twinleaf

(Jeffersonia diphylla)

               
Conservation Status

IUCN Red List

not yet assessed

twinleaf

NatureServe

N5 - Secure

S3 - Vulnerable

Minnesota

Special Concern

Nativity

Native

Occurrence

Uncommon

Habitat

Moderate moisture. Woods.

Flowering

April to May

     
Flower Color

White

     
Height

4 to 8 at flowering

     
 
Identification

This is a 4 to 8 tall, erect, perennial forb that rises from a short, horizontal rhizome. Typically 4 to 8 leaves and a single flowering stalk are produced from each rhizome.

There are no central stems.

The leaves are all basal. They are alternate, 6 to 7 wide, and compound, divided into 2 kidney-shaped segments. Each leaf is borne on a 3½ to 8 long, slender leaf stalk. The leaf segments are untoothed and sometimes have shallow lobes. The upper surface is bluish green. The lower surface is whitish green. After flowering the leaves continue to grow, eventually reaching 7 to 17 in height at maturity.

The inflorescence is a solitary flower at the end of a 4 to 8 tall, leafless flowering stalk (scape). It is usually taller than the leaves.

The flowers are to 1 wide. There are 4 petal-like sepals that drop early, usually 8 white petals, and 8 stamens.

The fruit is brownish, egg-shaped or pear-shaped, leathery, capsule-like, ¾ to 1½ long and to wide. It has a hinged, helmet-like lid and contains 10 to 25 seeds.

The seeds have fleshy appendages attached (elaiosomes) which attract ants. The ants carry the seeds back to their nests, thus dispersing the seeds.

 
Similar
Species

May-apple (Podophyllum peltatum) leaves are not compound. The flower droops from the axil of two leaves. The fruit is a yellow berry.

 
Distribution Distribution Map   Sources: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 28.
 
Comments

 

 
Taxonomy

Family:

Berberidaceae (barberry)

 

Subfamily:

Berberidoideae

 

Tribe:

Berberideae

 

Subtribe:

Epimediinae

 
Synonyms

Podophyllum diphyllum

 
Common
Names

American twin leaf

American twinleaf

ground squirrel-pea

helmet-pod

jeffersonia

rheumatism root

rheumatism-root

twinleaf

yellowroot

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

Elaiosome

A fleshy structure, rich in lipids and proteins. attached to a seed, that attracts ants to aid in seed dispersal.

 

Rhizome

A horizontal, usually underground stem. It serves as a reproductive structure, producing roots below and shoots above at the nodes.

       
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  twinleaf    
       
       

 

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  Jeffersonia diphylla (Twinleaf)
Allen Chartier
 
  Jeffersonia diphylla (Twinleaf)  

 

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  Twinleaf (Jeffersonia diphylla)
PrairieMoonNursery
 
   
 
About

Uploaded on May 4, 2010

http://www.PrairieMoon.com - Twinleaf blooms mid-April while the woodlands are still fairly open here at Prairie Moon Nursery in SE MN. Jeffersonia diphylla is called 'Twinleaf' for its obvious double leaves

   
       
  Twinleaf (Jeffersonia Diphylla )
wvoutdoorman
 
   
 
About

Published on Mar 24, 2012

Twinleaf (Jeffersonia Diphylla )in the sprouting,flowering and seed stage of the growth cycle

   
       

 

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