swamp betony

(Pedicularis lanceolata)

               
Conservation Status

IUCN Red List

not yet assessed

swamp betony

NatureServe

NNR - Unranked

SNR - Unranked

Minnesota

not listed

Wetland
Indicator
Status

Great Plains

OBL - Obligate wetland

Midwest

OBL - Obligate wetland

Northcentral & Northeast

FACW - Facultative wetland

Nativity

Native

 
Occurrence

 

 
Habitat

Wet. Meadows, prairies, marshes, shores.

 
Flowering

August to September

     
Flower Color

White

     
Height

12 to 36

     

Identification

This is a 12 to 36 tall, erect, perennial forb that rises on usually a solitary stem.

The stems are erect but recline with age. They are hollow, 4-angled with rounded angles, unbranched or with a few branches, and green with purple vertical stripes between the nodes. They are mostly hairless but have vertical lines of hairs along the purple stripes.

The leaves are mostly opposite, linear oblong to oblong lance-shaped, 1½ to 3½ long, and to ¾ wide. They may be stalkless or on leaf stalks up to long. They are divided with shallow, rounded lobes cut less than half way to the midrib. The upper surface is deep green, sparsely hairy, with indented (impressed) lateral veins. The lower surface is lighter green, sparsely hairy, with raised (prominent) lateral veins. The margins of the lobes have fine, rounded teeth.

The inflorescence is a ¾ to 4 long, cone-shaped spike at the end of the stem and sometimes also from upper leaf axils. They have a conspicuous pinwheel arrangement, with the flowers sticking out at right angles to the central axis.

The individual flowers are stalkless and subtended by a single leaf-like bract. The calyx is to ½ long with 2 spreading, rounded lobes. There are 5 white petals forming a to 1 long, tubular, 2-lipped corolla.The upper 2 petals are fused into convex, 1-lobed, hood-like lip (galea) from which the pistil protrudes. The galea is not toothed. The lower 3 petals are fused into a banner that is about as long as the galea and has 3 rounded lobes. The 4 stamens are contained within the galea.

The fruit is a dry, egg-shaped capsule with uneven sides. It is mostly hidden by the calyx.

 
Similar
Species

Wood betony (Pedicularis canadensis ssp. canadensis) is a much shorter plant, reaching only 4 to 16 at maturity. It usually forms clumps. Most of the leaves are in a crowded, basal rosette. Stem leaves are alternate, not opposite. The lower stem leaves are on long stalks. All leaves are more deeply lobed, the lobes cut more than half way to the midrib. The inflorescence is up to 4 long. The flowers are yellow. There are 2 small teeth just below the tip of the galea. The lower lip is shorter than the galea. It blooms much earlier, April to June. It is found in dry to moist, not wet, locations.


Distribution Distribution Map   Sources: 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 28.

Comments

Taxonomy
The genus Pedicularis, formerly belonging the family Scrophulariaceae (figwort), has recently been reclassified into the family Orobanchaceae (broomrape). Most sources, in print and online, still show the former classification.


Taxonomy

Family:

Orobanchaceae (broomrape)

 

Tribe:

Rhinantheae

 
Synonyms

Pedicularis auriculata

Pedicularis pallida

Pedicularis virginica

 
Common
Names

fen betony

swamp betony

swamp lousewort


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

axil

The upper angle where the leaf stalk meets the stem.

 

bract

Modified leaf at the base of a flower stalk or flower cluster.

 

calyx

The group of outer floral leaves (sepals) below the petals, occasionally forming a tube.

 

corolla

A collective name for all of the petals of a flower.

 

galea

An enlarged, vaulted, strongly concave or helmet-shaped upper lip of some two-lipped corollas, as in Indian paintbrush or monkshood.

 

linear

Long, straight, and narrow, with more or less parallel sides, like a blade of grass.

 

node

The small swelling of the stem from which one or more leaves, branches, or buds originate.

       

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  Pedicularis lanceolata (Swamp Betony)
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  Pedicularis lanceolata (Swamp Betony)  

 

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About

Published on Aug 24, 2012

Earthyman views Swamp Betony (Pedicularis lanceolata) in bloom at Ion Exchange, native seed and plant nursery in NE Iowa. Swamp Betony is a wetland wildflower. It is also known as Swamp Lousewort. http://ionxchange.com/products/PEDICULARIS-LANCEOLATA-%7C-Swamp-Lousewort.html

 
     

 

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