narrow-leaved purple coneflower

(Echinacea angustifolia)

               
Conservation Status

IUCN Red List

not yet assessed

narrow-leaved purple coneflower

NatureServe

N4 - Apparently Secure

SNR - Unranked

Minnesota

not listed

Nativity

Native

Occurrence

Common but not abundant

Habitat

Dry to moderate moisture. Prairies. Full sun.

Flowering

June to October

Photo by Wayne Rasmussen
Flower Color

Pink to purplish ray florets, purple disk florets

 
Height

4 to 27

 

Identification

This is a hairy, erect, perennial forb that rises on one to five stems from a deep, woody, often branched taproot, and tuberous main roots. The taproot is fragile and can extend 4¾ to 6½ deep.

The stems are erect or ascending, green to purplish, round, and mostly unbranched. They can be 4 to 27 in height, but are usually no more than 20 tall at maturity. They are finely ridged and sparsely to densely covered with stiff, spreading, 1 32to 1 16 long hairs.

Basal leaves are long stalked, the leaf stalks up to 4¾ in length. The blades are narrowly elliptic to lance-shaped, long tapered or narrowly angled at the base, and tapered to a sharp point at the tip. They are 2 to 10 long and to 1½ wide, about 5 to 20 times as long as wide. They have usuallt 3m sometimes 5, prominent main veins. The upper and lower surfaces are rough to the touch and moderately to densely covered with stiff, mostly spreading hairs. The margins are untoothed and usually have a fringe of spreading hairs.

Stem leaves are alternate. Lower stem leaves are long-stalked, linear to narrowly lance-shaped, 1½ to 6 long, ¼ to 1½ wide, and otherwise similar to basal leaves. The leaves become smaller and shorter stalked as they ascend the stem. Upper stem leaves are stalkless, to 1¼ long, and to 1 wide.

The inflorescence is a solitary flower head on a long stalk at the end of the stem. The flower stalk is leafless, 4 to 12 long, and covered with stiff, spreading hairs.

At the base of the flower head a whorl of 17 to 30 bracts in three or four overlapping series forming a ½ to 1½ in diameter, cup-shaped involucre. The bracts of the involucre (phyllaries) are green, narrowly lance-shaped to lance-shaped, ¼ to ½ long, hairy, and fringed with hairs. The outermost phyllaries are egg-shaped and spreading to bent backward above the middle.

The flower heads are 1½ to 2 in diameter. There are 8 to 21 ray florets and 200 to 300 or more disk florets. The disk is cone-shaped, to 1¼ tall, and ¾ to 1 in diameter. The ray florets are pink to purplish, ¾ to 1 long, 3 16 to 5 16 wide, and mostly spreading. They are about as long as the disk is wide. The disk florets have five petals fused at the base into a yellow to green tube then separated at the tip into five dark purple lobes. Each disk floret is subtended by a thin, dry, bract. The bracts are to 9 16 long, hardened, and sharply pointed with a spine-like tip. They are noticeably longer than the disk corollas. They are usually dark purple at the tip. They remain on the plant at fruiting time.

The fruit is a dry, wedge-shaped, 4-angled in cross section, slightly flattened, to 3 16 long cypsela with a crown of feather-like hairs attached to one end. It is tan toward the base, banded with dark brown toward the tip.

 
Similar
Species

Eastern purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea) is a taller plant, up to 48 in height. The leaves are wider, only 1½ to 5 times as long as wide. The leaf margins are toothed. The hairs on the leaf surfaces are appressed, not spreading. The flower heads are larger, up to 4 in diameter.


Distribution Distribution Map   Sources: 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 24, 28.

Comments

 


Taxonomy

Family:

Asteraceae (aster)

 

Subfamily:

Asteroideae

 

Supertribe:

Helianthodae

 

Tribe:

Heliantheae (sunflower)

 
Synonyms

Brauneria angustifolia

Echinacea angustifolia var. angustifolia

Echinacea angustifolia var. strigosa

Echinacea pallida var. angustifolia

Echinacea pallida var. strigosa

 
Common
Names

Blacksamson

blacksamson echinacea

narrow-leaved purple coneflower


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

bract

Modified leaf at the base of a flower stalk or flower cluster.

 

corolla

A collective name for all of the petals of a flower.

 

cypsela

A dry, one-chambered, single-seeded fruit, formed from a single carpel, with the seed attached to the membranous outer layer (wall) only by the seed stalk; the wall, formed from the wall of the inferior ovary and also from other tissues derived from the receptacle or hypanthium, does not split open at maturity, but relies on decay or predation to release the contents.

 

involucre

A whorl of bracts beneath or surrounding a flower or flower cluster.

 

phyllary

An individual bract within the involucre of a plant in the Asteraceae family.

       

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Wayne Rasmussen


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About

Published on May 12, 2013

http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Echinacea+angustifolia

http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?14798

 
     

 

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Wayne Rasmussen
6/25/2016

Location: Oxbow Park & Zollman Zoo

narrow-leaved purple coneflower


     
     
 

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