(Solidago spp.)


Solidago is a very large genus of perennial, herbaceous, flowering plants called goldenrods. It has a worldwide distribution, occuring on every continent except Antarctica. There are about 100 species of goldenrod worldwide, at least 77 in North America north of Mexico, and 16 in Minnesota. Most are native to North America, 8 are native in Mexico, 4 in South America, and 6 to 10 in Europe and Asia. Most are found in prairies and other open areas, a few are woodland species.

goldenrod (Solidago sp.)
Photo by Alfredo Colon
Goldenrods have an undeserved reputation for causing hay fever because they are showy and grow in the same locations and in close proximity to ragweeds.

Goldenrods have composite flower heads with short ray florets and short disk florets. Most rise from underground creeping stems; have leafy, erect or ascending stems; and have yellow corollas.


Distribution Map



2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 24, 28, 29, 30.



Plantae (green algae and land plants)


Viridiplantae (green plants)


Streptophyta (land plants and green algae)


Embryophyta (land plants)


Tracheophyta (vascular plants)


Spermatophytina (seed plants)


Magnoliopsida (flowering plants)




Asterales (sunflowers, bellflowers, fanflowers, and allies)


Asteraceae (sunflowers, daisies, asters, and allies)






Astereae (asters and allies)

Subtribe Solidagininae

Subordinate Taxa

Subgenus Solidago
  Section Solidago
    Series Solidago
      Solidago virgaurea
      Solidago litoralis
      Solidago dahurica
      Solidago pacifica
      Solidago decurrens
        var. decurrens
        var. insularis
        var. praeflorens
      Solidago minutissima
      Solidago horieana
      Solidago yokusaiana
      Solidago yambaruensis
      Solidago kurilensis
    Series Macrophyllae
      Solidago macrophylla
  Section Villosicarpae
    Solidago villosicarpa
  Section Erectae
    Subsection Erectae
      Series Erectae
        Solidago erecta
        showy goldenrod (Solidago speciosa)
        Solidago kralii
        Solidago plumosa
        Solidago ayuhwasi
        Solidago arenicola
        Solidago austrocaroliniana
        stiff-leaved showy goldenrod (Solidago rigidiuscula)
        Solidago pallida
        Solidago jejunifolia
      Series Albigulae
        Solidago bicolor
        hairy goldenrod (Solidago hispida)
          var. hispida
          var. huronensis
          var. tonsa
          var. arnoglossa
        Solidago psammophila
        Solidago georgiana
        Solidago porteri
        cliff goldenrod (Solidago sciaphila)
      Series Puberulae
        Solidago puberula
        Solidago pulverulenta
        Solidago roanensis
    Subsection Humiles
      Western North American taxa
        Solidago bellidifolia
        Solidago glutinosa
        Solidago simplex
        Solidago spathulata
      Eastern North American taxa
        Solidago chlorolepis
        Solidago ontarioensis
        Solidago gillmanii
        Solidago randii
        Solidago racemosa
  Section Squarrosae
    Solidago squarrosa
  Section Brintonia
    Solidago discoidea (previously treated as Brintonia discoidea)
  Section Thyrsiflorae
    Solidago wrightii
    Solidago spellenbergii
    Solidago correllii
    Solidago orientalis
    Solidago buckleyi
    Solidago petiolaris
      var. angusta
      var. petiolaris
      var. wardii
    Solidago capulinensis
Subgenus Pleiactila
  Section Ptarmicoidei (Oligoneuron Group)
    prairie goldenrod (Solidago ptarmicoides)
    Solidago ptarmicoides × S. rigida
    stiff goldenrod (Solidago rigida)
      ssp. rigida
      ssp. humilis
      ssp. glabrata
    Solidago nitida
    Solidago ohioensis
    Riddell’s goldenrod (Solidago riddellii)
    Solidago houghtonii
    Solidago vossii
  Section Glomeruliflorae
    Solidago caesia
    Solidago zedia
    Solidago curtisii
    Solidago flaccidifolia
    Solidago glomerata
    Solidago lancifolia
    zigzag goldenrod (Solidago flexicaulis)
    Solidago albopilosa
    Solidago ouachitensis
  Section Multiradiatae
    Solidago multiradiata
    Solidago leiocarpa
    Solidago spithamaea
  Section Maritimae
    S. sempervirens complex
      Solidago sempervirens
      Solidago azorica
      Solidago mexicana
      Solidago maya
      Solidago paniculata
      Solidago chrysopsis
    S. stricta complex
      Solidago virgata (S. stricta sensu Gray 1882)
      Solidago stricta (synonym: S. perlonga)
