marsh skullcap

(Scutellaria galericulata)

               
Conservation Status

IUCN Red List

LC - Least Concern

marsh skullcap

NatureServe

NNR - Unranked

SNR - Unranked

Minnesota

not listed

Wetland
Indicator
Status

Great Plains

OBL - Obligate wetland

Midwest

OBL - Obligate wetland

Northcentral & Northeast

OBL - Obligate wetland

Nativity

Native

 
Occurrence

Common and widespread

 
Habitat

Wet. Meadows, marshes, bogs, fens, swamps, stream banks, pond edges, and roadside ditches. Full sun to light shade.

 
Flowering

June to September

 
Flower Color

Blue with a white patch and purple spots

 
Height

8 to 32

 

Identification

This is an erect, perennial forb that rises on one or more stems from a slender underground stem (rhizome) and fibrous roots. It can be 8 to 32 in height but is usually no more than 18 tall. It often produces creeping, horizontal above-ground stems (stolons). It sometimes forms small colonies.

The stems are relatively weak, mostly erect or ascending but often leaning on adjacent vegetation. They are sharply four-angled (square), leafy, and branched or unbranched. They usually have short, white, downward-curved, nonglandular hairs on the angles but are otherwise hairless.

The leaves are opposite, ¾ to 2 long, and ¼ to ¾ wide, mostly 2 to 4 times as long as wide. Lower leaves may be stalkless on very short, up to long leaf stalks. The leaves become progressively smaller as they ascend the stem. Middle and upper leaves are stalkless. The leaf blades are lance-shaped to narrowly egg-shaped; broadly squared off, broadly rounded, or shallowly heart-shaped at the base; and taper to a sharp point at the tip. They are pinnately veined, the lateral veins branching and joining before reaching the margin (anastomosing). The upper surface is yellowish green to medium green and hairless. The lower surface is similar in color and usually moderately to densely covered with short, curved, nonglandular hairs and inconspicuous, unstalked glands. The margins are toothed with shallow, usually rounded teeth. The foliage is not aromatic.

The inflorescence is single flowers rising from the upper leaf axils. Pairs of flowers, one in each opposite node, face in the same direction, often perpendicular to the pair of leaves. There is no cluster of flowers at the end of the stem. Each flower is on a very short, 1 32 to long stalk.

The flowers are ¾ to 1 long. There are 5 sepals, 5 petals, 4 stamens, and 1 style. The sepals are light green to reddish and to 3 16 long. They are united at the base and separated into 2 shallow, broadly rounded lobes at the tip. They do not have a spine at the tip. They are densely covered with short, curved, non-glandular hairs. The petals are united at the base into a long, narrowly funnel-shaped tube and separated at the tip into 2 lips. The tube is bent upward just above the base and downward at the throat, forming an “S” shape. It is blue at the end, fading to white at the base. The upper lip is blue, unlobed, and and rounded. It forms a “skull”-shaped hood. The lower lip is spreading or arched, noticeably longer and broader than the upper lip, and shallowly 3-lobed. The lateral lobes are not well developed. They are blue, short, and ascending. The lower lobe is broadly fan-shaped to semicircular and sometimes slightly notched. It is blue with a white patch and purplish-blue spots at the base. The stamens have small anthers and do not project beyond the corolla tube. The style is branched at the tip and does not project beyond the corolla tube.

The fruit is a dry seed capsule (schizocarp) with 1 to 4 nutlets. The calyx becomes closed and to ¼ long in fruit.

 
Similar
Species

Blue skullcap (Scutellaria lateriflora var. lateriflora) leaves are sharply and coarsely toothed. The inflorescence is a axillary raceme of several flowers paired at nodes. The flowers are much smaller.

Heart-leaved skullcap (Scutellaria ovata ssp. ovata) inflorescence is a terminal raceme of several flowers paired at nodes. It is much rarer and restricted to the southeastern border counties.

Leonard’s skullcap (Scutellaria parvula var. missouriensis) leaves are very often less than two times as long as wide. The margins are untoothed and often curled under. There are 1 or 2 veins on each side of the midrib. Lateral veins are not anastomosing. The flowers are much smaller, no more than long. It sometimes produces short, white, self-pollinating flowers.


Distribution Distribution Map  

Sources: 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 28, 29, 30.


Comments

Taxonomy
Some botanists use the name Scutellaria epilobiifolia for this plant in order to distinguish it from the Old World species. This was rejected in 1942 due to a lack of morphological differences between the Old World and New World plants. More recent genetic analysis shows that the North American plants have a different chromosome number than the plants in Europe and Asia. The two species may be separated again in the future.


