leafy spurge

(Euphorbia virgata)

               
Conservation Status

IUCN Red List

not listed

leafy spurge

NatureServe

NNA - Not applicable

SNA - Not applicable

Minnesota

not listed

Weed Status

SN – State noxious weed

PS – State prohibited weed seed

Nativity

Native of Asia and Europe. Introduced and naturalized in the United States. Invasive.

Occurrence

Very common and widespread

Habitat

Dry. Disturbed sites. Full sun.

Flowering

Primarily in April and May, but may occur through October.

Flower Color

Green to yellow

     
Height

12 to 28

     
 
Identification

 

 
Similar
Species

 

 
Distribution Distribution Map   Sources: 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 22, 28.
 
Comments

Taxonomy
Unitl recently, the leafy spurge in North America was thought to be Euphorbia esula. A 2016 review by Berry, et al., at Flora of North America, showed that the naturalized species in North America is actually Euphorbia virgata. There are herbarium specimens of Euphorbia esula in North America, indicating that it was here at one time. However it has not persisted, and is now considered absent. Euphorbia virgata is a weedy species found throughout Europe, Asia, and now North America. Euphorbia esula is not considered a weedy species and is restricted to certain parts of Europe.

Agricultural Pest
This is a serious pest across the northern great plains, displacing grasses and other plants normally consumed by cattle. It infests over 3 million acres of land in 29 states. The roots of leafy spurge can exceed 20 feet in depth. When broken, stems and leaves exude a milky latex sap, which can cause minor skin irritation or blindness on contact. Ripe seed capsules rupture when touched, throwing seeds up to 15 feet.

 
Taxonomy

Family:

Euphorbiaceae (spurge)

 

Subfamily:

Euphorbioideae

 

Tribe:

Euphorbieae

 

Subtribe:

Euphorbiinae

 
Subordinate Taxa

 

 
Synonyms

Euphorbia boissieriana

Euphorbia esula var. esula

Euphorbia esula var. uralensis

Euphorbia hypoleuca

Euphorbia podperae

Tithymalus hypoleucus

Tithymalus boissierianus

 
Common
Names

Faitour’s grass

leafy spurge

Russian leafy spurge

spurge

wolf’s milk

wolf’s-milk

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

       
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Plant

  leafy spurge   leafy spurge
       

Inflorescence

  leafy spurge   leafy spurge
       
  leafy spurge    
       

Infructescence

  leafy spurge    
       

Leaves

  leafy spurge   leafy spurge
       
       

 

Camera

     
Slideshows
   
  Euphorbia esula
Matt Lavin
 
  Euphorbia esula  
 
About

Introduced rhizomatous perennial, stems erect 30-80 cm tall, glabrous leaves and stems with milky latex, unisexual simple flowers congested into a cup-like structure, which is rimmed with nectary-producing callus tissue, ovary distinctly three-lobed, common to sites with a history of intense or regular disturbance, including pastures, grasslands, open understory, meadows, riparian corridors.

 
     
  LeafySpurge
AcreageInsights's channel
 
   
 
About

Published on Aug 31, 2012

Leafy spurge, one of Nebraska' 11 noxious weeds, is difficult, but not impossible to control. John Wilson, University of Nebraska Extension, tells of identification and control strategies.

 
     

 

slideshow

       
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Other Videos
 
  Leafy Spurge, identification of the Wisconsin Invasive Species Euphorbia esula
uwcoopextension
 
   
 
About

Uploaded on Jan 31, 2011

This is part of a series of videos providing key characteristics for the identification of invasive plants listed in Wisconsin's invasive species administrative rule NR 40. These videos are produced by Dr. Mark Renz of the University of Wisconsin-Madison. For more information on invasive plants and invasive plant management in Wisconsin visit http://fyi.uwex.edu/weedsci or http://ipcm.wisc.edu/Publications/WeedSciencepublications/tabid/116/Default.aspx

   
       
  Green Spurge (Euphorbia Esula) / Leafy Spurge - 2013-05-20
W3stlander
 
   
 
About

Published on Jun 26, 2013

Euphorbia esula, commonly known as green spurge or leafy spurge, is a species of spurge.

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Heksenmelk (Euphorbia esula) is een blijvende plant uit de wolfsmelkfamilie (Euphorbiaceae).

   
       
  Leafy Spurge-A Noxious Weed
Exploring the Nature of Wyoming | UWyo Extension
 
   
 
About

Uploaded on Jan 5, 2009

Leafy Spurge has many qualities that enable it to survive and outcompete native and desirable plants

   
       

 

Camcorder


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