grass-leaved goldenrod

(Euthamia graminifolia var. graminifolia)

               
Conservation Status

IUCN Red List

not yet assessed

grass-leaved goldenrod

NatureServe

NNR - Unranked

SNR - Unranked

Minnesota

not listed

Wetland
Indicator
Status

Great Plains

FACW - Facultative wetland

Midwest

FACW - Facultative wetland

Northcentral & Northeast

FAC - Facultative

Nativity

Native

 
Occurrence

 

 
Habitat

Moist to dry. Meadows, prairies, roadsides, shores. Sandy soil.

 
Flowering

July to October

     
Flower Color

Yellow ray florets, yellow disk florets

     
Height

12 to 48

     

Identification

This is a 12 to 48tall, erect, perennial forb that rises from a rhizome. The roots and leaves exude toxic chemicals that inhibit the growth and survival of competing species (allelopathy).

The stems are erect, leafy, and often branched in the upper quarter. They are either hairless or densely covered with short, spreading, stiff hairs. They are not glaucous.

The linear, grass-like leaves are alternate and very long and narrow, 1½ to 5 long by ¼ wide, 7 to 20 times as long as wide, becoming smaller as they ascend the stem. They are not folded. The larger leaves have three conspicuous veins, often with two fainter lateral veins. The smaller leaves usually have only a single conspicuous vein. They do not wrap around (sheath) the stem at the base. There are tiny brown to black resin dots on the leaf surface.

The inflorescence is arranged in small, dense clusters at the end of the stem and side branches. The clusters are about 1¼ clusters wide and have of 20 to 35 mostly stalkless flower heads. Together they form a broad inflorescence up to 11 wide that is usually flat topped but may appear rounded.

The flower head is smaller than most other goldenrods, only about across. It has 7 to 35 but usually 17 to 22 yellow ray florets and 3 to 13 but usually 5 to 7 yellow disk florets.

 
Similar
Species

Riddell’s goldenrod (Oligoneuron riddellii) has grass-like, folded leaves that sheath the stem at the base.

Great Plains flat-topped goldenrod (Euthamia gymnospermoides) leaves, even the largest leaves, have only a single central vein, and have a large number of resinous dots on the surface. The flower clusters have 10 to 21 flower heads. There are 10 to 14 ray florets in the flower head.


Distribution Distribution Map   Sources: 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 28.

Comments

Allelopathic
A study in 2002 showed that grass-leaved goldenrod inhibits the growth and survival of competing species by exuding toxic chemicals from its roots and leaves.


Taxonomy

Family:

Asteraceae (aster)

 

Subfamily:

Asteroideae

 

Supertribe:

Asterodae

 

Tribe:

Astereae (aster)

 

No Rank:

North American clade

 
Synonyms

Euthamia graminifolia var. major

Solidago graminifolia

Solidago graminifolia var. major

 
Common
Names

common flat-topped goldenrod

flat-top goldentop

grass-leaved goldenrod

lance-leaved goldenrod


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

allelopathy

The release of a chemical toxin by one plant to inhibit the growth or germination of nearby competing plants.

 

glaucous

Pale green or bluish gray due to a whitish, powdery or waxy film, as on a plum or a grape.

 

linear

Long, straight, and narrow, with more or less parallel sides, like a blade of grass.

 

rhizome

A horizontal, usually underground stem. It serves as a reproductive structure, producing roots below and shoots above at the nodes.

 

sheath

The lower part of the leaf that surrounds the stem.

       

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Plant

  grass-leaved goldenrod   grass-leaved goldenrod
       
  grass-leaved goldenrod    
       

Inflorescence

  grass-leaved goldenrod   grass-leaved goldenrod
       
  grass-leaved goldenrod    
       

Flowers

  grass-leaved goldenrod    
       

Leaves

  grass-leaved goldenrod    
       
       

 

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Slideshows

   
  Flat-top Goldenrod (Euthamia graminifolia)
Andree Reno Sanborn
 
  Flat-top Goldenrod (Euthamia graminifolia)  
     
  Solidago graminifolia COMMON GRASS-LEAVED GOLDENROD
Frank Mayfield
 
  Solidago graminifolia COMMON GRASS-LEAVED GOLDENROD  

 

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