garlic mustard

(Alliaria petiolata)

Conservation Status
garlic mustard
 
  IUCN Red List

not listed

     
  NatureServe

NNA - No Status Rank

SNA - No Status Rank

     
  Minnesota

not listed

     
           
Weed Status
   
 

Restricted Noxious Weed

Garlic mustard is listed as an invasive terrestrial plant by the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources.

     
           
Wetland Indicator Status
     
  Great Plains

FACU - Facultative upland

     
  Midwest

FAC - Facultative

     
  Northcentral & Northeast

FACU - Facultative upland

     
           
 
Description
 
 

Garlic mustard is an erect, 12 to 40 tall, biennial, herbaceous plant rising from a slender, white taproot that forms a shallow “S” just below the base of the stem. In the first year it produces a rosette of 3 or 4 leaves. The plants stay green over the first winter. In the second year it also produces one or two tall flowering stems. It forms dense stands that block virtually all sunlight from reaching the ground. Second-year plants die by late June, leaving only the erect stalks with dry, pale brown seedpods. All parts of the plant smell like garlic.

The stems are usually unbranched, sometimes slightly branched. They are hairless of have a few simple hairs.

The first year leaves are kidney-shaped, about 2 wide and 2 long. They are green, hairless, coarsely toothed, and deeply veined. They are on leaf stalks that are about as long as the leaf.

The second year leaves are similar to those of the first year. The basal leaves are kidney-shaped. The stem leaves are alternate, light green or yellowish green, with pointed tips, heart-shaped near the bottom of the stem, becoming smaller, more triangular, and nearly stemless as they ascend the stem.

The inflorescence is a short, button-like cluster at the end of each stem.

The flowers are small, wide, with 4 white petals The petals have rounded tips and narrow to the base.

The fruits are slender, 4-angled, 1 to 2½ long pods containing single rows of seeds. The pods spread widely, from horizontal to erect. they becomes shiny black when mature.

 
     
 

Height

 
 

12 to 40

 
     
 

Flower Color

 
 

White

 
     
 

Similar Species

 
 

The coarsely toothed triangular stem leaves and kidney-shaped basal leaves that smell of garlic when crushed make this plant easy to identify.

Mints have similar leaves but their leaves are always opposite and their stems are conspicuously 4-angled.

Bitter cresses (Cardamine spp.) are similar but their leaves are never coarsely toothed, and the flowers are on longer flower stalks.

 
     
 
Habitat
 
 

Moist to moderate moisture. Woodlands, wood edges, trail edges, roadsides. Partial or full shade.

 
     
 
Ecology
 
 

Flowering

 
 

April to June

 
     
 

Pests and Diseases

 
 

 

 
     
 

Defense Mechanisms

 
 

Garlic mustard produces chemicals that help it compete against nearby plants (allelopathy). The roots and leaves exude toxic chemicals that suppress mycorrhizal fungi that other plants need to absorb nutrients from the soil. The mycorrhizal fungi that garlic mustard needs is not suppressed. The chemicals also inhibit the growth and germination of competing plants.

Garlic mustard also produces chemicals to defend against herbivores. All parts of the plant exude a strong garlic odor. Deer avoid garlic mustard and eat neighboring plants, helping garlic mustard increase its population. It is also toxic to some insects, including the mustard white butterfly.

Garlic mustard seeds remain viable in the soil for up to five years.

 
     
 
Use
 
 

 

 
     
 
Distribution
 
 

Distribution Map

 

Sources

2, 3, 4, 7, 22, 28, 29, 30.

 
  4/21/2023      
         
 

Nativity

 
 

Native to southern and eastern Europe, Northern Africa, Asia, and the Indian subcontinent. Introduced into the North America as a potherb. Escaped cultivation and naturalized.

 
         
 

Occurrence

 
 

Common

 
         
 
Taxonomy
 
  Kingdom Plantae (green algae and land plants)  
  Subkingdom Viridiplantae (green plants)  
  Infrakingdom Streptophyta (land plants and green algae)  
  Superdivision Embryophyta (land plants)  
  Division Tracheophyta (vascular plants)  
  Subdivision Spermatophytina (seed plants)  
  Class Magnoliopsida (flowering plants)  
  Superorder Rosanae  
 

Order

Brassicales (mustards, capers, and allies)  
 

Family

Brassicaceae (mustard)  
  Tribe Thlaspideae  
 

Genus

Alliaria  
       
 

Subordinate Taxa

 
 

 

 
       
 

Synonyms

 
 

Alliaria alliacea

Alliaria alliaria

Alliaria officinalis

Arabis petiolata

Crucifera alliaria

Erysimum alliaria

Hesperis alliaria

Sisymbrium alliaceum

Sisymbrium alliaria

 
       
 

Common Names

 
 

garlic mustard

garlic-mustard

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary

Allelopathy

The release of a chemical toxin by one plant to inhibit the growth or germination of nearby competing plants.

