smooth Solomon’s seal

(Polygonatum biflorum var. commutatum)

               
Conservation Status

IUCN Red List

not yet assessed

smooth Solomon’s seal

NatureServe

N5 - Secure

SNR - Unranked

Minnesota

not listed

Wetland
Indicator
Status

Great Plains

FACU - Facultative upland

Midwest

FACU - Facultative upland

Northcentral & Northeast

FACU - Facultative upland

Nativity

Native

Occurrence

 

Habitat

Dry to moderate moisture. Woods, prairies, thickets, roadsides. Full to partial sun.

Flowering

May to July

     
Flower Color

Greenish-white or yellowish-green

     
Height

12 to 48

     

Identification

This is a 12 to 48 tall, erect, perennial forb that rises on a single stem from a knotty rhizome. The rhizome has conspicuous, large scars that mark the position of the stems of previous years.

The stems are erect, arching, unbranched, leafy, and hairless. They are not jointed at the leaf axils.

The leaves are alternate, stalkless, often clasping, narrowly lance-shaped to broadly elliptic, 3½ to 8 long, and 1 to 3½ wide. They have 7 to 19 conspicuous, parallel veins. The upper surface is green and hairless with recessed veins. The lower surface is paler green, hairless, somewhat covered with a whitish, waxy coating (glaucous), with prominent (raised) veins.

The inflorescence is a small cluster of 2 to 15, though usually 10 or fewer, flowers hanging downward from most leaf axils. The cluster stalk (peduncle) is green, flattened, and arched like a bow, but not strongly bent backward. It is ½ to 1½ long when in flower, elongating to 2½ to 3½ when in fruit. The individual flower stalks are shorter than the peduncle.

The flowers are ½ to long. There are 3 greenish-white or yellowish-green petals and 3 similar sepals (6 tepals) united at the base into a cylinder-shaped tube ending in 6 short, erect, flared, or spreading lobes. There are 6 stamens and 1 style that do not protrude from the tube.

The fruit is a globular berry, 5 16 to ½ long, with several seeds. It is initially green, becoming dark blue-violet when it ripens.

 
Similar
Species

Common false Solomon’s seal (Maianthemum racemosum var. racemosum) is a shorter plant, reaching no more than 30 at maturity. The stem sometimes zigzags. The leaves usually have only 3, sometimes 4 or 5, parallel veins. The inflorescence is plume-like, with white star-shaped flowers on a branched panicle at the end of the main stem. The fruits are green with reddish-purple spots when young and pink to red when mature.

Hairy Solomon’s seal (Polygonatum pubescens) is a shorter plant, reaching no more than 36 at maturity. The leaves are on short stalks and have minute hairs growing along the veins on the underside of the leaves and on the edges of the leaves. These hairs can be very hard to see. They have 3 to 9 parallel veins.

Large-flowered bellwort (Uvularia grandifloria) is a much shorter plant, reaching no more than 20 at maturity. The leaves are perfoliate and have 3 to 5 prominent veins. The flowers are bell-shaped, 1 to 2 long, and bright yellow. The fruit is a 3-celled, greenish to yellowish-brown capsule.

Rose twisted-stalk (Streptopus lanceolatus var. longipes) is a shorter plant, reaching no more than 36 at maturity. The stems are hairy, branching, and jointed at the leaf axils giving them a zigzag appearance. The leaves do not clasp the stem. The flowers are dark rose-purple to pink and bell-shaped. The petal-like tepals are not united at the base and turn backward at the tip. They hang singly on stems up to 2 long that are twisted or have an abrupt bend in the middle. The fruit is bright red.

Starry false Solomon’s seal (Maianthemum stellatum) is a much shorter plant, reaching no more than 24 at maturity. The stem is more erect, reclining only slightly. The leaves are lily-like, narrow, and lance-shaped. The upper leaves are usually stiff and erect or spreading. The inflorescence is spike-like, with white star-shaped flowers in an unbranched cluster at the end of the stem. The fruits are yellowish-green when young with 3 to 6 red to purple stripes, and dark blue to reddish black when mature.


