Canadian white violet

(Viola canadensis var. rugulosa)

               
Conservation Status

IUCN Red List

not yet assessed

Canadian white violet

NatureServe

NNR - Unranked

SNR - Unranked

Minnesota

not listed

Wetland
Indicator
Status

Great Plains

FACU - Facultative upland

Midwest

FACU - Facultative upland

Northcentral & Northeast

FACU - Facultative upland

Nativity

Native

Occurrence

 

Habitat

Moderate moisture. Woods.

Flowering

April to June

     
Flower Color

White with yellow centers

     
Height

8 to 16

     

Identification

This is a 8 to 16 tall, erect, perennial forb that rises from superficial rhizomes. It is colonial by producing horizontal stems (stolons) that grow along the ground, rooting and sending up new plants at the nodes.

The stems are erect, leafy, and usually hairy. Leaves and flowers appear on the same stem.

Basal leaves large and on long stalks. They are heart-shaped at the base and taper to a point at the tip with straight sides along the tip. Stem leaves are alternate and are similar to the basal leaves only narrower. They are 2 to 4 long and usually wider than they are long. Lower stem leaves are widely spaced. Upper stem leaves are larger and more densely crowded. There are small, lance egg-shaped, untoothed stipules at the base of the flower stalks.

The inflorescence is a single flower rising on a slender stalk rising from the upper leaf axils.

The flowers are 1 to 1½ wide. There are 5 white petals in an arranged typical of violets, two upper, two lateral, and a broad lower lip. The petals are yellow near the center. The lateral and lower petals have dark purple veins near the center. The lateral petals have tufts of hair near the center (bearded). All petals, but especially the two upper ones, are purplish on the outside.

The fruit is a capsule just under ½ long. When the plant is in fruit the stipules dry and transluscent.

 
Similar
Species

 


Distribution Distribution Map   Sources: 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 28.

Comments

 


Taxonomy

Family:

Violaceae (violet)

 

Subfamily:

Violoideae

 

Tribe:

Violeae

 
Synonyms

Viola rugulosa

 
Common
Names

Canada violet

Canadian violet

Canadian white violet

creeping-root violet

creepingroot violet

tall white violet


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

Axil

The upper angle where the leaf stalk meets the stem.

 

Bearded

Bearing one or more tufts of hairs.

 

Rhizome

A horizontal, usually underground stem. It serves as a reproductive structure, producing roots below and shoots above at the nodes.

 

Stipule

A small, leaf-like appendage at the base of a leaf stalk or flower stalk.

       

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  Canadian white violet    
       

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  Canadian white violet   Canadian white violet
       
  Canadian white violet    
       
       

 

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  Minnesota Native Plant - Canada Violet (Viola Canadensis)
MNNativePlants
 
   
 
About

Published on Jun 18, 2013

The Canada Violet (Viola Canadensis) is the subject of this video about Minnesota Native Plants. Thanks for watching!

 
     

 

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