American red raspberry

(Rubus idaeus ssp. strigosus)

               
Conservation Status

IUCN Red List

not yet assessed

American red raspberry

NatureServe

N5 - Secure

SNR - Unranked

Minnesota

not listed

Wetland
Indicator
Status

Great Plains

FACU - Facultative upland

Midwest

FACU - Facultative upland

Northcentral & Northeast

FACU - Facultative upland

Northcentral
Great Lakes

FAC - Facultative

Nativity

Native

Occurrence

Common and widespread

Habitat

Dry to moist. Forests, forest margins, woods, thickets, lake shores, meadows, roadsides. Full sun to partial shade.

Flowering

Late May to early July

     
Flower Color

White petals, green sepals

     
Height

3 to 7

     

Identification

This is a 3 to 7 tall, erect bramble that rises on multiple stems from a long, underground, perennial rhizome. It often forms dense colonies. It is the most widespread and often commonest tall blackberry in Minnesota.

A series of biennial stems are sent up from a perennial base. First year stems (primocanes) do not flower. They grow to their full height, which can be up to 7 long and somewhat arching near the top, but in Minnesota is usually about 3 tall and erect. They do not arch to the ground and do not root at the tips. They are initially light green, eventually turning reddish or brownish, and are sometimes covered with a whitish, waxy coating (glaucous). They are round (not grooved), and become woody, at least near the base. They have 15 to 50 or more stiff, 1 32 to long, bristly hairs per centimeter (). They do not have soft hairs or broad-based prickles. When young they also have soft, gland-tipped hairs, at least near the top. Under a hand lens these hairs look like a stalk with a ball on the end.

The leaves are alternate and deciduous. Primocane leaves are palmately divided into 3 leaflets or pinnately divided into 5, rarely 7, leaflets. They are on leaf stalks that are 1 to 2 long and covered with gland-tipped hairs and stiff bristles. At the base of each leaf stalk is a small appendage (stipule) that is 3 16 to long and lance-shaped, linear, or thread-like. The central stalk of the leaf is often bristly.

The terminal leaflet is egg-shaped to elliptical, occasionally 3-lobed, and is on a stalk about long. The larger terminal leaflets are 2 to 4 long, 1½ to 2¾ wide. The blade is usually rounded, sometimes heart-shaped, at the base, and tapers to a point at the tip with concave sides along the tip. There are 10 to 15 lateral veins on each side of the midvein. The upper surface is dark green and initially sparsely hairy, eventually becoming hairless. The lower surface is gray-green or silvery gray due to a dense covering of grayish hairs. The margin is toothed or doubly toothed with sharp, forward-pointing teeth. The lateral leaflets are smaller, asymmetrically egg-shaped, rounded at the base, stalkless or nearly stalkless, but otherwise similar. When 5 leaflets are present, the lower two leaflets are well separated from the upper 3 by up to 1.

Second year stems (floricanes) do not grow longer but develop side branches. The leaves are similar to primocane leaves but are divided into 3 leaflets, rarely 5. The leaflets are smaller and narrower.

The inflorescence is a dense, flat-topped or convex, often drooping cluster of 3 to 7 flowers at the ends of the stems and branches. The stalked flowers in the cluster grow upward from various points on the main stem to approximately the same horizontal plane (corymb). Sometimes there are also 1 or 2 flowers rising from upper leaf axils. The stalk of the cluster and the stalks of the individual flowers are bristly have numerous gland-tipped hairs.

The flowers are 5 16 to ½ across and are not showy. They are on 3 16 to 1 long stalks that are covered with bristles and gland-tipped hairs. There are 5 green, 3 16 to long sepals. They are triangular to lance-shaped, hairy, erect to spreading when in flower, eventually bent backward when in fruit. There are 5 white, elliptical, to ¼ long, erect petals. The petals are shorter than the sepals. There are many stamens, all shorter than the petals. The flowers appear in late May to early July.

The fruit is a bright red, juicy, short, almost globe-shaped, ½ to in diameter aggregate of multiple drupelets. It matures mid-July to late August. When picked it separates easily from its core. It is smaller but tastier than the domestic raspberry.