Taxonomy

Family:

Lamiaceae (mint)

 

Subfamily:

Scutellarioideae

 
Synonyms

Scutellaria epilobiifolia

Scutellaria galericulata ssp. pubescens

Scutellaria galericulata var. epilobiifolia

Scutellaria galericulata var. pubescens

 
Common
Names

hooded skullcap

marsh skullcap

skullcap

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

anastomosing

Referring to plant leaf veins: branching and rejoining, forming a network, before reaching the margin.

 

axil

The upper angle where a branch, stem, leaf stalk, or vein diverges.

 

corolla

A collective name for all of the petals of a flower.

 

node

The small swelling of the stem from which one or more leaves, branches, or buds originate.

 

pinnately veined

With the veins arranged like the vanes of a feather; a single prominent midvein extending from the base to the tip and lateral veins originating from several points on each side.

 

raceme

An unbranched, elongated inflorescence with stalked flowers. The flowers mature from the bottom up.

 

rhizome

A horizontal, usually underground stem. It serves as a reproductive structure, producing roots below and shoots above at the nodes.

 

schizocarp

A dry fruit formed from a compound ovary that splits into two or more parts (mericarps) at maturity.

 

stolon

An above-ground, creeping stem that grows along the ground and produces roots and sometimes new plants at its nodes. A runner.

       

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Plant

  marsh skullcap    
       

Inflorescence

  marsh skullcap   marsh skullcap
       

Flowers

  marsh skullcap   marsh skullcap
       
  marsh skullcap    
       

Flower

  marsh skullcap    
       

Leaves

  marsh skullcap   marsh skullcap
       

Seed Capsule

  marsh skullcap    
       
       

 

Camera

     

Slideshows

   
  Common skullcap
Andree Reno Sanborn
 
  Common skullcap  
 
About

also called marsh skullcap

flowers are always in pairs

Mint family

Scutellaria galericulata

 
     
  Scutellaria galericulata (Marsh Skullcap)
Allen Chartier
 
  Scutellaria galericulata (Marsh Skullcap)  
     
  Шлемник обыкновенный - Scutellaria galericulata.
Лекарственные растения.
 
   
 
About

Published on May 6, 2015

Энциклопедический словарь.

Google translation: Encyclopedic Dictionary.

 
     

 

slideshow

     

Visitor Videos

   
Share your video of this plant.

     
     

Other Videos

 
  Common Skullcap (Scutellaria galericulata var. epilobiifolia) - 2012-06-14
Westdelta
 
   
 
About

Published on Jul 31, 2012

Common Skullcap (Scutellaria galericulata var. epilobiifolia), also known as Marsh Skullcap or Hooded Skullcap, is a hardy perennial herb native to northern areas of the Northern Hemisphere, including Europe, Asia, and much of North America. It is a member of the mint family.

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Blauw glidkruid (Scutellaria galericulata) is een overblijvende plant die behoort tot de Lipbloemenfamilie (Labiatae of Lamiaceae).

52.05423 4.28188

 
     
  Common Skullcap (Scutellaria galericulata var. epilobiifolia) - 2012-08-16
Westdelta
 
   
 
About

Published on Nov 7, 2012

Common Skullcap (Scutellaria galericulata var. epilobiifolia), also known as Marsh Skullcap or Hooded Skullcap, is a hardy perennial herb native to northern areas of the Northern Hemisphere, including Europe, Asia, and much of North America. It is a member of the mint family.

----------
Blauw glidkruid (Scutellaria galericulata) is een overblijvende plant die behoort tot de Lipbloemenfamilie (Labiatae of Lamiaceae).

52.01883 4.32494

 
     
  Plante din Flora Romaniei, Scutellaria galericulata, Fam Lamiaceae, Muereasca, Valcea
Adrian Manolache
 
   
 