Distribution Distribution Map   Sources: 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 28.

Comments

 


Taxonomy

Family:

Asparagaceae (asparagus)

 

Subfamily:

Nolinoideae

 
Synonyms

Convallaria biflora

Polygonatum canaliculatum

Polygonatum biflorum var. melleum

Polygonatum cobrense

Polygonatum commutatum

Polygonatum giganteum

Polygonatum melleum

 
Common
Names

American Solomon’s seal

drop berry

giant Solomon’s seal

great Solomon’s-seal

King Solomon’s seal

King Solomon’s-seal

sealwort

small Solomon’s seal

smooth Solomon’s seal

Solomon’s seal

Solomon’s-seal


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

axil

The upper angle where the leaf stalk meets the stem.

 

clasping

Describing a leaf that wholly or partly surrounds the stem but does not fuse at the base.

 

glaucous

Covered with a whitish, waxy coating, as on a plum or a grape.

 

peduncle

The stalk of a single flower or flower cluster.

 

perfoliate

A leaf having margins that entirely surround the stem, giving the appearance that the stem is growing through the leaf.

 

rhizome

A horizontal, usually underground stem. It serves as a reproductive structure, producing roots below and shoots above at the nodes.

 

sepal

An outer floral leaf, usually green but sometimes colored, at the base of a flower.

 

tepal

Refers to both the petals and the sepals of a flower when they are similar in appearance and difficult to tell apart. Tepals are common in lilies and tulips.

       

Visitor Photos

   
Share your photo of this plant.

       
       
       
       

MinnesotaSeasons.com Photos

   

Habitat

  smooth Solomon’s seal    
       

Plant

  smooth Solomon’s seal   smooth Solomon’s seal
       
  smooth Solomon’s seal    
       

Leaves

  smooth Solomon’s seal   smooth Solomon’s seal
       

Infructescence

  smooth Solomon’s seal    
       
       

 

Camera

     

Slideshows

   
     
     
     

 

slideshow

     

Visitor Videos

   
Share your video of this plant.

     
     

Other Videos

 
  Polygonatum biflorum (without class bit).mp4
newenglandwild's channel
 
   
 
About

Uploaded on Jul 26, 2011

Dan Jaffe continues his series of native plant videos with Polygonatum biflorum, common name: King Solomon's-seal.

 
     
  08 Polygonatum biflorum Séquence 10-Vivaces printanières 1.m4v
Jean Désorcy
 
   
 
About

Uploaded on Jan 9, 2010

Le Sceau de Salomon verticillé du printemps à l'automne. Salomon's seal from spring to fall. Polygonatum biflorum de la primavera hasta el otoño.

 
     
  Edible & Medicinal Solomon's Seal ( Polygonatum biflorum )
Prepare2Survive
 
   
 
About

Published on May 7, 2012

MORE INFO - http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Polygonatum+biflorum
http://medicinal-herbal.blogspot.com/2011/10/solomons-seal-polygonatum-biflorum.html
http://www.herbcraft.org/solseal.html
http://www.solomonsseal.net/abouttheplant.html
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/s/solsea63.html
http://medicinalherbinfo.org/herbs/SolomonsSeal.html

Edible, Medicinal, Solomon's Seal, Polygonatum, biflorum, commutatum, wild, plant, ethnobotany, bushcraft, survival,

 
     
  Plant Comparison: True And False Solomon's Seal
MiWilderness
 
   
 
About

Published on May 10, 2012

More Solomon's Seal showing flowers: http://youtu.be/yF2t2YUWIgw Polyonatum biflorum.

Music: http://incompetech.com/

These two plants are entirely unrelated belonging to completely different genera. But, they look quite similar until close inspection reveals the vast differences.

