red elderberry

(Sambucus racemosa var. racemosa)

               
Conservation Status

IUCN Red List

not listed

red elderberry

NatureServe

NNR - Unranked

SNR - Unranked

Minnesota

not listed

Wetland
Indicator
Status

Great Plains

FACU - Facultative upland

Midwest

FACU - Facultative upland

Northcentral & Northeast

FACU - Facultative upland

Nativity

Native

 
Occurrence

Common

 
Habitat

Moist to moderate moisture. Deciduous, coniferous, and mixed forests, swamps, marsh edges, stream banks, lake shores. Full sun to full shade.

Flowering

Late April to early June

     
Flower Color

Yellowish-white

     
Height

5 to 13

     
 
Identification

This is a fast growing shrub rising on multiple stems from shallow roots and rhizomes.

The stems are erect or arching, branching, hairless, up to 13 tall, and up to 4¾ in diameter at breast height. They are dotted with conspicuous, large, raised, warty bumps (lenticels).

The bark on first year stems is gray and smooth. Bark on older stems is gray to reddish-brown and rough with thin, narrow, plate-like scales.

The twigs are stout. The area of cells in the center of the stem (pith) is large, encompassing more than half of the diameter of the twig. First-year twigs greenish-brown and covered with short, soft hairs. Second-year twigs are grayish to brownish and hairless. The pith is white in first-year twigs, tan or orangish-brown in second-year twigs. There are no terminal buds.

The leaves are opposite, deciduous, and pinnately divided into usually 5, occasionally 7, leaflets. They are attached to the twig on a 1¼ to 2¾ long leaf stalk. The leaf stalk is hairy on all surfaces.

The leaflets are lance-shaped to egg-shaped or elliptic, 2 to 4¾ long, and ¾ to 2 wide. They are attached to the central leaf stalk (rachis) on to long stalks. They are rounded or tapered and asymmetrical at the base and taper to a point at the tip with concave sides along the tip. The terminal leaflet is often somewhat smaller than the lateral leaflets. The upper surface of the leaflet is dark green, and sparsely hairy, at least along the midvein. The lower surface is pale green and hairy along the veins. The margins have fine, sharp, forward-pointing teeth.

The inflorescence is a branched, 1¼ to 3 wide cluster (cyme) at the ends of the stems and branches. The cymes are pyramid-shaped or egg-shaped. They rise on erect, ¾ to 3½ long stalks. Each cyme has 100 to 200 small flowers.

The flowers are to ¼ wide. There are 5 yellowish-white petals and 5 stamens with white filaments and yellow anthers. They appear in late April to early June.

The fruit is a juicy, globular berry, to ¼ in diameter, containing 3 to 5 seeds. It ripens in mid-June to late July, turning bright red.

 
Similar
Species

Nannyberry (Viburnum lentago) has undivided (simple), hairless leaves. The inflorescence is dome-shaped.

American elderberry (Sambucus nigra var. canadensis) second year twigs have white pith. The leaves usually have 7 leaflets, occasionally 5 or 9. The leaf stalk upper surface channel is hairy but the leaf stalk is otherwise hairless. The leaflets are symmetrical at the base and are less coarsely toothed. The inflorescence is larger and flat-topped. It blooms from early July to mid-August. Mature berries are dark, blackish-purple.

 
Distribution Distribution Map   Sources: 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 24, 28.
 
Comments

 

 
Taxonomy

Family:

Adoxaceae (moschatel)

 
Synonyms

Sambucus callicarpa

Sambucus microbotrys

Sambucus pubens

Sambucus pubens var. arborescens

Sambucus racemosa var. arborescens

Sambucus racemosa var. leucocarpa

Sambucus racemosa var. microbotrys

Sambucus racemosa var. pubens

Sambucus racemosa ssp. pubens

 
Common
Names

bunchberry elderberry

red elderberry

red-berried elder

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

Cyme

A branched, flat-topped or convex flower cluster in which the terminal flower opens first and the outermost flowers open last.

 

Lenticel

A corky, round or stripe-like, usually raised, pore-like opening in bark that allows for gas exchange.

 

Pinnate

Having the leaflets of a compound leaf arranged on opposite sides of a common stalk.

 

Pith

The spongy cells in the center of the stem.

 

Rachis

The main axis of a compound leaf, appearing as an extension of the leaf stalk; the main axis of an inflorescence.

 

Rhizome

A horizontal, usually underground stem. It serves as a reproductive structure, producing roots below and shoots above at the nodes.

       
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Cindy C
       
  red elderberry   red elderberry
       
  red elderberry    
       
MinnesotaSeasons.com Photos
   

Plant

  red elderberry   red elderberry
       
  red elderberry    
       

Inflorescence

  red elderberry    
       

Twig

  red elderberry   red elderberry
       

Leaves – 5 Leaflets

  red elderberry    
       

Leaves – 7 Leaflets

  red elderberry   red elderberry
       
  red elderberry   red elderberry
       

Infructescence

  red elderberry   red elderberry
       
  red elderberry    
       

Bud in Early Spring

  red elderberry   red elderberry
       
  red elderberry   red elderberry
       
       

 

Camera

     
Slideshows
   
  Sambucus racemosa
Susanne Wiik
 
  Sambucus racemosa  
 
About

Rødhyll, red elderberry

 
     
  Red-berried Elder (Sambuscus racemosa)
Andree Reno Sanborn
 
  Red-berried Elder (Sambuscus racemosa)  

 

slideshow

       
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Other Videos
 
  Red Elderberry - Wild Edible Plant Series
Alex Ansary
 
   
 
About

Published on Feb 27, 2014

http://alexansary.tv/wild-edible-medicinal-plants-pacific-northwest/

In our world, having the knowledge of what wild edible plants in your area are safe to forage for either medicinal, edible or use is very valuable. Whether your motivation is preparedness, getting closer to nature, health and wellness, or botany, there is something for you in this video series.

John Gallagher talks you on a walking tour of wild edible and medicinal plants of the pacific northwest. This video series was filmed and edited by Alex Ansary in 2008 and shot in Duvall, Washington. John is a instructor at the Wilderness Awareness School. More videos from this school and on the topic of edible plants are coming to this channel. Please subscribe today.

John's website is: http://www.LearningHerbs.Com.

   
       
  Red Elderberry
TheBackyardBushman
 
   
 
About

Uploaded on Jul 12, 2011

Red Elderberry, very pretty and not at all edible.

   
       
  sambucus racemosa
wander van laar
 
   
 
About

Published on Jun 22, 2014

No description available.

   
       

 

Camcorder

         
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Cindy C
8/2/2014

Location: Zimmerman, MN (Sherburne County)

red elderberry


     
     
 
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