leafy spurge

(Euphorbia virgata)

Conservation Status
leafy spurge
 
  IUCN Red List

not listed

     
  NatureServe

NNA - Not applicable

SNA - Not applicable

     
  Minnesota

not listed

     
           
Weed Status
   
 

SN – State noxious weed

PS – State prohibited weed seed

Leafy spurge is a serious pest across the northern great plains, displacing grasses and other plants normally consumed by cattle. It infests over 3 million acres of land in 29 states. The roots of leafy spurge can exceed 20 feet in depth. When broken, stems and leaves exude a milky latex sap, which can cause minor skin irritation or blindness on contact. Ripe seed capsules rupture when touched, throwing seeds up to 15 feet.

     
           
 
Description
 
 

 

 
     
 

Height

 
 

12 to 28

 
     
 

Flower Color

 
 

Green to yellow

 
     
 

Similar Species

 
     
     
 
Habitat
 
 

Dry. Disturbed sites. Full sun.

 
     
 
Biology
 
 

Flowering

 
 

Primarily in April and May, but may occur through October.

 
     
 

Pests and Diseases

 
 

 

 
     
 
Use
 
 

 

 
     
 
Distribution
 
 

Distribution Map

 

Sources

2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 22, 28, 30.

 
  10/12/2021      
         
 

Nativity

 
 

Native of Asia and Europe. Introduced and naturalized in the United States. Invasive.

 
         
 

Occurrence

 
 

Very common and widespread

 
         
 
Taxonomy
 
  Kingdom Plantae (green algae and land plants)  
  Subkingdom Viridiplantae (green plants)  
  Infrakingdom Streptophyta (land plants and green algae)  
  Superdivision Embryophyta (land plants)  
  Division Tracheophyta (vascular plants)  
  Subdivision Spermatophytina (seed plants)  
  Class Magnoliopsida (dicots)  
  Subclass Rosidae  
  Superorder Rosanae  
 

Order

Malpighiales (nances, willows, and allies)  
 

Family

Euphorbiaceae (spurge)  
  Subfamily Euphorbioideae  
  Tribe Euphorbieae  
  Subtribe Euphorbiinae  
 

Genus

Euphorbia (spurge)  
  Subgenus Esula  
  Section Esula  
       
 

Unitl recently, the leafy spurge in North America was thought to be Euphorbia esula. A 2016 review by Berry, et al., at Flora of North America, showed that the naturalized species in North America is actually Euphorbia virgata. There are herbarium specimens of Euphorbia esula in North America, indicating that it was here at one time. However, it has not persisted, and is now considered absent. Euphorbia esula is not considered a weedy species and is restricted to certain parts of Europe. Euphorbia virgata is a weedy species found throughout Europe, Asia, and now North America.

 
       
 

Subordinate Taxa

 
       
       
 

Synonyms

 
 

Euphorbia boissieriana

Euphorbia esula var. esula

Euphorbia esula var. uralensis

Euphorbia hypoleuca

Euphorbia podperae

Tithymalus hypoleucus

Tithymalus boissierianus

 
       
 

Common Names

 
 

Faitour’s grass

leafy spurge

Russian leafy spurge

spurge

wolf’s milk

wolf’s-milk

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
 
Visitor Photos
 
           
 

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Luciearl

 
    leafy spurge      
           
 
MinnesotaSeasons.com Photos
 
 

Plant

 
    leafy spurge   leafy spurge  
           
 

Inflorescence

 
    leafy spurge   leafy spurge  
           
    leafy spurge      
           
 

Infructescence

 
    leafy spurge      
           
 

Leaves

 
    leafy spurge   leafy spurge  

 

Camera

     
 
Slideshows
 
  Euphorbia esula
Matt Lavin
 
  Euphorbia esula  
 
About

Introduced rhizomatous perennial, stems erect 30-80 cm tall, glabrous leaves and stems with milky latex, unisexual simple flowers congested into a cup-like structure, which is rimmed with nectary-producing callus tissue, ovary distinctly three-lobed, common to sites with a history of intense or regular disturbance, including pastures, grasslands, open understory, meadows, riparian corridors.

 

 

slideshow

       
 
Visitor Videos
 
       
 

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Other Videos
 
  Leafy Spurge, identification of the Wisconsin Invasive Species Euphorbia esula
uwcoopextension
 
   
 
About

Uploaded on Jan 31, 2011

This is part of a series of videos providing key characteristics for the identification of invasive plants listed in Wisconsin's invasive species administrative rule NR 40. These videos are produced by Dr. Mark Renz of the University of Wisconsin-Madison. For more information on invasive plants and invasive plant management in Wisconsin visit http://fyi.uwex.edu/weedsci or http://ipcm.wisc.edu/Publications/WeedSciencepublications/tabid/116/Default.aspx

   
  Green Spurge (Euphorbia Esula) / Leafy Spurge - 2013-05-20
W3stlander
 
   
 
About

Published on Jun 26, 2013

Euphorbia esula, commonly known as green spurge or leafy spurge, is a species of spurge.

-------------------
Heksenmelk (Euphorbia esula) is een blijvende plant uit de wolfsmelkfamilie (Euphorbiaceae).

   
  Leafy Spurge-A Noxious Weed
Exploring the Nature of Wyoming | UWyo Extension
 
   
 
About

Uploaded on Jan 5, 2009

Leafy Spurge has many qualities that enable it to survive and outcompete native and desirable plants

   

 

Camcorder


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