broadleaf enchanter’s nightshade

(Circaea lutetiana ssp. canadensis)

               
Conservation Status

IUCN Red List

not yet assessed

broadleaf enchanter’s nightshade

NatureServe

N5 - Secure

SNR - Unranked

Minnesota

not listed

Nativity

Native

Occurrence

 

Habitat

Moist. Woodlands.

Flowering

June to August

     
Flower Color

White

     
Height

12 to 28

     

Identification

This is a 12 to 28 tall, erect, perennial forb that rises on a single stem from a short taproot, fibrous roots, and slender rhizomes.

The stem is erect, round, and unbranched below the inflorescence. It is sparsely covered with white, downward-pointing hairs, becoming almost hairless with age.

The leaves are opposite, oblong egg-shaped, 2 to 4¾ long, and usually less than half as wide as long. They are on leaf stalks (petioles) that are up to 2 long. The petioles are round and have a slender groove on the upper side. They are hairless or sparsely covered with forward pointing hairs. The leaf blades are rounded or shallowly heart-shaped at the base and taper to a point at the tip with concave sides along the tip. The upper and lower surfaces sparsely hairy. The margins are very shallowly toothed. The teeth have a minute, whitish tip.

The inflorescence is an unbranched, up to 8 long cluster (raceme) of many flowers at the end of the stem and shorter racemes rising singly from the axils of bracts near the base of the inflorescence. The central axis of the inflorescence (rachis) elongates early in the season, so that the flowers are widely and evenly spaced along its length. The rachis is moderately to densely covered with spreading, gland-tipped hairs.

Each flower is held at the end of a to long, widely-spreading, glandular-hairy stalk (pedicel). At the base of the flower there is a globular, green ovary. The ovary is densely covered with long, hooked hairs. There are 2 green sepals, 2 white petals, 2 white stamens with white anthers, and a long, slender, white style. The sepals are 1 16 to long, sharply bent backward, glandular-hairy on the outer surface, and hairless on the inner surface. The petals are 1 16 to long, spreading, and deeply notched at the tip, the notch less than half the length of the petal.

The fruit is a to 3 16 long, 2-celled capsule. The capsule is strongly ridged and densely covered with stiff, hooked hairs.

 
Similar
Species

Alpine enchanter’s-nightshade (Circaea alpina ssp. alpina) is a smaller plant, no more than 12 in height. The leaves are usually more than half as wide as long. The flowers are clustered at the end of the raceme. The pedicels are erect to ascending and hairless. The fruit capsule is not ridged.


Distribution Distribution Map   Sources: 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 28.

Comments

 


Taxonomy

Family:

Onagraceae (evening primrose)

 

Subfamily:

Onagroideae

 

Tribe:

Circaeeae

 
Synonyms

Circaea canadensis var. virginiana

Circaea latifolia

Circaea lutetiana var. canadensis

Circaea quadrisulcata var. canadensis

Circaea quadrisulcata ssp. canadensis

 
Common
Names

broadleaf enchanter’s nightshade

broadleaf enchanter’s-nightshade

broad-leaf enchanter’s nightshade

broad-leaf enchanter’s-nightshade


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

glandular hairs

Hairs spread over aerial vegetation that secrete essential oils. The oils act to protect against herbivores and pathogens or, when on a flower part, attract pollinators. The hairs have a sticky or oily feel.

 

pedicel

In plants: the stalk of a single flower in a cluster of flowers. In Hymenoptera and Araneae: the narrow stalk connecting the thorax to the abdomen.

 

petiole

The stalk of a leaf blade or compound leaf that attaches the leaf blade to the stem.

 

raceme

An unbranched, elongated inflorescence with stalked flowers. The flowers mature from the bottom up.

 

rachis

The main axis of a compound leaf, appearing as an extension of the leaf stalk; the main axis of an inflorescence.

 

rhizome

A horizontal, usually underground stem. It serves as a reproductive structure, producing roots below and shoots above at the nodes.

       

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  broadleaf enchanter’s nightshade   broadleaf enchanter’s nightshade
       
  broadleaf enchanter’s nightshade   broadleaf enchanter’s nightshade
       

Inflorescence

  broadleaf enchanter’s nightshade    
       

Leaves

  broadleaf enchanter’s nightshade    
       

Infructescence

  broadleaf enchanter’s nightshade   broadleaf enchanter’s nightshade
       
       

 

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  Enchanter's Nightshade (Circaea Lutetiana) - 2012-06-27
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About

Published on Jun 28, 2012

Circaea lutetiana (enchanter's nightshade) is a plant in the evening primrose family, Onagraceae.

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Groot heksenkruid (Circaea lutetiana) is een vaste plant uit de teunisbloemfamilie (Onagraceae).

 
     

 

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