paleleaf woodland sunflower

(Helianthus strumosus)

Conservation Status
paleleaf woodland sunflower
 
  IUCN Red List

not listed

     
  NatureServe

N5 - Secure

SNR - Unranked

     
  Minnesota

not listed

     
           
Wetland Indicator Status
     
  Great Plains

FACU - Facultative upland

     
  Midwest

FACU - Facultative upland

     
  Northcentral & Northeast

FACU - Facultative upland

     
           
 
Description
 
 

Paleleaf woodland sunflower is a 24 to 72 tall, erect, perennial forb that rises from a long-creeping rhizome. The rhizome is branched and has tubers at the tips of the branches. It usually forms dense colonies.

The stems are erect and usually solitary, though they sometimes appear in small clumps. They are hairless or sparsely hairy below the inflorescence and are often somewhat covered with a whitish, waxy coating (glaucous).

There are usually 8 to 20 pairs of opposite leaves. Sometimes the leaves near the top of the stem are alternate. The larger leaves are on to 1 long leaf stalks The leaf blades are relatively thick, firm, lance-shaped to narrowly egg-shaped, and flat, not folded longitudinally. They are 2¾ to 7 long and ¾ to 4 wide, 2 to 5 times as long as wide. They are wedge-shaped to almost heart-shaped at the base, and taper to a sharp point at the tip with slightly convex sides along the tip. The upper surface is rough with minute hairs that have a small bump at their base. The lower surface is usually sparsely to densely hairy with soft hairs, but may be hairless or almost hairless and pale green to silvery. The margins are shallowly toothed to untoothed. The leaves have 3 main veins, a midvein and a pair of lateral veins that branch off the main vein just above the base and arch upward. There are also several less prominent lateral veins.

The inflorescence is 3 to 15 flower heads appearing as a single head at the end of the stem and few-headed clusters from the upper leaf axils.

The flower heads are 1½ to 4 wide. There are 8 to 15 yellow ray florets and 35 or more yellow disk florets. The tips of the bracts that form the involucre spread outwards.

The fruit is an achene.

 
     
 

Height

 
 

24 to 72

 
     
 

Flower Color

 
 

Yellow ray florets, yellow disk florets

 
     
 

Similar Species

 
 

Woodland sunflower (Helianthus divaricatus) leaves are stalkless or on leaf stalks less than 3 16 long. It does not occur in Minnesota.

 
     
 
Habitat
 
 

Dry to moderate moisture. Bottomland forests, upland forests, stream banks, river banks, railroads, roadsides. Full to partial sun.

 
     
 
Biology
 
 

Flowering

 
 

July to October

 
     
 

Pests and Diseases

 
 

Sunflower bullet gall midge (Pilodiplosis helianthibulla) makes ¼ in diameter, almost globe-shaped galls on the leaves of plants in the genus Helianthus.

 
     
 
Use
 
 

 

 
     
 
Distribution
 
 

Distribution Map

 

Sources

2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 28.

 
         
         
 

Nativity

 
 

Native

 
         
 

Occurrence

 
 

 

 
         
 
Taxonomy
 
  Kingdom Plantae (green algae and land plants)  
  Subkingdom Viridiplantae (green plants)  
  Infrakingdom Streptophyta (land plants and green algae)  
  Superdivision Embryophyta (land plants)  
  Division Tracheophyta (vascular plants)  
  Subdivision Spermatophytina (seed plants)  
  Class Magnoliopsida (dicots)  
  Superorder Asteranae  
 

Order

Asterales (sunflowers, bellflowers, fanflowers, and allies)  
 

Family

Asteraceae (sunflowers, daisies, asters, and allies)  
  Subfamily Asteroideae  
  Supertribe Helianthodae  
  Tribe Heliantheae (sunflowers and allies)  
  Subtribe Helianthinae  
  Genus Helianthus (sunflower)  
 

 

 
 

Subordinate Taxa

 
 

 

 
       
 

Synonyms

 
 

Helianthus montanus

Helianthus saxicola

 
       
 

Common Names

 
 

pale-leaved woodland sunflower

paleleaf woodland sunflower

rough-leaved sunflower

swollen sunflower

woodland sunflower

 
       

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

Bract

Modified leaf at the base of a flower stalk, flower cluster, or inflorescence.

 

Glaucous

Pale green or bluish gray due to a whitish, powdery or waxy film, as on a plum or a grape.

 

Involucre

A whorl of bracts beneath or surrounding a flower or flower cluster.

 

Rhizome

A horizontal, usually underground stem. It serves as a reproductive structure, producing roots below and shoots above at the nodes.

 

Tuber

An underground root (as with dahlias) or stem (as with potatoes), thickened by the accumulation of reserved food (usually starch), which serves for food storage and vegetative propagation.

       
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Habitat

  paleleaf woodland sunflower   paleleaf woodland sunflower
       

Plant

  paleleaf woodland sunflower   paleleaf woodland sunflower
       

Flower Head

  paleleaf woodland sunflower   paleleaf woodland sunflower
       
       

 

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  helianthus strumosus
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Uploaded on Aug 22, 2011

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