longbract frog orchid

(Dactylorhiza viridis)

               
Conservation Status

IUCN Red List

not yet assessed

 

No image available

NatureServe

NNR - Unranked

SNR - Unranked

Minnesota

not listed

Wetland
Indicator
Status

Great Plains

FACU - Facultative upland

Midwest

FAC - Facultative

Northcentral & Northeast

FAC - Facultative

Nativity

Native

Occurrence

Extremely widespread; common but declining

Habitat

Moderately moist to wet. Open deciduous woodlands, shrubby woodland borders, and thickets.

Flowering

May 20 to August 10

 
Flower Color

Greenish to yellowish, often tinged with purple or reddish-brown

 
Height

6 to 22

 

Identification

The stem has 2 to 6 alternate leaves, at least 1 of them clearly above the base. They wrap around (sheathe) the stem at the base, without a leaf stalk or stalk-like inflated sheath.

The modified leaf (bract) subtending each flower is 2 to 3 times longer than that flower. The long, strap-shaped lower petal (lip) has three forward-pointing teeth at the tip. The middle tooth is reduced and usually inconspicuous. The spur is inconspicuous. It is pouch shaped, 1 16 to (2 to 3 mm) long, and is tucked behind the lip. The mouth of the spur is covered by a membrane with a small opening.

 
Similar
Species

 


Distribution Distribution Map  

Sources: 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 25, 28, 29, 30.

The map at left includes historical records. Due to ongoing habitat loss, it may include counties where the longbract frog orchid is no longer found.


Comments

Taxonomy
The long-bract frog orchid was originally given the Latin name Satyrium viride by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. It was later transferred to the bog orchid genus with the name Habenaria viridis. Later, it was placed in the monotypic (containing only one species) genus Coeloglossum. Based on molecular DNA studies published in 1997, it was suggested that it be moved to the genus Dactylorhiza. This suggestion was controversial and not widely accepted outside of Brittan. Recently, an extensive review (Bateman & Rudall, 2017) of the morphology, the phylogeny, and the scientific evidence of the two species Dactylorhiza viridis and Dactylorhiza iberica and the genus Coeloglossum was published in the Kew Bulletin in 2018 (published online December 23, 2017). The authors concluded that “there is no question in our minds that the most appropriate taxonomic decision, based on extensive and diverse scientific evidence, is to retain both viridis and iberica within Dactylorhiza.” The former genus Coeloglossum is now obsolete, and the widely used name Coeloglossum viride is a synonym of Dactylorhiza viridis.


Taxonomy

Family:

Orchidaceae (orchid)

 

Subfamily:

Orchidoideae

 

Tribe:

Orchideae

 

Subtribe:

Orchidinae

 
Synonyms

Coeloglossum bracteatum

Coeloglossum viride

Coeloglossum viride ssp. bracteatum

Coeloglossum viride var. islandicum

Coeloglossum viride var. virescens

 

Coeloglossum viride var. viride

Habenaria bracteata

Habenaria viridis

Habenaria viridis var. bracteata

Habenaria viridis var. interjecta

 
Common
Names

bracted green orchid

bracted orchid

frog orchid

frog orchis

long-bract frog orchid

 

long-bract green orchis

long-bracted frog orchid

long-bracted orchid

longbract frog orchid

longbract orchid


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

Bract

Modified leaf at the base of a flower stalk or flower cluster.

 

Sheath

The lower part of the leaf that surrounds the stem. Verb: sheathe

 

Spur

On flowers: a hollow tubular appendage, often containing nectar, formed from a sepal or petal. On branches: a short shoot bearing leaves or flowers and fruit.

       

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  Dactylorhiza (Coeloglossum) viridis
Ben Rostron
 
   

 

slideshow

     

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  Orchid pollination 18: Pollination of Dactylorhiza viridis by honeybees
Jean Claessens
 
   
 
About

Published on Feb 2, 2015

All species of Dactylorhiza are deceit-flowers: they do not produce any nectar. The only exception is Dactylorhiza viridis, which produces nectar at the lip base and in the spur. This is the first mention of Honeybees as pollinators of this orchid.

 
     
  Orchid pollination 22: Ant pollination of Dactylorhiza viridis by the ant Formica exsecta
Jean Claessens
 
   
 
About

Published on Mar 14, 2017

Ant pollination of orchids is very rare. Until now only one case was known. In the Dolomites (Italy) we observed how the frog orchid (Dactylorhiza viridis) was pollinated by the ant Formica exsecta

 
     
  Dactylorhiza viridis 1.mp4
Beppe Lobba
 
   
 
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Published on Mar 7, 2016

Video del Centaurea Nigrescens Asteraceae: Fiordaliso nerastro - Seguici su www.traisassfiorii.it

 
     

 

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