Canadian white violet

(Viola canadensis var. rugulosa)

Conservation Status
Canadian white violet
 
  IUCN Red List

not listed

     
  NatureServe

NNR - Unranked

SNR - Unranked

     
  Minnesota

not listed

     
           
Wetland Indicator Status
     
  Great Plains

FACU - Facultative upland

     
  Midwest

FACU - Facultative upland

     
  Northcentral & Northeast

FACU - Facultative upland

     
           
 
Description
 
 

Canadian white violet is a 8 to 16 tall, erect, perennial forb that rises from superficial rhizomes. It is colonial by producing horizontal stems (stolons) that grow along the ground, rooting and sending up new plants at the nodes.

The stems are erect, leafy, and usually hairy. Leaves and flowers appear on the same stem.

Basal leaves large and on long stalks. They are heart-shaped at the base and taper to a point at the tip with straight sides along the tip. Stem leaves are alternate and are similar to the basal leaves only narrower. They are 2 to 4 long and usually wider than they are long. Lower stem leaves are widely spaced. Upper stem leaves are larger and more densely crowded. There are small, lance egg-shaped, untoothed stipules at the base of the flower stalks.

The inflorescence is a single flower rising on a slender stalk rising from the upper leaf axils.

The flowers are 1 to 1½ wide. There are 5 white petals in an arranged typical of violets, two upper, two lateral, and a broad lower lip. The petals are yellow near the center. The lateral and lower petals have dark purple veins near the center. The lateral petals have tufts of hair near the center (bearded). All petals, but especially the two upper ones, are purplish on the outside.

The fruit is a capsule just under ½ long. When the plant is in fruit the stipules dry and translucent.

 
     
 

Height

 
 

8 to 16

 
     
 

Flower Color

 
 

White with yellow centers

 
     
 

Similar Species

 
     
     
 
Habitat
 
 

Moderate moisture. Woods.

 
     
 
Biology
 
 

Flowering

 
 

April to June

 
     
 
Use
 
 

 

 
     
 
Distribution
 
 

Distribution Map

 

Sources

2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 28.

 
  1/18/2012      
         
 

Nativity

 
 

Native

 
         
 

Occurrence

 
 

 

 
         
 
Taxonomy
 
  Kingdom Plantae (green algae and land plants)  
  Subkingdom Viridiplantae (green plants)  
  Infrakingdom Streptophyta (land plants and green algae)  
  Superdivision Embryophyta (land plants)  
  Division Tracheophyta (vascular plants)  
  Subdivision Spermatophytina (seed plants)  
  Class Magnoliopsida (flowering plants)  
  Superorder Rosanae  
 

Order

Malpighiales (nances, willows, and allies)  
 

Family

Violaceae (violet)  
  Subfamily Violoideae  
  Tribe Violeae  
  Genus Viola (violet)  
       
 

Synonyms

 
  Viola rugulosa  
       
 

Common Names

 
 

Canada violet

Canadian violet

Canadian white violet

creeping-root violet

creepingroot violet

tall white violet

 
       

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

Axil

The upper angle where the leaf stalk meets the stem.

 

Bearded

Bearing one or more tufts of hairs.

 

Rhizome

A horizontal, usually underground stem. It serves as a reproductive structure, producing roots below and shoots above at the nodes.

 

Stipule

A small, leaf-like appendage at the base of a leaf stalk or flower stalk.

       
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Plant

  Canadian white violet    
       

Flower

  Canadian white violet   Canadian white violet
       
  Canadian white violet    
       
       

 

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slideshow

       
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Other Videos
 
  Minnesota Native Plant - Canada Violet (Viola Canadensis)
MNNativePlants
 
   
 
About

Published on Jun 18, 2013

The Canada Violet (Viola Canadensis) is the subject of this video about Minnesota Native Plants. Thanks for watching!

   
       

 

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