twinleaf

(Jeffersonia diphylla)

Conservation Status
twinleaf
  IUCN Red List

not listed

     
  NatureServe

N5 - Secure

S3 - Vulnerable

     
  Minnesota

Special Concern

     
           
           
 
Description
 
 

Twinleaf is a 4 to 8 tall, erect, perennial forb that rises from a short, horizontal rhizome. Typically 4 to 8 leaves and a single flowering stalk are produced from each rhizome.

There are no central stems.

The leaves are all basal. They are alternate, 6 to 7 wide, and compound, divided into 2 kidney-shaped segments. Each leaf is borne on a 3½ to 8 long, slender leaf stalk. The leaf segments are untoothed and sometimes have shallow lobes. The upper surface is bluish green. The lower surface is whitish green. After flowering the leaves continue to grow, eventually reaching 7 to 17 in height at maturity.

The inflorescence is a solitary flower at the end of a 4 to 8 tall, leafless flowering stalk (scape). It is usually taller than the leaves.

The flowers are to 1 wide. There are 4 petal-like sepals that drop early, usually 8 white petals, and 8 stamens.

The fruit is brownish, egg-shaped or pear-shaped, leathery, capsule-like, ¾ to 1½ long and to wide. It has a hinged, helmet-like lid and contains 10 to 25 seeds.

The seeds have fleshy appendages attached (elaiosomes) which attract ants. The ants carry the seeds back to their nests, thus dispersing the seeds.

 
     
 

Height

 
 

4 to 8 at flowering

 
     
 

Flower Color

 
 

White

 
     
 

Similar Species

 
  May-apple (Podophyllum peltatum) leaves are not compound. The flower droops from the axil of two leaves. The fruit is a yellow berry.  
     
 
Habitat
 
 

Moderate moisture. Woods.

 
     
 
Biology
 
 

Flowering

 
 

April to May

 
     
 
Use
 
 

 

 
     
 
Distribution
 
 

Distribution Map

 

Sources

2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 28.

 
         
         
 

Nativity

 
 

Native

 
         
 

Occurrence

 
 

Uncommon

 
         
 
Taxonomy
 
  Kingdom Plantae (green algae and land plants)  
  Subkingdom Viridiplantae (green plants)  
  Infrakingdom Streptophyta (land plants and green algae)  
  Superdivision Embryophyta (land plants)  
  Division Tracheophyta (vascular plants)  
  Subdivision Spermatophytina (seed plants)  
  Class Magnoliopsida (dicots)  
  Superorder Ranunculanae  
 

Order

Ranunculales  
 

Family

Berberidaceae (barberry)  
  Subfamily Berberidoideae  
  Tribe Berberideae  
  Subtribe Epimediinae  
 

Genus

Jeffersonia  
       
 

Subordinate Taxa

 
 

 

 
       
 

Synonyms

 
 

Podophyllum diphyllum

 
       
 

Common Names

 
 

American twin leaf

American twinleaf

ground squirrel-pea

helmet-pod

jeffersonia

rheumatism root

rheumatism-root

twinleaf

yellowroot

 
       

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

Elaiosome

A fleshy structure, rich in lipids and proteins. attached to a seed, that attracts ants to aid in seed dispersal.

 

Rhizome

A horizontal, usually underground stem. It serves as a reproductive structure, producing roots below and shoots above at the nodes.

       
Visitor Photos
   

Share your photo of this plant.

This button not working for you?
Simply email us at info@MinnesotaSeasons.com.
Attach one or more photos and, if you like, a caption.

       
MinnesotaSeasons.com Photos
   

Plant

  twinleaf    
       
       

 

Camera

     
Slideshows
   
  Jeffersonia diphylla (Twinleaf)
Allen Chartier
 
  Jeffersonia diphylla (Twinleaf)  

 

slideshow

       
Visitor Videos
       

Share your video of this plant.

This button not working for you?
Simply email us at info@MinnesotaSeasons.com.
Attach one or more videos or YouTube links and, if you like, a caption.

       
       
Other Videos
 
  Twinleaf (Jeffersonia diphylla)
PrairieMoonNursery
 
   
 
About

Uploaded on May 4, 2010

http://www.PrairieMoon.com - Twinleaf blooms mid-April while the woodlands are still fairly open here at Prairie Moon Nursery in SE MN. Jeffersonia diphylla is called 'Twinleaf' for its obvious double leaves

   
       
  Twinleaf (Jeffersonia Diphylla )
wvoutdoorman
 
   
 
About

Published on Mar 24, 2012

Twinleaf (Jeffersonia Diphylla )in the sprouting,flowering and seed stage of the growth cycle

   
       

 

Camcorder

         
Visitor Sightings
   

Report a sighting of this plant.

This button not working for you?
Simply email us at info@MinnesotaSeasons.com.
Be sure to include a location.

     
     
 
MinnesotaSeasons.com Sightings
         

 

 

Binoculars


Last Updated:

About Us | Privacy Policy | Contact Us | © 2021 MinnesotaSeasons.com. All rights reserved.