bittersweet nightshade

(Solanum dulcamara)

               
Conservation Status

IUCN Red List

not yet assessed

bittersweet nightshade

NatureServe

NNA - Not applicable

SNA - Not applicable

Minnesota

not listed

Wetland
Indicator
Status

Great Plains

FACU - Facultative upland

Midwest

FAC - Facultative

Northcentral & Northeast

FAC - Facultative

Nativity

Native to Northern Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Indian Subcontinent. Introduced and naturalized in North America.

Occurrence

Common

 
Habitat

Moist. Thickets, clearings, wood openings.

 
Flowering

June to September

     
Flower Color

Purple or violet

     
Height

Climbs 2 to 8

     

Identification

This is a sprawling perennial vine that rises from rhizomes. It may be found trailing over adjacent shrubs and bushes. It often forms colonies.

Young stems are purple and are hairless or sparsely covered with straight, stiff, upward-pointing hairs. Older stems are brown and woody.

The leaves are alternate, triangular in outline, ¾ to 3 long, to 2 wide, on long, slender leaf stalks. Some are unlobed, others are divided into a large terminal leaflet and two small basal leaflets or lobes. The margins are untoothed. The upper surface is hairless or sparsely covered with straight, stiff, upward-pointing hairs.

The inflorescence is a 1 to 3 wide branched cluster of 6 to 12 flowers. The clusters are at the end of purple or violet, to 1½ long stalks arising from the leaf axils and at the end of the stems. The individual flowers are on nodding, closely-clustered stalks.

The flowers are to 1½ wide. There are 5 purple or violet petals that are widely spreading, eventually curving backward, and form no tube at the base. There are 5 stamens with large yellow anthers projecting from the center of the petals. The anthers are fused into a cone around the style. The style is longer than, and protrudes from, the anther cone.

The fruit is an oval, ¼ long berry, green when young, turning yellow, then orange, and finally bright red when ripe.

 
Similar
Species

 


Distribution Distribution Map   Sources: 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 22, 24, 28.

Comments

 


Taxonomy

Family:

Solanaceae (nightshade)

 

Subfamily:

Solanoideae

 

Tribe:

Solaneae

 

Genus:

Solanum

 

Subgenus:

Solanum

 

Section:

Dulcamara

 
Synonyms

Solanum dulcamara var. dulcamara

Solanum dulcamara var. villosissimum

 
Common
Names

bitter nightshade

bittersweet

bittersweet nightshade

blue nightshade

climbing nightshade

deadly nightshade

european bittersweet

fellenwort

woody nightshade


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

axil

The upper angle where the leaf stalk meets the stem.

       

Visitor Photos

   
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Robert Briggs


Bittersweet Nightshade at Whitetail Woods Park.

  bittersweet nightshade    

Wayne Rasmussen


  bittersweet nightshade    

       
       
       

MinnesotaSeasons.com Photos

   

Inflorescence

  bittersweet nightshade    
       

Flower

  bittersweet nightshade    
       

Leaves

  bittersweet nightshade    
       
       

 

Camera

     

Slideshows

   
  Solanum dulcamara - Bittersweet Nightshade
Virens (Latin for greening)
 
  Solanum dulcamara - Bittersweet Nightshade  
 
About

Solanaceae - Nightshade family.

All parts of the plants are toxic. Bittersweet nightshade is a an invasive perennial plant native to Eurasia.

Source: WeedUS Database of Plants Invading Natural Areas of the US
www.invasive.org/weedus/subject.html?sub=6448

© 2009 Virens. All rights reserved.

 
     
  Woody Nightshade
Andree Reno Sanborn
 
  Woody Nightshade  
 
About

Solanum dulcamara

Woody nightshade is also known as bittersweet nightshade, dulcamara, felonwood, and felonwort. In the Middle Ages the name dulcamara was written more properly as Amaradulcis, and literally means "bittersweet". Felonwood and felonwort are not as sinister as they sound; felon is not referring to criminals, but rather to whitlow, which is inflammation of the toe or finger around the nail. The berries were used to sure this problem when other methods had failed. The plant was used for many medical conditions, including dissolving blood clots (in bruises), for rheumatism, fever, and as a restorative. Farmers used it as a charm around the necks of animals they thought to be under an evil eye. Bittersweet berries are red rather than black like deadly nightshade.
www.angelfire.com/realm/shades/plants/nightshade.htm .

 
     
  Climbing Nightshade (Solanum dulcamara var. dulcamara)
Bill Keim
 
  Climbing Nightshade (Solanum dulcamara var. dulcamara)  
     
  Solanum dulcamara (Bittersweet Nightshade)
Allen Chartier
 
  Solanum dulcamara (Bittersweet Nightshade)  
     
  Solanum dulcamara BITTERSWEET NIGHTSHADE
Frank Mayfield
 
  Solanum dulcamara BITTERSWEET NIGHTSHADE  
     
  Solanum dulcamara L.
Aina Font
 
   
 
About

Published on May 12, 2013

Plants of future: http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Solanum+dulcamara
GRIN - Taxonomic information: http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?101313

 
     

 

slideshow

     

Visitor Videos

   
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Other Videos

 
  Solanum dulcamara, woody nightshade
John Robertson
 
   
 
About

Uploaded on Sep 2, 2008

The beautiful red berries are capable of causing death if you eat too many. But the name gives the clue to why so few people are killed by its poisons.

 
     
  MyNature Apps; Identifying Bittersweet Nightshade, Solanum dulcamara
MyNatureApps
 
   
 
About

Uploaded on Jul 4, 2011

How to identify Bittersweet Nightshade, Solanum dulcamara also known as bitter nightshade, blue bindweed, Amara Dulcis, climbing nightshade, fellenwort, felonwood, poisonberry, poisonflower, scarlet berry, snakeberry, trailing bittersweet, trailing nightshade, violet bloom, woody nightshade and deadly nightshade. www.mynatureapps.com,

 
     
  Bittersweet Nightshade (Solanum Dulcamara) - 2012-06-13
W3stlander
 
   
 
About

Published on Jun 15, 2012

Solanum dulcamara, also known as bittersweet, bittersweet nightshade, bitter nightshade, blue bindweed, Amara Dulcis, climbing nightshade, fellenwort, felonwood, poisonberry, poisonflower, scarlet berry, snakeberry, trailing bittersweet, trailing nightshade, violet bloom, or woody nightshade, is a species of vine in the potato genus Solanum, family Solanaceae.

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Bitterzoet (Solanum dulcamara) is een vrij algemeen voorkomende, vaste plant uit de nachtschadefamilie (Solanaceae). Volksnamen zijn dolbessen-hout, elf-rank, hoe-langer-hoe-liever, klimmende nachtschade en qualster.

 
     
  Solanum dulcamara
wetvideocamera
 
   
 
About

Published on Jun 10, 2013

European Bittersweet is a Eurasian species that has established itself in North America. It is distantly related to both the potato and the tomato. The berries and leaves are mildly poisonous and pose a hazard to livestock. It is also related to the nightshades which can be very poisonous.

 
     
  Toxic Berries of Climbing Nightshade
Journey Outdoors
 
   
 
About

Published on Nov 13, 2012

The first video in my series on toxic wild plants and berries to avoid when foraging. This plant is very dangerous to ingest and is important to know how to identify for all woodsman and survivalists. (Solanum dulcamara)

 
     

 

Camcorder

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