   
 
About

Published on Oct 29, 2013

Blackberry Lily
Author: Cory Rigler

 
     
  FLOR-LEOPARDO + SEMENTES - Meu jardim !
veveblue
 
   
 
About

Published on Apr 11, 2013

Flor-leopardo ou lírio-leopardo. Belamcanda chinensis.

Google translate: Flower Leopard or Leopard lily. Belamcanda chinensis.

 
     
  Leopard lily , Dieffenbachia, Ledebouria , Lilium catesbaei, , Lilium pardalinum, Iris domestica
shyejyh
 
   
 
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Published on Mar 1, 2015

 
     

 

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7/23/2017

Location: Barn Bluff Trail, Red Wing MN

blackberry lily


     
     
 

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