Both true and False Solomon's Seal are reported to have medicinal and edible qualities. Solomon's Seal is quite rare locally, but False Solomon's Seal is fairly abundant.

Native Americans reportedly used these two plants for both food and medicine. Modern herbalists still recommend Solomon's Seal, properly prepared, as an excellent relief for pain associated with joint, tendon, cartilage and back injuries.

Tags: Plant comparison Solomon's seal false solomon's seal identification "edible and medicinal plants" eastern woodlands michigan polygonatum biflorum smilax ethical harvest protected species pickers flowers "edible roots" rhizome berry midwest "primitive skills and technology" survival bushcraft prepping morel ash woodsman forager neolithic native american ethnobotany herbal remedy medicine history health joint pain lubricating strains sprains tendonitis wrist elbow knee "natural back pain relief"

 
     
  Bumblebees on Smooth Solomon's Seal
Wildflower Farm
 
   
 
About

Published on Jun 5, 2014

A compilation of bumblebees as they visit Smooth Solomon's Seal at Wildflower Farm. They use buzz pollination to shake out pollen from the deep flower tubes.

 
     

 

Camcorder

         

Visitor Sightings

   
Share your sighting of this plant.

     
     
 

MinnesotaSeasons.com Sightings

   

Avon Hills Forest SNA
North Unit

Blue Devil Valley SNA

Blue Mounds State Park

Boot Lake SNA

Buffalo River State Park

Bunker Hills Regional Park

Camden State Park

Cannon River Wilderness Area

Carley State Park

Carpenter St. Croix Valley Nature Center

Cedar Mountain SNA

Cedar Rock SNA

Chamberlain Woods SNA

Charles A. Lindbergh State Park

Chimney Rock SNA

Clear Lake SNA

Cleary Lake Regional Park

Crow Wing State Park

Crosstown West Park

Crow-Hassan Park Reserve

Fort Ridgely State Park

French Regional Park

Frontenac State Park

Gneiss Outcrops SNA

Great River Bluffs State Park

Grey Cloud Dunes SNA

Hastings Sand Coulee SNA

Helen Allison Savanna SNA

Hyland Lake Park Reserve

Iron Horse Prairie SNA

Kasota Prairie

Kasota Prairie SNA

Kellogg-Weaver Dunes SNA
Kellogg-Weaver Unit

Kilen Woods State Park

King’s and Queen’s Bluff SNA

Lake Bemidji State Park

Lake Carlos State Park

Lake Elmo Park Reserve

Lake Louise State Park

Lake Maria State Park

Lake Rebecca Park Reserve

Lebanon Hills Regional Park

Leif Mountain

Lost Valley Prairie SNA

Minneopa State Park

Minnesota Valley NWR
Louisville Swamp Unit

Monson Lake State Park

Moose Lake State Park

Morton Outcrops SNA

Murphy-Hanrehan Park Reserve

Myre-Big Island State Park

Nelson Wildlife Sanctuary

Nerstrand Big Woods State Park

Ordway Prairie

Pin Oak Prairie SNA

Pine Bend Bluffs SNA

Rice Lake State Park

Ripley Esker SNA

Robert Ney Memorial Park Reserve

Rock Ridge Prairie SNA

St. Croix State Park

Sakatah Lake State Park

Savage Fen SNA

Scenic State Park

Schaefer Prairie

Sibley State Park

Split Rock Creek State Park

Spring Lake Park Reserve

Sunfish Lake Park

Swedes Forest, Homme-Kollin Unit SNA

Townsend Woods SNA

Twin Lakes SNA

Upper Sioux Agency State Park

Whitetail Woods Regional Park

Whitewater State Park

Whitney Island SNA

William O’Brien State Park

Wood-Rill SNA

Zumbro Falls Woods SNA


 

 

Binoculars

Last Updated:

About Us | Privacy Policy | Contact Us | © 2017 MinnesotaSeasons.com. All rights reserved.