 
 
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MinnesotaSeasons.com Photos
 
 

Habitat

 
    garlic mustard      
           
 

Plant

 
    garlic mustard   garlic mustard  
           
    garlic mustard      
           
 

Inflorescence

 
    garlic mustard   garlic mustard  
           
 

Flowers

 
    garlic mustard   garlic mustard  
           
 

Leaves

 
    garlic mustard      
           
 

Leaf

 
    garlic mustard      
           
 

Infructescence

 
    garlic mustard   garlic mustard  

 

Camera

     
 
Slideshows
 
  Garlic Mustard
Wez Smith
 
  Garlic Mustard  
 
About

Garlic Mustard (Alliara petiolata).

 
  Garlic Mustard - Alliaria petiolata
Virens (Latin for greening)
 
  Garlic Mustard - Alliaria petiolata  
 
About

An invasive species which which poses an ecological threat to natural areas of New York State. A single plant can produce thousands of seeds, which scatter as much as several meters from the parent plant.

Source:
Plant Conservation Alliance's Alien Plant Working Group
www.nps.gov/plants/ALIEN/fact/alpe1.htm

 
  Alliaria petiolata
Susanne Wiik
 
  Alliaria petiolata  
 
About

Løkurt, Garlic mustard, Jack-by-the-hedge

 
  Alliaria petiolata GARLIC MUSTARD
Frank Mayfield
 
  Alliaria petiolata GARLIC MUSTARD  

 

slideshow

       
 
Visitor Videos
 
       
 

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Other Videos
 
  Garlic Mustard, identification of the Wisconsin Invasive Species Alliaria petiolata
uwcoopextension
 
   
 
About

Uploaded on Jan 31, 2011

This is part of a series of videos providing key characteristics for the identification of invasive plants listed in Wisconsin's invasive species administrative rule NR 40. These videos are produced by Dr. Mark Renz of the University of Wisconsin-Madison. For more information on invasive plants and invasive plant management in Wisconsin visit http://ipcm.wisc.edu/Publications/WeedSciencepublications/tabid/116/Default.aspx

   
  Garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) - 2012-04-29
W3stlander
 
   
 
About

Published on May 2, 2012

Garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) is a biennial flowering plant in the Mustard family, Brassicaceae.

--------------------
Look-zonder-look (Alliaria petiolata, synoniem: Alliaria officinalis) is een algemeen voorkomende plant die behoort tot de kruisbloemenfamilie (Brassicaceae).

   
  The Invaders: Garlic Mustard
UMDHGIC
 
   
 
About

Uploaded on Oct 24, 2009

Professional Horticulturist and Master Gardener Ellen Nibali identifies Garlic Mustard (Alliaria petiolata) and explains how to remove this invasive plant from your garden.

Click here to read our publication on invasive species for even more information: http://www.hgic.umd.edu/_media/documents/publications/hg88.pdf

This video is brought to you by the Home and Garden Information Center, part of University of Maryland Extension. Learn about our Grow It Eat It campaign, which provides resources and encourages people to start their own food gardens. http://www.growit.umd.edu/

Check out our facebook page for more gardening advice: http://www.facebook.com/UMDHGIC#!/GIEIMaryland

Intro Credit: "Invasion of the Body Snatchers" (1956); Allied Artists. Music and shot of woman screaming used here in accordance with Fair Use.

Shot and Edited by: Alix Watson and Emily Heimsoth

   
  Garlic mustard: A Minnesota woodland owner's story
MyMinnesotaWoods
 
   
 
About

Uploaded on Jun 25, 2010

John Peterson shares his story of identifying, monitoring, and controlling invasive garlic mustard on his Minnesota woodland property.

   
  Your DNREC - Invasion of the Garlic Mustard
Delaware DNREC
 
   
 
About

Published on May 11, 2012

Delaware's being invaded... you can help!

   

 

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