smooth hedge nettle

(Stachys tenuifolia)

Conservation Status
smooth hedge nettle
 
  IUCN Red List

not listed

     
  NatureServe

N4N5 - Apparently Secure to Secure

SNR - Unranked

     
  Minnesota

not listed

     
           
Wetland Indicator Status
     
  Great Plains

FACW - Facultative wetland

     
  Midwest

OBL - Obligate wetland

     
  Northcentral & Northeast

FACW - Facultative wetland

     
           
 
Description
 
 

Smooth hedge nettle is a 8 to 40 tall, erect, perennial forb that rises from a rhizome. It often forms colonies.

The stems are erect, square, hollow, and usually unbranched. They have scattered, downward-pointing hairs on the ridges of the stem but no hairs between the ridges.

The leaves are opposite, thin, oblong or lance-shaped, 2 to 6 long, and up to 1½ wide. They are on leaf stalks, the main leaves on stalks 5 16 to 1 long, the lower leaves on stalks at least ¼ long. The leaf blades taper to a point at the tip with concave sides along the tip. They are blunt or rounded at the base with the sides coming together at an angle much greater than 90°. The upper and lower surfaces may have hairs along the lower midrib but are otherwise hairless. The margins have rounded, forward-pointing teeth.

The inflorescence is a 2 to 8 long spike of flower clusters at the end of the stem. Each cluster usually has 6 flowers and is subtended by a small, leaf-like bract. Each pair of opposite flower clusters together form a false whorl.

The flowers are to long. They have 5 green, hairless sepals that are fused at the base into a calyx tube 3 32 to 3 16 long and separated at the end into 5 triangular lobes. There are 5 petals that are fused at the base into a corolla tube about ¼ long. The petals are pink to white and often have darker pink or reddish splotches near the throat. The calyx tube is always at least as long as the corolla tube. The corolla is divided at the end into 2 lips. The upper lip is about 3 16 long and wide, hood-like, hairy outside, hairless inside. The lower lip is divided at the tip into 3 lobes, a large central lobe and 2 smaller lateral lobes. There are 4 stamens protected beneath the hood.

The fruit is 4 greenish-white, 3-ribbed, 1-seeded nutlets. They turn black when they ripen.

 
     
 

Height

 
 

8 to 40

 
     
 

Flower Color

 
 

Pink to white

 
     
 

Similar Species

 
 

American germander (Teucrium canadense) flowers have a greatly reduced upper lip.

Hairy hedge nettle (Stachys hispida) leaf stalks are no more than long. The leaves and calyx are rough with stiff hairs (hispid).

Marsh hedge nettle (Stachys palustris) stems have copious hairs both on the ridges of the stem and between the ridges. The petals are pink or lavender with white spots.

Woundwort (Stachys pilosa var. arenicola) stems have copious hairs both on the ridges of the stem and between the ridges. The petals are pink or lavender with white spots.

 
     
 
Habitat
 
 

Moist. Wet meadows and fields, wooded bottomland, stream banks. Full to partial sun.

 
     
 
Biology
 
 

Flowering

 
 

June to August

 
     
 
Use
 
 

 

 
     
 
Distribution
 
 

Distribution Map

 

Sources

2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 28.

 
  8/9/2017      
         
 

Nativity

 
 

Native

 
         
 

Occurrence

 
 

 

 
         
 
Taxonomy
 
  Kingdom Plantae (green algae and land plants)  
  Subkingdom Viridiplantae (green plants)  
  Infrakingdom Streptophyta (land plants and green algae)  
  Superdivision Embryophyta (land plants)  
  Division Tracheophyta (vascular plants)  
  Subdivision Spermatophytina (seed plants)  
  Class Magnoliopsida (flowering plants)  
  Superorder Asteranae  
 

Order

Lamiales (mints, plantains, olives, and allies)  
 

Family

Lamiaceae (mint)  
  Subfamily Lamioideae  
  Tribe Stachydeae  
  Genus Stachys (hedge nettle)  
       
 

There is some disagreement about the number and classification of Minnesota’s Stachys species. The classification used on MinnesotaSeasons.com follows ITIS and USDA PLANTS.

 
       
 

Synonyms

 
 

Stachys glabra

Stachys palustris var. macrocalyx

Stachys tenuifolia var. perlonga

Stachys tenuifolia var. platyphylla

Stachys tenuifolia var. tenuifolia

 
       
 

Common Names

 
 

hedge nettle

narrow-leaved betony

narrow-leaved hedge-nettle

slender betony

slenderleaf betony

smooth hedge nettle

smooth hedge-nettle

smooth hedgenettle

 
       

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

Bract

Modified leaf at the base of a flower stalk, flower cluster, or inflorescence.

 

Calyx

The group of outer floral leaves (sepals) below the petals, occasionally forming a tube.

 

Corolla

A collective name for all of the petals of a flower.

 

Rhizome

A horizontal, usually underground stem. It serves as a reproductive structure, producing roots below and shoots above at the nodes.

 

Sepal

An outer floral leaf, usually green but sometimes colored, at the base of a flower.

       
Visitor Photos
   

Share your photo of this plant.

This button not working for you?
Simply email us at info@MinnesotaSeasons.com.
Attach one or more photos and, if you like, a caption.

       
MinnesotaSeasons.com Photos
   

Plant

  smooth hedge nettle    
       

Inflorescence

  smooth hedge nettle    
       
       

 

Camera

     
Slideshows
   
  Stachys tenuifolia (Smooth Hedge-Nettle)
Allen Chartier
 
  Stachys tenuifolia (Smooth Hedge-Nettle)  

 

slideshow

       
Visitor Videos
       

Share your video of this plant.

This button not working for you?
Simply email us at info@MinnesotaSeasons.com.
Attach one or more videos or YouTube links and, if you like, a caption.

       
       
Other Videos
 
       
       
       
       
       

 

Camcorder

         
Visitor Sightings
   

Report a sighting of this plant.

This button not working for you?
Simply email us at info@MinnesotaSeasons.com.
Be sure to include a location.

     
     
 
MinnesotaSeasons.com Sightings
         

 

 

Binoculars


Last Updated:

About Us | Privacy Policy | Contact Us | © 2021 MinnesotaSeasons.com. All rights reserved.