 
Similar
Species

Allegheny blackberry (Rubus allegheniensis) leaves are palmately lobed.

American red raspberry (Rubus idaeus ssp. idaeus) is a similar European species that lacks gland-tipped hairs on first-year canes, leaf stalks, flower stalks, and calyces. The leaves are pinnately divided into 5 or 7, rarely 3, leaflets. It sometimes escapes gardens but is not naturalized.

Black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis) is a larger plant. The canes can get much longer, up to 13. Longer canes arch to the ground and root at the tip. They have broad-based prickles and no bristles. The fruits ripen purplish-black, not red.


Distribution Distribution Map   Sources: 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 28.

Comments

Taxonomy
There is some disagreement about the classification of this plant. Some authors list it as Rubus strigosus. GRIN38, NCBI34, UniProt33, and Minnesota DNR (MNTaxa28) list it as Rubus idaeus ssp. strigosus. ITIS lists it as Rubus sachalinensis var. sachalinensis.


Taxonomy

Family:

Rosaceae (rose)

 

Subfamily:

Rosoideae

 

Tribe:

Rubeae

 

Genus:

Rubus

 

Subgenus:

Idaeobatus

 
Synonyms

Rubus carolinianus

Rubus idaeus var. aculeatissimus

Rubus idaeus var. canadensis

Rubus idaeus var. gracilipes

Rubus idaeus var. melanolasius

Rubus idaeus ssp. melanolasius

Rubus idaeus var. melanotrachys

Rubus idaeus ssp. sachalinensis

 

Rubus idaeus ssp. strigosus

Rubus idaeus var. strigosus

Rubus melanolasius

Rubus neglectus

Rubus strigosus

Rubus strigosus var. acalyphaceus

Rubus strigosus var. arizonicus

Rubus strigosus var. canadensis

 
Common
Names

American red raspberry

common red raspberry

grayleaf raspberry

grayleaf red raspberry

red raspberry

wild red raspberry


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

aggregate fruit

A compound fruit consisting of many separate individual fruits derived from separate ovaries in a single flower, like a raspberry or blackberry.

 

axil

The upper angle where a branch, stem, leaf stalk, or vein diverges.

 

bramble

Thorny plants in the genus Rubus, including blackberry, dewberry, and raspberry.

 

corymb

A flat-topped or convex inflorescence in which the stalked flowers grow upward from various points on the main stem to approximately the same horizontal plane. The outer flowers open first.

 

drupe

A fleshy fruit with a single hard, stone-like core, like a cherry or peach.

 

floricane

A two year old cane of a raspberry or blackberry that bears fruit and then dies.

 

glandular hairs

Hairs spread over aerial vegetation that secrete essential oils. The oils act to protect against herbivores and pathogens or, when on a flower part, attract pollinators. The hairs have a sticky or oily feel.

 

glaucous

Pale green or bluish gray due to a whitish, powdery or waxy film, as on a plum or a grape.

 

linear

Long, straight, and narrow, with more or less parallel sides, like a blade of grass.

 

palmate

Similar to a hand. Having more than three lobes or leaflets that radiate from a single point at the base of the leaf.

 

pinnate

Having the leaflets of a compound leaf arranged on opposite sides of a common stalk.

 

primocane

The first year cane of a raspberry or blackberry; it is usually unbranched and normally does not flower.

 

rhizome

A horizontal, usually underground stem. It serves as a reproductive structure, producing roots below and shoots above at the nodes.

 

sepal

An outer floral leaf, usually green but sometimes colored, at the base of a flower.

 

stipule

A small, leaf-like, scale-like, glandular, or rarely spiny appendage found at the base of a leaf stalk, usually occurring in pairs and usually dropping soon.

       

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Plant

  American red raspberry    
       

Leaves

  American red raspberry   American red raspberry
       
  American red raspberry   American red raspberry
       

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  American red raspberry    
       

Infructescence

  American red raspberry    
       
       

 

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