About

Published on Aug 9, 2015

De mai multi ani incerc sa realizez o Video Enciclopedie a Florei din Romania. E o lucrare ampla si inevitabil supusa erorilor. E supusa si alunecusilor, deoarece, mergand in natura, intalnesc multe alte vietati, insecte, reptile, amfibieni, pasari, mamifere si, bucuros de intalnirea cu ele, incerc sa le prind intr-un film, intr-o descriere. Si, adio...plante. Fiind pasionat (si) de ciuperci am gasit atat de multe, identificat si catalogat, incat se pare ca prima va fi gata "Video Enciclopedia Ciupercilor" din Romania. Uneori gresesc, corectez sau sunt corectat (multumesc celor care m-au ajutat si ma ajuta uneori la identificari). Alteori sunt mai superficial sau doar grabit si clipurile nu sunt chiar ce ne-am dori de la ele. Imi asum tot ce filmez si nu am pretentii academice. Este un drum pe care am pornit fara niciun fel de sustinere materiala si nici nu-mi doresc; desi sunt biolog nu sunt angajat al vreunei institutii, nici al vreunei firme si fac acest lucru din pasiune. Aceasta realitate incetineste putin demersul meu, dar nu il face imposibil. Am venit cu aceste elemente introductive pentru a incerca sa domolesc din avantul lor pe cei care, in comentarii, ma injura, calomniaza, jignesc, folosesc un limbaj suburban, amenintator, etc. Sigur ca exista clipuri care nu plac, dar eu le privesc in ansamblul lor, privesc la imaginea finala. Si pentru ea merg mai departe. Cand mergi in natura cautand plante, primele care iti atrag atentia sunt plantele inflorite. Florile ne momesc ca un magnet in universul lor de culoare, arhitectura, miros. Am mizat sa filmez plante inflorite pentru ca ele sunt calauza cea mai simpla spre identificarea corecta a lumii vegetale. Cand nu am gasit flori, am filmat alte elemente morfologice caracteristice unei specii sau alteia. Nu am reusit intotdeauna sa gasesc cele mai reprezentative exemplare. Nici nu mi-am dorit acest lucru. Unele specii rare sunt suficient sa le intalnesti macar o data in viata. Dupa ce ai parcurs zile intregi cautandu-le, te bucuri si daca intalnesti un exemplar mai amarat, sa spunem. Filmele mele cu plante si despre ele se pot grupa astfel: 1.Clipuri scurte in care descopar o floare, o planta, un arbust, un arbore...si filmez intalnirea pentru o enciclopedie floristica, simpla, vizuala, in care vor fi asezate Ordine, Familii, Specii, intr-o derulare rapida fara pretentii de etalon de identificare. 2.Filme mai lungi in care fac descrierea plantei respective cu elemente de identificare, ocurente, perioada de vegetatie si, mai ales, utilitatea ei practica. Flora spontana este o sursa de medicamente vegetale de exceptie. Ceaiuri, tincturi, unguente, esente...nenumarate formule fitoterapeutice pot fi folosite in vindecare. Daca exista, insist asupra importantei alimentare a plantei respective, intr-o lume in care hrana noastra devine tot mai chimica si artificiala, cauzand toate maladiile "moderne". 3. Simple clipuri in care descopar o frumusete aparte intr-o anumita specie vegetala, fie o lumina avantajoasa, fie o fructificatie deosebita, o floare, o umbra, o insecta in vizita, o asociere de plante, o malformatie, ceva nou care m-a atras sa o filmez.

Google translation: For several years trying to do a Video Encyclopedia of Flora in Romania. It's a work subject to extensive and inevitable errors. It's subject and slipperiness because walking in nature, meet many other creatures, insects, reptiles, amphibians, birds, mammals and happy meeting with them, I try to catch a movie in a description. And goodbye ... plants. Being passionate (and) mushroom I found so many identified and cataloged, it seems that the first will be ready "Video Encyclopedia Mushroom" from Romania. Sometimes I'm wrong, correct or corrected (thanks to those who helped me and helping me sometimes identifications). Others are only superficial or rushed and clips are not what we want from them. I take everything I shoot and academic claims. It is a path that we started without any material support or do not want; biologist although not an employee of any institution or any company and do this out of passion. This actually slows least my approach, but does not make it impossible. I came up with these introductory elements to try to tame those of their momentum in the comments, I swear, slander, insult, use a suburban language, threatening, etc. Sure there are clips that do not like, but I watch them in their entirety, look to final image. And it go further. When you go looking in nature plants, the first that strikes you are the flowering plants. Flowers entice us like a magnet in their universe of color, architecture, smell. I staked to film blooming plants because they are the easiest guide to correctly identify the plant world. When I found flowers, filmed other morphological features characteristic of a species or another. I have always managed to find the most representative specimens. Nor do I want this. Some rare species are sufficient to meet at least once in their life. After having traveled for days searching for them, enjoy and if you meet one copy bitter, say. My films about plants and they can be grouped as follows: the short 1.Clipuri discover a flower, a plant, a shrub, a tree ... and shoot for an encyclopedia meeting floristry, simple, visual, which will be placed Order, Family, Species, a fast-standard identification without pretensions. 2.Filme longer in forming plant with the description of identification elements, occurrences, vegetation period and, especially, its usefulness practice. The spontaneous flora is a source of exceptional herbal medicines. Teas, tinctures, ointments, herbal essences ... countless formulas can be used in healing. If there are, I insist on the importance of that power plant, in a world where our food is becoming increasingly artificial and dry, causing all diseases "modern". 3. Simple clips in which I discover a beauty in a particular plant species, be advantageous light or a special fructification, a flower, a shadow, a visiting insect, plant association, a birth, a new me attracted to shooting.

 
     

 

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