      Solidago austrina
      Solidago pulchra
    S. uliginosa complex
      northern bog goldenrod (Solidago uliginosa)
        var. uliginosa
        var. peracuta
        var. terrae-novae
    basal complex
      Solidago gracillima
  Section Argutae
    Subsection Argutae
      Solidago arguta (var. arguta)
      Solidago vaseyi (synonym: S. arguta var. caroliniana)
      Solidago harrisii
      Solidago boottii
      Solidago ludoviciana
      Solidago faucibus
      Solidago tarda
      Solidago verna
    Subsection Patulae
      rough-leaved goldenrod (Solidago patula)
      Solidago salicina
    Subsection Brachychaeta
      Solidago sphacelata
  Section Venosae
    Subsection Venosae
      Solidago rugosa
        var. rugosa
        var. sphagnophila
        var. aspera
        var. celtidifolia
        var. cronquistiana
    Subsection Venosae
      Series Ulmifoliae
        elm-leaved goldenrod (Solidago ulmifolia)
        Solidago delicatula
        Solidago brachyphylla
      Series Auriculatae
        Solidago auriculata
    Subsection Drummondiani
      Solidago drummondii
  Section Unilaterales
    Subsection Triplinervae
      Series Canadensae
        Canada goldenrod (Solidago canadensis)
          var. canadensis
          var. hargeri
        Solidago rupestris
        Solidago bartramiana (syn. S. brendae)
        Solidago fallax (northeastern)
          var. fallax
          var. molina
        Solidago lepida
          var. lepida (northern and western)
          var. salebrosa (western)
        Solidago turneri
        Solidago elongata
        late goldenrod (Solidago altissima)
          tall goldenrod (Solidago altissima var. altissima)
          var. pluricephala
          shorthair goldenrod (Solidago altissima var. gilvocanescens)
        Solidago shortii
      Series Tortifoliae
        Solidago tortifolia
        Solidago leavenworthii
        Solidago juliae
        Solidago pringlei
        Solidago durangensis
        Solidago macvaughii
        Solidago gypsophila
        Solidago veracruzensis
    Subsection Junceae
      Series Junceae
        early goldenrod (Solidago juncea)
        Solidago pinetorum
        Missouri goldenrod (Solidago missouriensis)
          var. missouriensis
          var. fasciculata
          var. extraria
          var. tenuissima
          var. tolmieana
      Series Spectabiles
        Solidago spectabilis
        Solidago confinis
        Solidago guiradonis
    Subsection Radulae
      Solidago velutina (including S. sparsiflora)
      Solidago californica
      Solidago altiplanities
      Solidago radula
      velvety goldenrod (Solidago mollis)
      Solidago hintoniorum
      Solidago gattingerii
    Subsection Serotinae
      North American taxa
        giant goldenrod (Solidago gigantea)
          var. gigantea
          var. shinnersii
      Chilensis Complex (South American)
        Solidago chilensis (including S. linearifolia, S. patagonica)
        Solidago microglossa (S. chilensis var. megapotamica)
Subgenus Nemorales
(Nemoralis Group)
  gray goldenrod (Solidago nemoralis)
  Solidago decemflora (synonym: S. nemoralis ssp. decemflora)
  Solidago nana
Subgenus Triactis
  Section Odorae
    Solidago odora
    Solidago chapmanii
    Solidago sp. nov.
  Section Suffrutescentes
    Solidago ericamerioides

Source: Semple, John C. and James B. Beck. 2021. A revised infrageneric classification of Solidago (Asteraceae: Astereae). Phytoneuron 2021-10. 1-6. Last updated 22 August 2023 by J.C. Semple. Retrieved 3/12/2024



X Solidaster

Common Names









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Alfredo Colon

goldenrod (Solidago sp.)   goldenrod (Solidago sp.)
goldenrod (Solidago sp.)    

Nancy Falkum

Golden Rod with Leonard’s Skipper

goldenrod (Solidago sp.)    

Tom T.

Smooth Sumac Red Leaves and … Goldenrod

goldenrod (Solidago sp.) Photos











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Alfredo Colon

Location: Albany, NY

goldenrod (Solidago sp.)
Nancy Falkum

Location: Kellogg Weaver Dunes SNA, Weaver Dunes Unit

Golden Rod with Leonard’s Skipper

goldenrod (Solidago sp.)

Tom T.

Location: Seven Sisters Prairie

Smooth Sumac Red Leaves and … Goldenrod

goldenrod (Solidago sp.)
Alfredo Colon

Location: Woodbury, Minnesota

goldenrod (Solidago sp.) Sightings






Created: 11/18/2019

Last Updated:

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