Indian hemp

(Apocynum cannabinum)

               
Conservation Status

IUCN Red List

not yet assessed

Indian hemp

NatureServe

N5 - Secure

SNR - Unranked

Minnesota

not listed

Wetland
Indicator
Status

Great Plains

FAC - Facultative

Midwest

FAC - Facultative

Northcentral & Northeast

FAC - Facultative

Nativity

Native

 
Occurrence

Common

 
Habitat

Dry to moderate moisture. Prairies, roadsides, railroads, open sites.

 
Flowering

July to August

     
Flower Color

White or greenish white

     
Height

2 to 5

     

Identification

This is a 2 to 5 tall, erect, perennial forb rising on a single stem from a taproot and long rhizomes. It often forms colonies. The stems and leaves contain a milky juice.

The stems are erect, reddish-brown, branching above the middle, and often covered with a whitish, waxy bloom. The lower stem is hairless, the upper stem hairy.

Leaves are opposite, untoothed, and egg-shaped or roughly egg-shaped but two or more times as long as wide with more or less straight sides. They are on short leaf stalks. The stalks of the main stem leaves are to long. The leaf blades are 2 to 4 long, up to 1½ wide, usually erect or ascending, sometimes widely spreading, with a short, sharp, abrupt point at the tip. The upper surface is hairless and dark green. The underside is pale is usually hairy. The hairiness of the leaves is variable.

The inflorescence is a branched cluster with many flowers at the ends of the smaller stems. It usually does not extend beyond the leaves.

The flowers are to ¼ wide, fragrant, and erect on flower stalks that are just over long.

The 5 white or greenish white petals are united at the base to form an urn-shaped cylinder with 5 lobes. The lobes are erect to spreading and do not curve backward.

The fruit is a pair of 4 to 8 long slender seed pods.

 
Similar
Species

Spreading dogbane (Apocynum androsaemifolium) is a shorter plant. The leaves droop downward. The inflorescence usually extends beyond the leaves. The flower is larger, bell-shaped, with pink vertical stripes. The corolla lobes bend backward strongly.


Distribution Distribution Map   Sources: 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 28.

Comments

 


Taxonomy

Family:

Apocynaceae (dogbane)

 

Subfamily:

Apocynoideae

 

Tribe:

Apocyneae

 
Synonyms

Apocynum cannabinum var. angustifolium

Apocynum cannabinum var. glaberrimum

Apocynum cannabinum var. greeneanum

Apocynum cannabinum var. hypericifolium

Apocynum cannabinum var. nemorale

Apocynum cannabinum var. pubescens

Apocynum cannabinum var. suksdorfii

Apocynum hypericifolium

 

Apocynum pubescens

Apocynum sibiricum

Apocynum sibiricum var. cordigerum

Apocynum sibiricum var. farwellii

Apocynum sibiricum var. salignum

Apocynum suksdorfii

Apocynum suksdorfii var. angustifolium

Apocynum suskdorfii

 
Common
Names

American hemp

bowman’s-root

choctaw-root

common dogbane

dogbane

hemp dogbane

Indian hemp

 

Indian physic

Indianhemp

Indianhemp dogbane

Indian-hemp

prairie dogbane

rheumatism-weed


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

axil

The upper angle where the leaf stalk meets the stem.

 

corolla

A collective name for all of the petals of a flower.

 

rhizome

A horizontal, usually underground stem. It serves as a reproductive structure, producing roots below and shoots above at the nodes.

       

Visitor Photos

   
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MinnesotaSeasons.com Photos

   

Plant

  Indian hemp   Indian hemp
       
  Indian hemp    
       

Inflorescence

  Indian hemp   Indian hemp
       
  Indian hemp   Indian hemp
       

Leaves

  Indian hemp   Indian hemp
       
  Indian hemp    
       

Infructescence

  Indian hemp    
       

 

Camera

     

Slideshows

   
  Hemp Dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum)
Bill Keim
 
  Hemp Dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum)  
     
  Apocynum sibiricum PRAIRIE INDIAN HEMP
Frank Mayfield
 
  Apocynum sibiricum PRAIRIE INDIAN HEMP  

 

slideshow

     

Visitor Videos

   
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Other Videos

 
  Common Woodnymph Cercyonis pegala feeding on Apocynum cannabinum flowers
Meena Haribal
 
   
 
About

Uploaded on Jun 30, 2009

In late June and July Common Woodnymph - Cercyonis pegala, is common sight in the meadows.

I had never seen this species feed on any flowers, generally Satirids do not feed as adults. But I was surprised to see freshly emerged Woodnymphs nectaring from Apocynum cannabinum flowers.

 
     
  Soft as Silk - Strong as Steel: The living heritage of Apocynum Cannabinum
OregonDOT
 
   
 
About

Uploaded on Sep 21, 2011

This video tells to story of how a partnership between state, federal and tribal organizations helped preserve the historic Apocynum Cannabinum or Dogbane plant in Oregon's Willamette Valley.

 
     

 

Camcorder

         

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