common sneezeweed

(Helenium autumnale)

               
Conservation Status

IUCN Red List

not yet assessed

common sneezeweed

NatureServe

N5 - Secure

SNR - Unranked

Minnesota

not listed

Wetland
Indicator
Status

Great Plains

FACW - Facultative wetland

Midwest

FACW - Facultative wetland

Northcentral & Northeast

FACW - Facultative wetland

Nativity

Native

Occurrence

 

Habitat

Moist to wet. Forests, prairies, fens, marshes, river banks, streambanks, roadsides, railroads, disturbed sties. Full sun.

Flowering

August to October

     
Flower Color

Yellow ray florets, yellow disk florets

     
Height

24 to 60

     

Identification

This is a 24 to 60 tall, erect, perennial forb that rises usually in a single stem, sometimes on 2 to 7 stems, from a shallow, fibrous root system.

The stems are erect or ascending, winged, and branched above the middle. Above the middle the stems are moderately to densely covered with short, spreading to ascending, somewhat curled hairs. They are also moderately covered with yellow, stalkless or impressed glands. Below the middle the stem is sparsely to moderately hairy.

Stem leaves are alternate, stalkless, numerous, and spread outward. The leaves are longest at the middle of the stem, becoming slightly smaller as they ascend the stem. The upper and lower surfaces are sometimes hairless but are usually moderately to densely covered with short, mostly spreading, sometimes curved hairs. They are also densely dotted with yellow, stalkless or impressed glands. Middle and upper stem leaves are 1½ to 6 long, and 3 16 to 2 wide. Basal and lower leaves are somewhat smaller than middle stem leaves. Basal leaves are lance-shaped, inversely lance-shaped, or inversely egg-shaped, and are sometimes cut with shallow, rounded lobes (pinnatifid). Lower and middle stem leaves are inversely egg-shaped to inversely lance-shaped. They are tapered at the base and angled or taper to a sharp point at the tip. The base of the leaf blade continues down the stem as a narrow, green wing. The margins are either untoothed or are toothed often only above the middle of the blade. Upper stem leaves are inversely lance-shaped to lance-shaped but otherwise similar to middle stem leaves. Basal and lower stem leaves are absent or withered by flowering time.

The inflorescence is 2 to 25 flower heads in open, leafy, branched, panicle-like clusters at the end of the stems and branches. Each cluster is on a ¾ to 3 long, sparsely to moderately hairy stalk.

The whorl of 15 to 21 green bracts at the base of the flower head (involucre) is globe-shaped, 5 16 to long, and to in diameter. The bracts of the involucre (phyllaries) are in 2 series. The outer phyllaries are fused at the base.

Each flower head is 1 to 2½ in diameter. There are 8 to 21 ray florets and 200 to 400 or more disk florets. The ray florets are yellow, to 1 long, to wide, and double notched at the tip. They are narrow at the base and taper evenly to a broad tip. The disk florets are yellow and form a large, globe-shaped, sometimes somewhat flattened disk.

The fruit is a dry, one-seeded, 1 16 long seed capsule (cypsela) with a tuft of 5 to 7 short bristles (pappus) attached to the end.

 
Similar
Species

Purple-head sneezeweed (Helenium flexuosum) leaves are mostly erect. Disk florets are purple or brownish-purple. The plant has been recorded only in Carlton County.


Distribution Distribution Map   Sources: 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 28.

Comments

 


Taxonomy

Family:

Asteraceae (aster)

 

Subfamily:

Asteroideae

 

Supertribe:

Helianthodae

 

Tribe:

Helenieae (sneezeweed)

 

Subtribe:

Gaillardiinae

 
Synonyms

Helenium autumnale var. autumnale

Helenium autumnale var. canaliculatum

Helenium autumnale var. fylesii

Helenium autumnale var. grandiflorum

Helenium autumnale var. montanum

Helenium autumnale var. parviflorum

Helenium canaliculatum

Helenium latifolium

Helenium macranthum

Helenium montanum

Helenium parviflorum

 
Common
Names

autumn sneezeweed

bitterweed

common sneezeweed

fall sneezeweed

false sunflower

mountain sneezeweed

sneezeweed


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

cypsela

A dry, one-chambered, single-seeded fruit, formed from a single carpel, with the seed attached to the membranous outer layer (wall) only by the seed stalk; the wall, formed from the wall of the inferior ovary and also from other tissues derived from the receptacle or hypanthium, does not split open at maturity, but relies on decay or predation to release the contents.

 

involucre

A whorl of bracts beneath or surrounding a flower or flower cluster.

 

panicle

A pyramidal inflorescence with a main stem and branches. Flowers on the lower, longer branches mature earlier than those on the shorter, upper ones.

 

phyllary

An individual bract within the involucre of a plant in the Asteraceae family.

 

pinnatifid

Deeply cut, more than half way to the midrib but not to the midrib, into lobes that are spaced out along the midrib; the lobes do not form separate leaflets.

 

wing

A thin, flat, membranous, usually transparent appendage on the margin of a structure.

       

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  common sneezeweed   common sneezeweed
       

Inflorescence

  common sneezeweed   common sneezeweed
       
  common sneezeweed    
       

Flower Head

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Leaves

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Infructescence

  common sneezeweed   common sneezeweed
       
       

 

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  Sneezeweed - Helenium autumnale
Ionxchange
 
   
 
About

Published on Aug 24, 2012

Earthyman views Sneezeweed (Helenium autumnale) at Ion Exchange native seed and plant nursery in NE Iowa. Sneezeweed is a wetland wildflower http://ionxchange.com/products/HELENIUM-AUTUMNALE-%7C-Sneezeweed.html

 
     

 

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