western prairie fringed orchid

(Platanthera praeclara)

               
Conservation Status

IUCN Red List

EN - Endangered

 

No image available

NatureServe

N3 - Vulnerable

S1 - Critically Imperiled

Minnesota

Endangered

Federal Status

Threatened
Nativity

Native

Occurrence

Rare

Habitat

Wet prairies and sedge meadows in the northwest. Moderately moist upland prairies in the southwest.

Flowering

July

     
Flower Color

White

     
Height

1 to 2

     
 
Identification

This is a 1 to 2 tall, erect, long-lived, perennial forb that rises on a single stem from a tight bundle of fleshy roots.

The stems are stout, erect, and hairless. Flowering stems are usually 18 to 24 tall.

The lower leaves are alternate, lance-shaped, ascending, thick, hairless, and 4 to 10 long, up to 2 wide, with a blunt tip. Upper leaves are much smaller.

The inflorescence is loose, open spike at the end of the stem with up to 24 flowers.

The flowers are large, up to 1½ long, showy, and upside down due to the twisting of the flower stalk. The petals are creamy white. The lower petal (lip) is 3-lobed with a fringed margin. The column is distinctly angular.

 
Similar
Species

Ragged fringed orchid (Platanthera lacera) has smaller flowers, more linear fringes, and is shorter height.

 
Distribution Distribution Map  

Sources: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 23, 25, 28, and personal correspondence with the Minnesota Biological Survey.

Some of the sources listed above (2, 3, 5, 6, and 28) include historical records where no populations currently exist. One source (23) contains an unverified record.

The map at left shows all specimens that have been collected after 1970, deposited in a public herbarium in Minnesota, and verified by an expert.

 

Public places this plant can be found in Minnesota include Blue Mounds State Park; Burnham WMA; Crane Meadows NWR; Felton Prairie SNA, Bicentennial Unit; Iron Horse Prairie SNA; Lake Bronson Parkland SNA; Northern Tallgrass Prairie NWR, Touch the Sky Prairie Unit; Pembina Trail Preserve SNA, Pembina Trail Unit; Pipestone National Monument; and Ulen WMA.

 
Comments

Uncommon
Western prairie fringed orchid is endemic to tallgrass prairie. There are only 175 known populations in 40 counties in six states and one Canadian province. One quarter of those occurrences are protected by federal, state, or private preserves. Only three large populations have been found: one in Polk County in northern Minnesota, one in eastern North Dakota, and one in Manitoba. A large population may have over 2,000 individual plants. According to Welby Smith,25 “…this is Minnesota’s rarest orchid.”

 
Taxonomy

Family:

Orchidaceae (orchid)

 

Subfamily:

Orchidoideae

 

Tribe:

Orchideae

 

Subtribe:

Orchidinae

 
Synonyms

Habenaria leucophaea var. praeclara

 
Common
Names

Great Plains white fringed orchid

western prairie fringed orchid

western prairie white-fringed orchid

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

       
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Slideshows
   
  Save the Western Prairie Fringed Orchid
justadancer7x43
 
   
 
About

Published on Feb 11, 2013

A video about saving the Western Prairie Fringed Orchid

 
     

 

slideshow

       
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Other Videos
 
  Introduced hawk moth pollinating prairie orchid
NDSUEntomology
 
   
 
About

Uploaded on Dec 21, 2011

In the video a Spurge hawk moth (Hyles euphorbiae (L.)) visits the threatened Western prairie fringed orchid Platanthera praeclara. This moth species is native to Europe and was intentionally introduced to North America (Montana and North Dakota) in the 1960s as a biological control species for Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.), an invasive weed that was unintentionally introduced to the United States in the early 1800s. The larval stage of the moth feeds on leafy spurge. The spurge moth was first recorded in southeastern North Dakota (the location of one of the three remaining metapopulations of the orchid) in 2000 and since then has boosted pollination rates for the orchid, which appears to have relatively small numbers of native pollinators. During the video the moth is seen visiting flowers to feed on nectar. The moth uses its 30-40 mm long tongue (proboscis) to search for and feed on nectar. During these visits, pollen sacs of the orchid sometimes attach to the moth's compound eyes (listen for comments indicating when this happens) and are held on a stalk in front of the moth's head. Pollen contacts the stigma of the flowers subsequently visited for nectar. (Video by Kristina Fox, NDSU Master's student.)

   
       

 

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