Riddell’s goldenrod

(Solidago riddellii)

Conservation Status
Riddell’s goldenrod
 
  IUCN Red List

not listed

     
  NatureServe

NNR - Unranked

SNR - Unranked

     
  Minnesota

not listed

     
           
Wetland Indicator Status
     
  Great Plains

OBL - Obligate wetland

     
  Midwest

OBL - Obligate wetland

     
  Northcentral & Northeast

OBL - Obligate wetland

     
           
 
Description
 
 

Riddell’s goldenrod is a 1½ to 3½ tall, erect, perennial forb with rising on 1 to 10 stems from a well-developed, branching caudex or, sometimes, a creeping underground stem (rhizome).

The stem is erect, thick, and hairless except for some fine short hairs in the inflorescence.

Basal and lower stem leaves are grass-like, long, narrow, and hairless. They are 4 to 9½ long, to wide. They are folded along the midrib, V-shaped in cross section, and often bent backward. They taper to a long, winged leaf stalk. They are usually withering by the time the plant is in flower.

Stem leaves are alternate. Middle and upper stem leaves are attached to the stem without a stalk. They are 2 to 2¾ long, to a little less than ½ wide, becoming gradually smaller as they ascend the stem. They are folded along the midrib and wraps around (sheaths) the stem at the base. They are not dotted with glands.

The stem and side branches terminate in flower clusters which form a flat topped inflorescence of between 30 and 450 flower heads. Each flower head has 7 to 9 yellow ray florets and 6 to 10 yellow disk florets.

 
     
 

Height

 
 

1½ to 3½

 
     
 

Flower Color

 
 

Yellow ray florets, yellow disk florets

 
     
 

Similar Species

 
 

Among the flat-topped goldenrods this species is identified by its grass-like, folded leaves that sheath the stem.

Grass-leaved goldenrod (Euthamia graminifolia) has grass-like, unfolded leaves that do not wrap around (sheath) the stem at the base. They have tiny brown to black resinous dots on the surface. Each flower head has 15 to 25 ray florets.

Great Plains flat-topped goldenrod (Euthamia gymnospermoides) has grass-like, unfolded leaves that do not wrap around (sheath) the stem at the base. They have a large number of resinous dots on the surface. The flower clusters have only 10 to 21 flower heads. There are 10 to 14 ray florets in the flower head.

 
     
 
Habitat
 
 

Wet. Meadows, swamps, fens, prairies. Limey soil.

 
     
 
Ecology
 
 

Flowering

 
 

Early August to late September

 
     
 

Flowering

 
 

Early August to late September

 
     
 
Use
 
 

 

 
     
 
Distribution
 
 

Distribution Map

 

Sources

2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 28.

 
  1/10/2014      
         
 

Nativity

 
 

Native

 
         
 

Occurrence

 
 

 

 
         
 
Taxonomy
 
  Kingdom Plantae (green algae and land plants)  
  Subkingdom Viridiplantae (green plants)  
  Infrakingdom Streptophyta (land plants and green algae)  
  Superdivision Embryophyta (land plants)  
  Division Tracheophyta (vascular plants)  
  Subdivision Spermatophytina (seed plants)  
  Class Magnoliopsida (dicots)  
  Superorder Asteranae  
 

Order

Asterales (sunflowers, bellflowers, fanflowers, and allies)  
 

Family

Asteraceae (sunflowers, daisies, asters, and allies)  
  Subfamily Asteroideae  
  Supertribe Asterodae  
  Tribe Astereae (asters and allies)  
  Genus Solidago (goldenrod)  
  Section Ptarmicoidei  
       
 

Some taxonomist separate the seven flat-topped goldenrod species in the Solidago section Ptarmicoidei as a separate genus Oligoneuron. The Global Compositae Database lists Riddell’s goldenrod as Oligoneuron riddellii, with Solidago riddellii a synonym. The Global Compositae Checklist lists it as Solidago riddellii, with Oligoneuron riddellii a synonym. Almost all other sources list it as Solidago riddellii.

 
       
 

Subordinate Taxa

 
 

 

 
       
 

Synonyms

 
 

Aster riddelli

Oligoneuron riddellii

Solidago amplexicaulis

 
       
 

Common Names

 
 

common flat-topped goldenrod

lance-leaved goldenrod

Riddell’s goldenrod

 
       

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

Caudex

A short, thickened, woody, persistent enlargement of the stem, at or below ground level, used for water storage.

 

Rhizome

A horizontal, usually underground stem. It serves as a reproductive structure, producing roots below and shoots above at the nodes.

 

Sheath

The lower part of the leaf that surrounds the stem.

       
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Plant

  Riddell’s goldenrod   Riddell’s goldenrod
       
  Riddell’s goldenrod   Riddell’s goldenrod
       
  Riddell’s goldenrod    
       

Inflorescence

  Riddell’s goldenrod   Riddell’s goldenrod
       
  Riddell’s goldenrod    
       

Northern corn rootworm beetle on Riddell's goldenrod

  Riddell’s goldenrod    
       

Leaves

  Riddell’s goldenrod    
       
       

 

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